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1833 01958 3209 

Gc 974.301 W725a 

Aldrich, Lewis Cass 

History of Windsor County Vermont 



Windsor County 







Alkn Coii.tfy 9di\k library 
Ft. W.iyne, hdisns 



WINDSOR COUNTY is without doubt one of the most historic of 
the sub-divisions of the State of Vermont. During the period 
of ten years immediately preceding the Revolution, and for fourteen 
or so years after that outbreak, many of the stirring events of State 
history were enacted within the borders of this county, and at the 
village of Windsor ; therefore it has been found necessary in this 
work to furnish at some length a narrative of the events of that 
period, notwithstanding the fact that they were of general rather 
than local importance and bearing. But a recital of the early his- 
tory of Vermont, wherever the events may have occurred, is a thing 
of which the average citizen never tires, and in which every native 
of the State has reason to feel a just pride. 

On account of its geographical location in the State, Windsor 
county happened to become peculiarly prominent in the alfairs of 
the commonwealth during the period of the somewhat noted con- 
troversy with New York ; and when were formed the unions with 
the New Hampshire towns, east of the Connecticut River, this county 
was made to embrace a much larger area than it at present contains, 
and was the chief seat of operations in the pohtical history of the 
State during that time. The village of Windsor was the place in 
which the important transactions occurred, from which fact the reader 
will observe that a general outline of the early history of the State 
becomes a proper subject for discussion in this volume. 

In the preparation of the " History of Windsor County" the ed 
itors have had access and reference to such of the standard works of 

History of Windsor County. 

State and local history as are extant at the present day ; there have 
been occasions on which they have made free use of the language as 
well as the thoughts of past writers, and not always have they been 
careful to disfigure the present pages with quotation marks. More 
than this, the writers have also to acknowledge the generous assistance 
of a number of the well known residents of the county, among whom 
may properly be named the Rev. E. N. Goddard, of Windsor ; Jay 
Read Pember (county clerk); Mrs. Doton; the librarian of the Wood- 
stock Library, of Woodstock ; William R. Adams, of Bethel ; and 
others, some occupying official positions and others not, all of whom 
have contributed to the accomplishment of the arduous task of edit- 
ing and compiling this volume. Added to the above list, there may 
be mentioned collectively the persons who have likewise given this 
work their hearty and unrestrained support ; who have made its pub- 
lication not only possible but a fact ; and to whom, with all others 
who have taken an interest in its preparation, directly and indirectly, 
are due the thanks of the editors and the publishers. 



Early Explorations and Discoveries— Cartier and Champlain in Canada — John Smith 
in New England— Dutch Settlements in New York— Their Conquest by the 
English- The English in Virginia, Maine and New Hampshire— The Puritans 
in New England — The French Jesuits among the Indians —English Manner of 
Treating the Savages — Causes of Indian Hostilities 17 


The Iroquois Confederacy — Indian Traditions — War Among the Indians — Tribes 
Inhabiting the Region of Vermont — The Canadian Indians — Wars Between 
England and France — Their Effect upon the Colonies in America — Various 
Peace Treaties — Expeditions and Battles in and near Vermont— Erection of 
Fort Dammer — The First Civilized Settlement in Vermont — Bridgman and 
Startwell's Fort at Vernon — Its Destruction by Indians — Final War Between 
England and France — Settlement in Vermont Unsafe — Overthrow of Frencli 
Power in America y i 


The New Hampshire Grants — Charter Rights Granted by Governor Wentworth - 
Claims of New York — Correspondence Between the Governors — Early Grants 
Made by Governor Wentworth of Towns of Windsor County — Proclamations 
Issued — The Royal Decree — New York Violates the King's Order — Lands 
Regranted — Uprising of the Settlers— The Green Mountain Boys— Counties 
Organized by New York— Chester Named as the County Seat of Cumberland 
County— Changed to Westminster — Gloucester County Created — Sentiment 
Divided— The Situation in Cumberland and Gloucester Counties— Counties 
Formed East of the Mountains— Boundaries of Albany and Charlotte Counties. 29 

History of Windsor County. 


The Controversy with New York — Means Employed to Overcome the New Hamp- 
shire Grantees — Change of Sentiment East of the Mountains — Allegiance to 
New York Disclaimed— The Massacre at Westminster — Death of William 
French — Meetings held at Westminster — The Settlers Formally Renounce Al- 
legiance to New York — The Commencement of the Struggle for State and 
National Independence — The Conventions at Dorset — Towns East of the 
Mountains Asked to Send Delegates — The Conventions at Westminster — In- 
dependence of the State Declared — Named New Connecticut — Changed to Ver- 
mont — Conventions at Windsor — State Constitution Adopted — Paul Sjjooner 
of Hartland 'M 


■' The Pingry Papers" — A Chapter Devoted to the Proceedings of the Committees 
of the Counties of Cumberland and Gloucester from June, 1774, to September, 
1777; Together with Such Other Records of Events as will be of Interest to 
the Present and Future Generations of Readers of this Work — The Narrative, 
with Explanations, Comprises Extracts Taken from the Book Entitled " Gov- 
ernor and Council,' Volume 1, Appendix A, No. 1 40 


The Period of the Revolutionary War — The Cause of the People on the Grants Be- 
comes United — Allen's Exploits at Ticonderoga and on Lake Champlain — Sin- 
gular Situation of Vermont — Military Organizations Formed at the Dorset Con- 
vention — Seth Warner Elected Colonel — The Rangers Organized East of the 
Mountains— New York Authority Prevails — First Convention at Windsor^ 
Battles at Hubbardton and Bennington — Toryism in Cumberland County — 
President Chittenden's Proclamation — Council of Safety — Effect of Burgoyne's 
Surrender— Exposed Condition of the Vermont Frontier — The Haldimand Cor- 
respondence— Negotiations with Canada — Their EHect Upon Vermont and tlie 
County— Indiau Depredations — Attack Upon Barnard— Burning of Royalton . . Gl 


The Controversy with New York Resumed — The Situation — Petition to Congress 
— Its Reception — Governor Clinton's Proclamation — Ethan Allen's Vindica- 
tion of Vermont— New Hampshire Towns Seek a Union with Vermont — The 
Union Effected — Protest by New York — Disaffection in Cumberland County 
— Withdrawal from the Vermont Legislature— Threatened Union with New 


Hampshire — The Unioa with New Hampshire Towns Dissolved — Congress 
Sends a Committee to Vermont — Unsatisfactory Results — Vermont's Appeal 
to the Candid and Impartial World — Agents Sent to Congress — Union with 
New Hampshire and New York Towns — Congress Takes Favorable Action — 
G-eneral Washington's Letter — Conditions of Vermont's Independence — The 
Eastern and Western Unions Dissolved — Compensation Made to New York — 
Vermont Admitted to the Union 69 


A Brief Resume on Divisions of the G-rants into Counties — Courts Established — 
County Seat at Chester — Changed to Westminster — Erection of Cumberland 
County by Vermont— Officers Appointed — Some Personal Sketches — County 
Lines Defined — Windsor County Formed — New Hampshire Towns Annexed 
to this County — Locating the County Seat — Woodstock Selected — Windsor 
Temporarily a Half-Shire Town — Judges of the County Court — The First 
Court-House — Its Destruction by Fire — The Second Court-House also burned 
— The Present County Buildings — Civil List — Officers of the Ancient County 
of Cumberland — Officers of Windsor County 80 


Town Organizations — Not Affected by Vermont's Admission to the Union — Char- 
acter of Town Government — Dates of Organization both by Vermont, New 
Hampshire and New York— From 1791 to the War of 1812-15— Events of 
the War — Peace Restored — An Era of Prosperity — Increase of Population — 
Subsequent Decrease — Causes of the Decline — Emigration Westward 101 


Windsor County During the War of 1861-65 110 


The Bench and Bar of Windsor County 177 


The Medical Profession — Institutions and Societies of Windsor County 193 


The Press of Windsor County 207 


lo History of Windsor County. 


History of the Town of Woodstock, and the Incorporated Village of Woodstock 

— The Seat of Justice of Windsor County 225 


History of the Town of Windsor, and of the Incorporated Village of Windsor. . . . 275 


History of the Town of Hartford 332 


History of the Town of Hartlaiid 35S 

History of the Town of West Windsor 373 


History of the Town of Reading 380 


History of the Town of Plymouth 391 


History of the Town of Springfield 406 


H istory of the Town of Norwich 477 


History of the Town of Cavendish 501 

Contents. i i 

History of the town of Ludlow 528 


History of the Town of Bethel 558 


History of the Town of Barnard 574 


History of the Town of Stoekbridge 587 


History of the Town of Bridgewater 601 


History of the Town of Andover 620 


Hi.story of the Town of Weston 636 


History of the Town of Rochester 646 


History of the Town of Chester 663 


History of the Town of Weathersfield 697 

12 History of Windsor County. 


History of the Town of Baltimore 72;^ 


History of the Town of Pomfret 72G 


History of the Town of Sharon 740 


History of the Town of Royalton 701 


Biographical 785 


Old Families 9.33 


Abbott, Solomon S 785 

Aldrich, Hon. Joshua M 802 

Am.sden, Charles 904 

Baldwin, Albert F 906 

Baxter, Dr. Edward K 853 

Billings, Hon. Frederick 876 

Bisbee, Aaron 786 

Brockway, John 803 

Bruce, Capt. Harvey N 860 

Burke, Udney 787 

Butler, Rev. Franklin 899 

Call, Joseph A 788 

Chase, Dr. Rolla M 930 

Collamer, Judge Jacob 854 

Cook, Selden 805 

Coohdge, Gov. Carlos 900 

Davidson, John 807 

Davis, Hon. Gilbert A 821 

Dewey, Hon. Albert G 806 

Dillon, Wilham 788 

Downer, Chester 896 

Durkee, William H 930 

Fay, Maj. Levi 907 

Field, Hon. Abner 824 

Fletcher, Hon. Ryland 835 

Forbush, Hon. Charles A 789 

Fullam, Hon. Sewall 864 

Fullerton, F. E 893 

Gill Family 883 

Gill, James S 871 

Gillette, B. B 859 

Gillette, Daniel 834 

Graves, Leland J., M.D 790 

Green, Dr. George B 868 

Green, Dr. Isaac. .' 866 

Guernsey, Rev. George S 831 

Hale, Frank S 887 

Hall, Alfred 909 

Harlow, Col. Hiram 828 

Harlow, Hermon W 808 

Harrington, Edwin 857 

Hayes, Francis B 911 

Hazelton, Daniel W., M. D 830 

Heald, Daniel A 926 

Hill, George S 859 

Kenney, Asa W 858 

Kidder, Rev. Moses 792 

Lemmex, W. H 862 

Mackenzie Family 844 

Marsh, Frederick W 810 

Martin, Alonzo A 793 

Mclndoe, Lyman J 901 

Morgan, Charles 809 

Morgan, Harvey D 794 

Morrison, M. F 847 

Parks, Frederick 808 

Paul, Hon. Norman 795 

Pingry, Hon. Wilham M 885 

Porter, John 911 

Potter, Sanford H 797 

Powers, Calvin R 853 

Powers Family 849 

Powers, John D 851 

Powers, Dr. John D 850 

Powers, Dr. Thomas E 852 

Raymond, Judge Isaiah 798 

Robbins, Charles 826 

Robbins, Otis 839 

Robbins, Philemon H 826 

Roberts, William G 811 


History of Windsor County. 

Rugg, David F., M. D 811 

Sanders, Coleman . 833 

Slack, Col. W. H. H 865 

Slack, John A 813 

Smith, Dr. Charles C 925 

Stearns, Daniel 903 

Steele, Dr. F. E 838 

Steele, Hon. Benjamin H '889 

Stocker, Samuel Russell 800 

Story, Dr. Dyer 891 

Sumner, David H 893 

Taylor, James C 839 

Tracy, Hon. Andrew 913 

Tuttle, Col. Oscar S 872 

Vail Family 814 

Walker, Hon. William H 842 

Wardner, Allan 917 

Wardner, Clark 886 

Wardner, George 871 

Warner, Hiram L 843 

Warren, John 914 

Washburn, Hon. Peter T 817 

Washburn, Hon. Reuben 928 

Watson, Hon. Edwin C 874 

Webber, Hon. Sumner Allen 841 

Weston, Horace 819 

Wheeler, Capt. Daniel Davis 920 


Abbott, S. S facing 784 

Alilrich, Joshua M facing 700 

Amsden Charles facing 708 

Baldwin, A. F facing 664 

Baxter, E. K facing 754 

Billings, Frederick facing 876 

Bisbee, Aaron facing 406 

Brockway, John facing 736 

Bruce, Capt. Harvey N facing 144 

Burke, Udney facing 787 

Butler, Rev. Franklin facing 212 

Call, Joseph A facing 712 

Chase, Dr. R. M facing 930 

Closson, Henry facing 452 

Colburn, Joseph W facing 416 

Collamer, Jacob facing 180 

Cook, Selden facing 444 

Coolidge, Gov. Carlos facing 98 

Dana, Thomas facing 428 

Davidson, John facing 440 

Davis, Gilbert A facing 316 

Dewey, A. G facing 354 

Dillon, William facing 460 

Downer, Chester facing 774 

Durkee, William H facing 592 

Fay, Levi C facing 320 

Field, Abner facing 468 

Fletcher, Hon. Ryland facing 108 

Forbush, Charles A facing 420 

Fullam, Hon. Sewall facing 532 

Fullerton, F. B facing 892 

Gill, Daniel A facing 408 

Gill, James S facing 540 

Gillette, B. B facing 858 

Gillette, Daniel facing 344 

Graves, Dr. Leland J facing 270 

Green, Dr. George B facing 868 

Green, Dr. Isaac facing 280 

Guernsey, Rev. George S facing 652 

Hale, Frank S facing 378 



Hall, Alfred facing 908 

Harlow, Heimon W facing 328 

Harrington, Edwin facing 564 

Hayes, Francis B facing 704 

Hazelton, D. W., M. D facing 412 

Heald, Daniel A facing 926 

Hill, George S facing 516 

Kenney, Asa W . facing 768 

Kidder, Rev. Moses facing 260 

Leramex, W. H facing 292 

Mackenzie, Justin F facing 844 

Marsh, F. W facing 692 

Martin, A. A facing 792 

Mclndoe, Lyman J facing 900 

Morgan, Charles facing 656 

Morgan, Harvey D facing 594 

Morrison, M. F facing 376 

Parks, Frederick facing 458 

Paul, Norman facing 268 

Pingry, William M facing 884 

Porter, John facing 332 

Porter, Judge Samuel W facing 424 

Potter, S. H facing 348 

Powers Calvin R facing 852 

Powers, Dr. J. D facing 232 

Powers, Dr. Thomas E facing 228 

Powers, John D facing 236 

Raymond, Judge Isaiah facing 604 

Robbins, Charles facing 826 

Robbtns, Otis facing 680 

Robbins, P. H facing 691 

Roberts, W. G facing 810 

Rugg, D. F., M. D facing 812 

Sanders, Coleman facing 732 

Slack, John A facing 448 

Slack, Col. W. H. H facing 464 

Smith, Dr. Charles C facing 924 

Stearns, Daniel facing 308 

Steele, Dr. F. E facing 838 

Stocker, Samuel R facing 802 

Story, Dr. Dyer facing 300 

Sumner, David H facing 364 

Taylor, J. C facing 840 

Tracy, Hon. Andrew facing 248 

Tuttle, Col. Oscar S facing 114 

Vail Homestead 815 

Vail, Joshua 815 

Walker, William H facing 544 

Wardner, Allan facing 284 

Wardner, Clark facing 384 

Wardner, George facing 312 

Warner, Hiram L facing 536 

Warren, John facing 914 

Washburn, Hon. Peter T facing 818 

Washburn, Reuben facing 528 

Watson, Hon. Edwin C facing 336 

Webber, Hon. Sumner Allen, facing 648 

Weston, Horace facing 304 

Wheeler, Capt. D. D facing 920 





Early Explorations and Discoveries — Cartier and Champlain in Canada — John Smith 
in New England — Dutch Settlements in New York — Their Conquest by the English 
—The English in Virginia, Maine and New Hampshire — The Puritans in New Eng- 
land — The French Jesuits among the Indians — English Manner of Treating the Sav- 
ages — Causes of Indian Hostilities. 

THE first explorations and discoveries in the region of the present 
State of Vermont, of which there appears any record, were made 
during the year 1609, by Samuel Champlain, a French nobleman. This 
adventurous person made his first visit to the western hemisphere dur- 
ing the year 1603, and he then followed in the course of James Cartier, 
who, like Champlain, was a navigator under the government of France, 
and the object of whose explorations was to plant a French colony in 
the then new and comparatively unknown country. In the main the 
voyages of these men were confined to the region of the St. Lawrence ; 
but it remained to Champlain to pursue his investigations in another 
direction, the result of which was the discovery of the lake now on the 
western boundary of the State of Vermont, and to which the navigator 
gave the name of Lake Champlain. This occurred, as has been stated, 
in the spring of the year 1609. 

Whether or not the adventurous Frenchman set foot on the soil of 
Vermont, or the territory that afterward became so named, there ap- 

1 8 History of Windsor County. 

pears no record nor tradition, but certain it is that he voyaged down the 
lake to near its southern extremity and discovered and named another 
though smaller lake, now called Lake George, but to which he gave the 
name St. Sacrament. 

But the French were not alone in endeavoring to plant colonies in 
America, for during the same period in which their operations were be- 
ing carried on in the northern region, other nations were making similar 
efforts in other localities. In the year 1607 the English succeeded in 
effecting a permanent settlement in Virginia, in the neighborhood of the 
James River ; and furthermore, about the same time, planted another 
small colony in the country that afterwards became a part of the State 
of Maine. And in this same region, too, it was that Captain John 
Smith, in the year 1614, made a voyage of exploration and discovery, 
reaching from the Penobscot to Cape Cod. He carefully mapped the 
country covered by his explorations, and gave to it the name of New 

In the year 1609 Captain Hendrick Hudson, a Dutch navigator in 
the service of Holland, entered New York Bay, and thence sailed up 
the river to which he gave his own name, Hudson River, by which it is 
known to the present day. But it was not until some five years after 
Hudson's voyage that the Dutch made permanent settlements in the 
country explored by their navigator. The first Dutch colony was 
planted on Manhattan Island, now the city of New York, and others 
soon followed at various places to the northward, up the river as far as 
Albany and Schenectady. The Dutch have ever been known as a 
thrifty and prolific people, and their settlements grew and prospered, 
and spread out over a considerable region of country; and it is stated 
on good authority that they made settlements and improvements east of 
the Hudson River, and so far as to reach the territory of the present 
State of Vermont, to a number of the streams of which they gave the 
names by which they are still known. But the Dutch were not destined 
to long enjoy the fruits of their colonization in the New Netherlands, as 
their new settled country was called, for they became involved in a dis- 
pute with the English over the right to the possession, which resulted in 
the overthrow and surrender of the Dutch power in America, and the 
name of their principal city, New Amsterdam, was changed to New 

Early Colonization. 19 

York. This occurred during the year 1664, and by it, the extinction of 
Dutch power in America, there remained only the two great nations of 
England and France to contend for the supremacy. 

But in the connection of early settlement and colonization in America 
there remains at least one other worthy of mention here, and this by the 
people, although of English nationality, known as the Puritans of New 
England. They who comprised the band of Puritans were English sub- 
jects that had, about the beginning of the seventeenth century, left their 
native land and taken refuge in Holland, that they might without an- 
noyance or persecution conduct themselves according to the strict laws 
of their religious belief, which privilege had not been freely granted them 
in England. In the year 1620, after having remained in exile in Hol- 
land for a period of about twenty years, the Puritans left Europe for 
America, and arrived in the latter country late in the fall of the same 
year, and at a point three hundred miles from that at which they in- 
tended to land, and far from any of the settled colonies. After many 
trials and hardships the Puritans founded the town which they called 
New Plymouth, in Massachusetts, but which is now known as Plymouth. 
Being frugal, patient and industrious, the Puritans became a prosperous 
people and soon extended their settlements througli various parts of 
New England. 

In the year 1623 the English established settlements at Dover and 
Portsmouth, in the province of New Hampshire ; and ten years later 
found colonies planted on the Connecticut River, in the province of the 
same name. Two years after this they had extended up the river as far 
as Springfield and Deerfield, nearly to the north line of the province of 
Massachusetts Bay and the south line of the then unnamed tract that 
forms the present State of Vermont. 

Notwithstanding all this colonization and rapid settlement and im- 
provement in various other directions, there appears not yet to have 
been any attempt at occupation or settlement within the territory north 
of the Massachusetts province line and between the Connecticut River 
on the east and the Hudson on the west, except the settlements and 
forts built by the Dutch on the last named stream. The French had 
rapidly colonized and settled Canada; the Puritans and English had oc- 
cupied and established towns in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine and 

20 History of Windsor County. 

New Hampshire provinces; the Dutch and subsequently the English had 
built up strong towns in the province of New York, along the Hudson 
and elsewhere, but as yet no similar efifort had been made to colonize or 
settle in the region between the Green and White Mountains, or in that 
region afterward known as the New Hampshire Grants. 

The French, in their occupancy of Canada, from the very first, em- 
ployed their every art to cultivate a friendly relation with the Indians of 
that region. For this purpose they had brought into their colonies a 
number of Jesuit priests, whose only duty it was to labor among the sav- 
ages that the power of both France and Rome might be advanced and 
strengthened. With them there were no encroachments upon Indian 
lands, nor were any of their rights attempted to be violated. The di- 
plomacy of the priest effectually overcame every Indian prejudice, and 
savages and French mingled as freely as if of one color and nationality. 

Such, however, was not the case with the English in their colonies 
and settlements in other parts of the country. They sought only to in- 
crease their possessions and extend their settlements in every direction 
regardless of the rights of the Indian occupants; and if they did recog- 
nize the fact that the savages had any rights they employed subterfuge 
and deceit to possess themselves of those rights, and this incurred the 
distrust and enmity of the native occupants of the soil. Furthermore, 
the English colonists seemed to misjudge the Indian character and his 
strength as an opponent in warfare. These feelings and abuses soon 
brought against the English the open hostilities of the Indians and re- 
tarded the advance of settlement in localities where it might have gone 
much earlier had different measures been employed. The English settlers 
were obliged to protect themselves by the erection of forts, and to main- 
tain an armed force on every frontier to guard against an Indian attack 
and its consequent merciless massacre. 

The enmity against the English by the Indians had the effect of check- 
ing the advance of settlement and civilization in frontier localities; but 
added to that was a constantly growing jealousy and rivalry between 
the French in Canada and the English in New York and New England. 
Had the English been friendly with all their Indian neighbors, the latter 
were abundantly able to cope with the Canadian Indians whom the 
French were constantly employing to make war upon the Indian villages 

The Iroquois Confederacy, 

and English settlements on the southern frontier, for the powerful Iro- 
quois, the celebrated Five Nations, had once subjugated all other na- 
tions of Indians, and were the acknowledged rulers of this entire region, 
and with whom all treaties for the acquirement of lands were necessary 
to be made before the Indian title was considered as extinguished. At 
the time of which we write, during the early part of the seventeenth 
century, the Iroquois confederacy was at enmity with the English, and 
they were also in open hostility against the Canadian Indians and 
French, and would gladly have been at peace with their neighbors, the 
English colonists, had the latter been disposed to cultivate a friendship 
by correct means. 



The Iroquois Confederacy — Indian Traditions — War Among the Indians — Tribes 
Inhabiting tne Region of Vermont — The Canadian Indians — Wars Between England 
and France — Their Effect upon the Colonies in America — Various Peace Treaties — 
Expeditions and Battles in and near Vermont — Erection of Fort Dummer — The First 
Civilized Settlement in Vermont — Bridgman and Startwell's Fort at Vernon— Its De- 
struction by Indians — Final War Between England and France — Settlement in Ver- 
mont Unsafe — Overthrow of French Power in America. 

THE preceding chapter has made mention of the Iroquois confed- 
eracy, or the Five Nations, and while it is not proposed to make 
any extended allusion to that body as a necessary part of this nar- 
rative, still from the fact that the confederacy were the rulers and own- 
ers, so far as Indian ownership was concerned, of the whole region of 
country south of the Canadas, it is proper in this connection to give at 
least a brief description of the confederacy, how it was created, and how 
it acquired the wonderful supremacy it maintained for upwards of two 
hundred years. Direct and positive relationship cannot be found to 
connect all tribes that dwelt in the New England provinces with the 
Iroquois ; but it is reasonably well understood that they were remotely 
associated at least, and that the Indian peoples throughout the extreme 
east stood in awe or felt themselves bound, perhaps by fear, to obey the 
directions and pay homage to the chiefs and sachems of the confed- 

History of Windsor County. 

eracy. The knowledge that the whites obtained concerning this remark- 
able brotherhood — the Iroquois confederacy — was based upon the tra- 
ditions of the tribes that inhabited the country at the time the first 
Spanish adventurers landed upon the shores of America. Tne confed- 
eracy was in existence at that time, and had been, according to the tra- 
dition, for very many years ; and it continued a power until after the 
beginning of the Revolutionary war. 

It seems, as the tradition goes, that several centuries ago two nations 
of Indians by accident fell in with one another, far west of the great 
river — the Mississippi — both journeying eastward; and that being on a 
common journey, they agreed to travel together. They were known as 
the Lenni Lenapes (meaning original people) and the Mengwe, and 
neither had previous acquaintance with or knowledge of the other; that 
when the banks of the Mississippi were reached they found that river in 
possession of a numerous and warlike tribe, who called themselves the 
Allegwi, and who were disposed to make war upon the pilgrims. A 
request was made of the Allegwi that the journeying tribes be permit- 
ted to cross the river and settle in the country to the east. This was 
granted on condition that the Lenapes and Mengwe settle far to the 
east and not in the country of the Allegwi.. The voyage over the river 
was then commenced and many crossed over, but before all had passed 
the stream the Allegwi, either deceived as to the number of the trav- 
elers, for there were very many of them, or with treachery aforethought, 
fell upon them and slaughtered great numbers and drove the rest into 
the forests. At length the scattered and exhausted people were brought 
together, and, after a joint council, it was decided to return and make 
war upon the Allegwi. This was done, and a long and terrific battle fol- 
lowed, the result of which was the defeat of the treacherous Allegwi 
and their being driven to the country far south. 

After the battle the conquering tribes resumed their journey toward 
the east, but they soon fell into a dispute, the Lenni Lenapes claiming 
that the Mengwe did not fight, but hung in the rear, letting the brunt 
and disasters of the battle fall upon themselves. Finally they separated, 
the Lenapes taking a southerly course and eventually settling upon the 
rivers throughout the region that afterwards became the States of Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, 

The Iroquois Confederacy. 23 

and eastward along the Atlantic coast to the eastern provinces, while 
the Mengwe settled in the country bordering on the lakes and rivers of 
New York State and Massachusetts, or the territory that was afterward 
formed into these States. The first named, the Lenni Lenapes, had 
their seat of government upon the Delaware River, and for that reason 
they became known to the first white settlers as the Delawares, their 
original name becoming eventually lost; and as families or tribes 
branched ofif from the parent tribe and took up their abode in some 
other locality, they always took upon themselves a name suited to their 
situation; hence the names of their three principal tribes — the Turkey, 
Turtle, and Minsi, and their subordinate tribes — the Shawonese, the 
Susquehannas, the Nanticokes, the Neshamines, and others that might 
be named. 

The Mengwe became, in course of time, separated into five distinct 
tribes, and were severally known as follows : Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas and Senecas. Although their main line of possession 
hovered along the borders of the Great Lakes, their hunting ground 
reached many miles inland, and they frequently came in contact with 
the Lenapes, of whom they were jealous, and they endeavored to arouse 
hostilities among them, but in this they were unsuccessful. The Len- 
apes were the stronger and more powerful in point of numbers, and 
this fact was well known to the Mengwe. They dare not attack nor 
wage war against them, nor was their border as carefully guarded as that 
of the Lenapes, with the Minsi upon their frontier. Having failed in 
every attempt either to create dissension among the various Lenapes 
sub-tribes, or to lead them from their well- defended border, the Mengwe 
called together their several tribes for the purpose of effecting a union 
for aggressive and defensive warfare. This council having met, it re- 
sulted in the creation of that great branch of Indian government known 
as the Five Nations. By the French they were known as Iroquois, by 
the Dutch, Maquas, and by the English, Mingoes. In general the con- 
federacy was known as the Iroquois Nation, and thus have historians 
been content to designate it. It should be borne in mind, however, that 
the name "Iroquois" was never used^by the confederatesjthemselves. 
It was first used by the French, and its precise meaning is veiled in ob- 
scurity. The [men of the confederacy "called themselves " Hedono- 

24 History of Windsor County. 

saunee," which means Hterally "They form a cabin," describing in this 
manner the close union existing among them. The Indian name just 
above quoted is more Hterally and commonly rendered, "The People of 
the Long House," which is more full in description, though not quite so 
accurate a translation. 

The central and unique characteristic of the Iroquois league was not 
the mere fact of five separate tribes being confederated together, for such 
unions have been frequent among civilized or semi- civilized people, 
though little known among the savages of this continent. The feature 
that distinguished the people of the Long House from all other confed- 
eracies, and which at the same time bound together all these ferocious 
warriors, was the system of clans extending throughout the different 
tribes. The distinctive word "clans" has been adopted as the most con- 
venient one to designate the peculiar families about to be described, and 
appears much better than the word " tribe," which usually applies to an 
Indian people separate and distinct from another. 

The whole confederacy of Iroquois Indians, or people, was divided 
into eight clans, as follows: Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe, 
Heron and Hawk. Some writers declare that every clan extended 
through all the tribes, while others assert that only the Wolf, Bear, and 
Turtle clans did so, the rest being restricted to a less number of tribes. 
Certain it is, nevertheless, that the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Ca- 
yugas and Senecas contained parts of the three clans named, and several 
of the others. Each clan formed a family, and all the members of it, no 
matter how widely separated, were considered as brothers and sisters to 
each other, and were forbidden to inter- marry. This prohibition was 
strictly enforced by common consent. So powerful, indeed, was this 
bond of union that linked the whole confederacy together, that for hun- 
dreds of years there was no serious dissension between the several tribes 
of the Iroquois Nation. 

The dates furnished by various historians as to the several conquests 
over smaller tribes or nations, by the Five Nations, differ materially. 
The French accounts tend to show that the Kahquahs were first con- 
quered, and the Fries after them, while others reverse the order of con- 
quest. Be that as it may, both were subjugated by the Iroquois, and the 
Neuter Nation, too, in turn, fell an easy prey to their relentless masters. 

The Indian Occupants. 


The time of the war against the Neuter Nation is given as having oc- 
curred about 1642; that of the Kahquahs soon after 1650, while some 
writers assert that between the years 1640 and 1655 the fierce confed- 
erates "put out the fires" of both Eries and Kahquahs. 

After having overcome these smaller tribes the Iroquois next turned 
their attention to their old enemies, the Delawares, the descendants of 
the Lenapes; and the latter, in turn, were completely overcome and 
subjugated. By this conquest the Five Nations became the absolute 
Indian rulers of this broad land, and were only stayed by the steady ap- 
proach of the white-faced pioneer. 

About the year 17 12 the Tuscaroras were driven northward from the 
Carolinas by the white settlers and allied Indians. They came to the 
land of the Five Nations, and were adopted into their brotherhood. 
Thereafter the Five Nations were known as the Six Nations. 

But throughout these wars among the Indians there does not appear 
to have been waged any conflict on the soil of Vermont ; neither does it 
appear that the Iroquois attempted any conquest of the tribes inhabiting 
the provinces of Massachusetts or Connecticut, or those which inhabited 
the Connecticut River Valley. And the St Francis and other Cana- 
dian tribes of Indians also seem to have been exempted from Iroquois 
vengeance, except as they were occasionally repelled when on an expe- 
dition into the Iroquois country. The Indians that dwelt in the valley 
of the River Connecticut were known as Coossucks. These had their 
main village or home up towards the headwaters of the river, and ex- 
tended their hunting and fishing grounds in both north and south direc- 
tions. They were supposed to have been in some manner related to 
the St. Francis Indians, and used about the same dialect. Their name, 
Coossucks, was derived from the locality in which they chiefly lived, the 
prefix "Coos" signifying "the pines," while "suck" in the Indian tongue 
meant river; thus Coossucks being translated became the river at the 
pines, for the region of their habitation was well supplied with pine trees. 

The Pequots were a tribe that inhabited the northwestern part of the 
province of Connecticut, and gave considerable trouble and anxiety to 
the pioneers throughout that region. They became involved in a war 
with the English that lasted about a year, but in 16^)^ they were seri- 
ously beaten, seven hundred being killed, while the remainder fled for 

26 History of Windsor County. 

refuge to the land of the Mohawks. This conquest had such a salutary 
effect upon the other New England savages that for nearly two-score 
years the settlers were free from further depredations. 

But it was the St. Francis and other Canadian Indians that caused 
the greatest annoyance to the English colonists in New England and 
New York. The French had not only labored among the Indians in 
the cause of Romanism, but had taught them the use of fire-arms and 
supplied them with weapons. The English, too, had furnished guns to 
the Five Nations who were not hostile to the whites. Both nations, the 
French and English, did this that they might obtain the services of the 
Indians in the long series of wars that were then impending. The 
French, although they were the undisputed masters of their strongholds, 
the Canadas, sought to extend their possessions and power into the 
country below, the provinces of New York and New England. This, of 
course, was opposed by the English, and the result was the series of 
conflicts that have been called the French and English wars. In these 
wars the Iroquois were generally allied to the English, on account of a 
hatred they held against the Canada Indians, and were ever ready to 
join the English soldiery in any expedition against the Canadas; and, 
likewise, the Canada Indians were ever eager to wage war against the 
English colonists, upon the assurances of entire freedom to plunder, 
burn, and murder at will. 

These wars commenced during the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and continued at intervals until the final treaty of peace between 
England and France, in February, 1763, which ceded the French power 
in America to the English. The French and English wars commenced 
with the descent of the Iroquois upon Montreal, and the destruction and 
plundering of that post. This was avenged by the French and Indian 
attack upon Schenectady, the massacre of sixty of its inhabitants, the 
plundering and burning of the town, and the successful escape of the 
attacking party. Then, in the year 1691, tlie English, under command 
of Colonel Schuyler, and an accompanying band of friendly Iroquois, 
made an attack upon the French and Indians on the River Richelieu, 
and slaughtered many of them. The French retaliated by an expedi- 
tion against the country of the Mohawks, the tribe of the Iroquois that 
lived farthest east. 

French and English Wars. 27 

England and France concluded a treaty of peace in 1697, but in 1702 
they again had recourse to arms; and, of course, the American colonies 
of each nation followed the lead of their mother country. It was during 
this war, and in the winter of 1704, that the French commander, De 
Rouville, set out on an expedition against the weak and struggling 
colony at Deerfield, in Massachusetts. Accompanied by a body of 
French soldiers and ever-willing Indians, the party voyaged down Lake 
Champlain to the Winooski River ; thence up that stream and across the 
northern territory of Vermont (but not then so named) to the Connecti- 
cut ; and down the valley of the last named stream, passing through 
what afterward became Windsor county, to the field of operations, 
where they arrived late in the month of February. The next day an 
attack was made upon the poorly defended place, and although a vigor- 
ous defense was made, the attacking party was too strong, and another 
act of murder and plunder was perpetrated. 

After this and other similar incursions the English determined upon 
several plans and expeditions whereby to overcome the French and pro- 
tect their own colonies; but the greater part of these met with indifferent 
success, until at last another peace between the contending nations was 
agreed upon ; but this did not serve to check the fury of the Indians, for 
they, at the instigation of the Jesuit missionaries, kept up a constant war- 
fare against the English frontier settlements, during which the whole ter- 
ritory of the subsequent New Hampshire Grants was continually overrun 
by marauding bands of Canadian savages, in quest of plunder, murder 
and rapine. 

But during all this time the larger settlements continued to grow and 
others were established along the valley of the larger streams. To af- 
ford all possible protection to these settlers, forts, stockades and block- 
houses were erected, wherein the frontier pioneers and their families 
might find refuge in time of danger. One of these was built on the Con- 
necticut River, at a point called Dummer's Meadows, near the present 
town of Brattleboro; and the fortress, by reason of its location, was called 
Fort Dummer. This is beli_eved to have been the first permanent settle- 
ment made by civilized whites within the borders of the State of Ver- 
mont ; but it was erected there under the impression that the locality was 
part of the province of Massachusetts, and it was not until a survey was 

28 History of Windsor County. 

made, to settle conflicting claims between Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire, that Fort Dummer and its settlement were found to be in the lat- 
ter province, and subsequently became a part of the New Hampshire 
Grants, and, still later, the State of Vermont. The fort was built in 1 724. 

Other forts were built in various localities on the frontier, among 
them, in this vicinity, Fort Number Four, on the site of Charleston, New 
Hampshire ; one at Vernon, known as Bridgman's and Startwell's fort. 
The latter was attacked in June, 1746, and though a number of the gar- 
rison were slain the Indians were finally repulsed. The next year, 1747, 
a more successful attack was made against the fort, which resulted in its 
destruction, and slaughter and capture of many of its garrison, and those 
who had taken refuge therein. 

The several peace treaties agreed to between England and France 
had not the effect of entirely checking hostilities in the colonies ; and 
while the mother countries were at nominal peace, their representatives 
on this side of the Atlantic were engaged in almost continual warfare. 
In 1748, by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, another peace was agreed to, 
but the terms of the treaty not only failed of ratification by both coun- 
tries, but each absolutely rejected them in toto. Although six years of 
nominal peace followed this attempt at settling national disputes, both 
countries were making every preparation for another war that must inev- 
itably ensue. Through the influence of Sir William Johnson the English 
were to receive the assistance of the powerful Iroquois Nation, while the 
Canadian Indians pronounced in favor of France. The more severe battles 
of this war were waged on the soil of the provinces of New York, Penn- 
sylvania, and in the south and west ; and while the colonists of New Eng- 
land were by no means freed from danger, many, nevertheless, joined the 
English army and fought throughout the years of the conflict. The 
then unoccupied territory north of the Massachusetts province line, and 
between the Connecticut and Hudson Rivers, although not the theater of 
any disastcrous conflict, was constantly crossed and recrossed by armed 
parties of whites and marauding Indians. It was a vast unguarded 
frontier, unsafe for occupancy, and liable at any time to be overrun by 
savage foes. 

This being the situation, it cannot be a source of wonder or remark 
that the territory now included within the bounds of Vermont was not 
sooner occupied or settled by the whites. 

Early Settlements. 29 

The French and English war continued with unabated fury along the 
Hudson and Lake Champlain, and in the Canadas, as well as elsewhere 
in the west, until the final defeat and surrender of the French commander, 
Vaudreuil, by which the province of Canada, so long held by the'French, 
passed to the control and government of Great Britain. The final treaty 
that ceded this vast province to the king was agreed to and signed at 
Paris, on the loth of February, 1763. 


The New Hampshire Grants — Charter Rights Granted by Governor Wentworth — 
Claims of New York — Correspondence Between the Governors — Early Grants Made 
by Governor Wentworth of Towns of Windsor County — Proclamations Issued — The 
Royal Decree — New York Violates the King's Order — Lands Regranted — Uprising of 
the Settlers — The Green Mountain Boys— Counties Organized by New York— Chester 
Named as the County Seat of Cumberland County— Changed to Westminster — Glou- 
cester County Created— Sentiment Divided — The Situation in Cumberland and Glou- 
cester Counties— Counties Formed East of the Mountains — Boundaries of Albany and 
Charlotte Counties. 

DURING the years of the French wars bodies of armed troops were 
constantly crossing through various portions of the uninhabited 
lands lying north of Massachusetts province line; and as soon as the 
condition of the frontier would admit application was made by several 
parties for the grant of township tracts of land in that section of the 
country. These applications were made to the governors of the prov- 
inces of New York and New Hampshire : to the former generally by 
residents of New York, for the reason that it was understood that the 
grant by the king to James, the Duke of York, embraced all the terri- 
tory north of the Massachusetts province line, as far east as the Con- 
necticut River; and to the latter, the governor of New Hampshire, Ben- 
ning Wentworth, for the reason that it was understood that the province 
of New Hampshire extended as far to the west as did the provinces of 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, to a line twenty miles east of the Hud- 

30 History of Windsor County. 

son River. This conflict of opinion led to a serious controversy between 
the authorities of the two provinces, but after some years, and after he had 
granted a large body of the disputed tract. Governor Wentworth, of New 
Hampshire, withdrew from the contest, and left his unfortunate grantees 
to protect themselves and their rights without his advice or assistance. 
This contest continued with greater or less severity for a period of about 
forty years, and was finally terminated by Congress, in the recognition 
of the rights of the persons holding under the New Hampshire charters, 
and the admission of the disputed territory to the Federal Union, under 
the name of "State of Vermont," in the year 1791. 

The first grant of lands by Governor Wentworth, under the authority 
he claimed to possess, was made on the 3d day of January, 1749, and 
conveyed to the grantees therein named a tract containing thirty- six 
square miles of land, and situated near the southwest corner of his sup- 
posed province, abutting the twenty- mile line, to which township he 
gave the name of" Bennington." This grant was immediately followed 
by numerous other applications for similar charters or grants of lands in 
that and other localities, but the doughty governor evidently had not 
every confidence in his alleged rights, and it was not until the year 1750 
that any further grant was made. 

After having granted the township of Bennington, Governor Went- 
worth opened correspondence with Governor Clinton of the province of 
New York, apprising him of what had been done, and expressing a de- 
sire not to interfere with the latter's province, or trespass upon the same; 
and particularly inquiring as to "how many miles eastward of Hudson's 
River, to the northward of the Massachusetts line," the government of 
New York extends. To this Governor Clinton made answer that, by the 
advice of council, he was to acquaint Governor Wentworth " that this 
province (New York) is bounded eastward by Connecticut River ; the 
letters-patent from King Charles H. to the Duke of York, expressly 
granting 'all the lands from the west side of Connecticut to the east side 
of Delaware Bay.' " Then followed further correspondence between the 
governors, and it was decided to refer the matter to the Crown for adju- 
dication. But on May 11, 1750, Governor Wentworth made another 
grant, and this was followed by others, so that, within a period of four- 
teen years, there had been granted charter rights for one hundred and 

New Hampshire Grants. 31 

thirty- eight townships in the disputed territory. The towns so chartered 
during that time that at present form a part of Windsor county, with 
dates of their charter, were as follows : Hamstead, alias Chester, Febru- 
ary 22, 1754, regrantcd November 4. 1761 ; Hartford, July 4, 1761 ; 
Norwich, July 4, 1761 ; Reading, Saltash (now Plymouth), and Windsor, 
July 6, 1761 ; Pomfret, July 8, 1761; Hertford (now Hartland), Wood- 
stock, and Bridgewater, July 10, 1761 ; Bernard (now Barnard), July 17, 
1761 ; Stockbridge, July 21, 1761 ; Sharon, August 17. 1761 ; Spring- 
field and Weathersfield, August 20, 1 761 ; Ludlow, September 16, 1761 ; 
Cavendish, October 12, 1761 ; Andover, October 13, 1761. 

This general and promiscuous granting of lands by the governor of 
New Hampshire had the effect of calling forth, from the governor of 
New Yoik, a proclamation directing the authorities of that province " to 
take the names of all persons who had taken possession of lands under 
New Hampshire grants." But this was met by a counter proclamation 
issued by Governor Wentworth, urging the settlers under his grants 
"to be industrious in clearing and cultivating their lands, agreeable to 
their respective grants." And, furthermore, commanding all civil 
officers of the province " to deal with any person or persons, that may 
presume to interrupt the inhabitants or settlers on said lands, as to law 
and justice do appertain," etc. 

Such was the disturbed and unhappy condition of things when, on the 
20th day of July, 1764, the king having at last taken cognizance of the 
subject in controversy, and by the advice of his council, did order and 
declare " the western banks of the River Connecticut, from where it 
enters the province of the Massachusetts Bay, as far north as the forty- 
fifth degree of northern latitude, to be the boundary line between the said 
two provinces of New Hampshire and New York " ; and further ordered 
the officers of the two provinces "to take notice of his Majesty's pleas- 
ure, and govern themselves accordingly." 

Thus the people on the grants found themselves situated by the royal 
decree. With them it was not so much a matter of concern as to which 
jurisdiction they belonged, and they were entirely content to become a 
part of the province of New York. But when they found that the 
authorities of that province were disposed to annul their barters and 
regrant them the lands for consideration, or else grant them to other 

32 History of Windsor County. 

applicants, they rebelled against any such usurpation of right, and were 
at once made bitterly hostile to the New York powers. So great, 
indeed, was the indignation of the settlers at this outrageous proceeding 
that it was a dangerous occupation for any New York officer to appear 
upon the grants. That they might know whether the New York 
authorities could justly evict them from their land, or compel them to 
repurchase, the settlers met in convention, through representatives from 
the several towns, and decided to send Samuel Robinson, of Bennington, 
to England to present their grievances to the king. The king and 
council, after patientl)^ hearing the statements of Mr. Robinson, made 
an order forbidding the "Governor or Commander-in-Chief of his 
Majesty's Province of New York, for the time being," from making " any 
grant whatsoever of any part of the lands described in the report (the 
report of the board of trade), until his majesty's pleasure be further 
known," etc. 

But, notwithstanding this, the governor of New York did continue to 
make grants, and did bring suits in ejectment against the settlers, until, 
at last, their patience became exhausted at the continued oppression put 
upon them ; and as law and justice were denied them, an organization 
for mutual protection of life and property became necessary. This re- 
sulted in the formation of that heroic band of statesmen and warriors 
known in history as the " Green Mountain Boys," of which Ethan Allen 
was chosen colonel, and Seth Warner, Remember Baker, Robert 
Cochran, Gideon Warner and others, captains. 

After the royal decree of 1764, by which the Connecticut River 
became the eastern boundary of the province of New York, the success- 
ful authorities made all possible haste to organize and govern the same, 
thus hoping to subdue the rebellious spirit that had then begun to 
manifest itself in various quarters; and in carrying out their plan of 
government the territory of the grants was divided into counties, the 
portion east of the mountains being called Cumberland county ; and 
they had created courts and appointed officers for the civil government 
of the county when the king's order of 1767 was received, and by which 
their former proceedings were annulled. But in spite of this the act 
creating the county was again passed, and the county again organized 
under New York authority. The county seat of Cumberland county 

Early County Divisions. 33 

was fixed at Chester, in the present county of Windsor, and here courts 
were held for four or five years, but no permanent county buildings 
were erected at that place. 

The town of Chester, as will be seen by reference to earlier pages, 
was first chartered by Governor Wentworth, on February 22, 1754, 
under the name of Hamstead. On November 3, 1761, the town was 
rechartered under the name of Flamstead, or New Flamstead ; and on 
July 14, 1766, the name " Chester " was adopted. This latter name was 
given the town by the charter that was then granted by the provincial 
authorities of New York to Thomas Chandler and thirty- six associates. 

In many of the towns lying in the southeastern portion of the grants 
there was a strong contingent of settlers who were satisfied to accept 
the New York terms of adjustment of the existing difficulties, and who 
were wiUing to surrender their claims under New Hampshire and pro- 
cure new charters from New York. In Chester there were many 
persons inclined to this course, although this class were far more numer- 
ous in the towns farther south. But in Chester, too, there was an 
equally determined class of settlers who refused to submit to the New 
York authority ; and the feeling between these opposing factions at 
length grew so bitter that it was deemed advisable to move the county 
seat to Westminster, which was accordingly done. 

And about the same time, on March 7, 1770, that portion of the ter- 
ritory of the grants east of the mountains and north of the town lines of 
the present towns of Norwich, Sharon and Royalton, was formed into 
another count)r by the name of Gloucester, the county seat of which 
was fixed at Newbury. This action on the part of the New Yorkers 
divided the territory east of the mountains into two distinct sub -dis- 
tricts. The great majority of the residents of Gloucester county were 
opposed to the New York authority, while the majority of those who 
dwelt in Cumberland county may be said to have been indifTerent as to 
the situation or else they favored New York control. But still there 
were many in Cumberland county that warmly and earnestly espoused 
the cause for which the Green Mountain Boys and the residents west of 
the mountains were contending. 

But the New York authorities did not confine their operations exclu- 
sively to the region where their followers were the most numerous, for 

34 History of Windsor County. 

they also divided the territory east of the Green Mountains into two 
separate counties, the one called Albany county and the other Charlotte 
county. The county seat of the first was fixed at Albany, while that 
of the latter was at Skenesborough (now Whitehall), llie north lines 
of the towns of Arlington and Sunderland separated these counties, and 
this boundary was continued westerly to the Hudson River. This or- 
ganization of the territory of the grants into counties, by the authorities 
of New York, was continued until the year 1777, when the representa- 
tives of the people on the disputed tract declared their lands to be an 
independent jurisdiction or State, and gave to it the name of VERMONT. 


The Controversy with New York — Means Employed to Overcome the New Hamp- 
shire Grantees — Change of Sentiment East of the Mountains — Allegiance to New 
York Disclaimed — The Massacre at Westminster — Death of William French — Meet- 
ings held at Westminster— The Settlers Formally Renounce Allegiance to New York 
— The Commencement of the Struggle for State and National Independence — The 
Conventions at Dorset — Towns East of the Mountains Asked to Send Delegates — The 
Conventions at Westminster — Independence of the State Declared — Named New 
Connecticut — Changed to Vermont — Conventions at Windsor — State Constitution 
Adopted — Paul Spooner of Hartland. 

DURING the period of the controversy with New York concerning 
the right of ownership in and jurisdiction over the territory known 
so many jears by the name of the New Hampshire Grants, the chief 
theater of events lay west of the Green Mountains. This section was 
much nearer the seat of government of the province of New York, and 
should her officers not be able to suppress an insurrection in that locality, 
how little could they hope to hold in subjection any strong rebellious 
sentiment that should manifest itself in the more remote and inaccessi- 
ble regions beyond the mountains ! But with these people the New 
Yorkers pursued a decidedly different course from that employed against 
the Green Mountain Boys, using pacific measures to accomplish their 
purpose with the former, while force of arms must be resorted to in order 
to overcome the opposition offered by Ethan Allen and his brave com- 

The Controversy with New York. 35 

patriots. On the west side the New York authorities never gained any- 
substantial foothold or advantage over the settlers on the grants, and 
the officers sent to apprehend the alleged rioters were treated to such 
smarting applications of the beech seal and sundry other punishments 
as to most effectually discourage other officers from making any attempt 
at arrest or eviction. And that element of the population that were 
called Tories found the region wholly unsafe for habitation, and either 
fled to other parts or so conducted themselves as not to bring upon 
them a visitation of the wrath of the leaders of the alleged mob. To 
be sure the territory had, in the same manner as that on the east side, 
been divided into counties, and officers appointed to exercise their 
respective functions therein; but hardly any of these attempted to act, 
and when an occasional justice or other petty officer assumed to perform 
the duty imposed upon him by virtue of his appointment, he did so in 
defiance of the order of the Green Mountain Boys, and upon conviction 
was punished in such manner as suggested itself to the fancy of the 
leaders, and by no means were their primitively constituted magistrates 
inclined to exercise leniency toward offenders. For inimical conduct, 
which was nothing more nor less than Toryism, David Redding was 
hanged at Bennington. 

But on the east side of the mountains the character of the people and 
situation was decidedly different; and it is believed that public sentiment 
for and against New York was nearly equally divided, excepting of 
course that element of the settlers that expressed or held no decided 
preference. This was the situation prior to the breaking out of the Rev- 
olution, but that event aroused all factions to activity, and the so-called 
Tory contingent became decidedly small and weak, though it was by no 
means extinguished. 

The affection entertained for the authorities and government of the 
province of New York by the inhabitants of the grants east of the mount- 
ains became suddenly and effectually alienated during the years just pre- 
ceding the Revolution, and the peculiar situation of New York was the 
innocent and ignorant cause of it. The reader will bear in mind that the 
Duke of York was the grantee, under the charter issued by the king, to 
the entire province named in his honor, and this charter was not unlike 
many others. But the Duke of York, in course of time, ascended the 


36 History of Windsor County. 

throne, and by that event the province of New York merged in the 
crown, became an EngHsh province, and was governed by officers ap- 
pointed by the king. From this fact it was known as a royal province, 
and its authorities and magistrates were the immediate subjects of the 
crown, and owed a closer allegiance thereto than many of the other prov- 
inces. Therefore, when in 1774 the representatives of the several col- 
onies met at Philadelphia for the purpose of deliberating upon measures 
to relieve themselves from the oppressions put upon the colonies by the 
mother country, it was not a surprising thing that New York was re- 
luctant about acting with the earnestness shown by the other provinces 
throughout the land. This lack of zeal cost the governing authorities 
of New York the friendship, not only of other provinces, but particularly 
of the settlers on the grants east of the Green Mountains. These peo- 
ple had, in the main, been former residents of the provinces south and 
east of the section in which they then lived, and as those colonies were 
eager and earnest in their efforts to separate from Great Britain, they 
felt that the tardy action of New York was sufficient cause for throwing 
off all allegiance to that province, and uniting with the great mass of the 
people in the common cause against England and her oppressive policy. 
But the officers of Cumberland county, holding under the authority 
they derived from New York, felt it incumbent upon them that they 
perform such duties as had previously been their custom notwithstand- 
ing the opposition of the people, who advised against such action. This 
disregard of the people's wishes led to the unfortunate disaster that has 
ever since been termed the massacre at Westminster. This affair oc- 
curred at a time when the New York authorities were in control of the 
civil government of Cumberland county, of which county this region 
then formed a part. The facts of the case were so clearly and concisely 
stated in the narrative contained in " Thompson's Vermont " that we 
make bold to copy the same literally in these pages, as follows: " The 
affairs of the colonies had assumed so alarming an aspect, that delegates 
from most of the provinces met at Philadelphia on the 5th of Septem- 
ber, 1774, to consult upon measures for the common safety. The meet- 
ing of this congress was followed by an almost universal suspension of 
the royal authority in all the colonies, excepting New York, which re- 
fused to assent to the measures recommended by that body, and the 

The Massacre at Westminster. 37 

courts of justice were either shut up or adjourned without doing any- 
business. The first interruption of this kind in the colony of New York 
happened in the county of Cumberland, on the New Hampshire grants. 

" The stated session of the court for that county was to have been 
holden at Westminster, on the 13th of March, 1775. Much dissatisfac- 
tion prevailed in the county because New York had refused to adopt the 
resolves of the Continental Congress, and exertions were made to dis- 
suade the judges from holding the court. But, as they persisted in do- 
ing it, some of the inhabitants of Westminster and the adjacent towns 
took possession of the court-house at an early hour in order to prevent 
the officers of the court from entering. The court party soon appeared 
before the court-house armed with guns, swords and pistols, and com- 
manded the people to disperse. But, as they refused to obey, some 
harsh language passed between them, and the court party retired to their 

" The people then had an interview with Judge (Thomas) Chandler, 
who assured them that they might have quiet possession of the house till 
morning, when the court should come in without arms, and should hear 
what they had to lay before them. But, contrary to this declaration, 
about eleven o'clock that night the sheriff with other officers of the court, 
attended by an armed force, repaired to the court-house. Being refused 
admittance, some of the party fired into the house and killed one man 
and wounded several others. The wounded men they seized and dragged 
to prison, with some others who did not succeed in making their escape. 
By means of those who escaped the news of this massacre was quickly 
spread, and before noon the next day a large body of armed men had 
collected." (About 200 of these came from New Hampshire, and oth- 
ers from Massachusetts, which, with those from the grants, aggregated a 
total armed force of five hundred men ) "A jury of inquest brought in 
a verdict that the man was murdered by the county party. Several of 
the officers were made prisoners and confined in the jail at Northampton ; 
but upon the application of the chief justice of New York, they were re- 
leased from prison and returned home." 

The victim of the massacre at Westminster was William French. His 
body was interred in the graveyard at Westminster, and on the monu- 
ment erected to his memory was this inscription, a veritable literary 
curiosity : 

38 History of Windsor County. 

"In Memory of William French, Son to Mr. Nathaniel French, Who 
Was Shot at Westminster, March ye 13th, 1775, by the hands of Cruel 
Ministerial tools of George ye 3d, in the Corthouse at a ii a Clock at 
Night, in the 22d year of his age. 

" Here William French his body lies, 

For murder his blood for vengeance cries, 

King Georg the third his Tory crew, 

tha with a bawl his head Shot threw, 

For Liberty and his Country's Good, 

he lost his Life his Dearest blood." 

Following the affair at Westminster, the cause of the settlers upon the 
grants, both east and west of 'the mountains, became a common one. 
No longer was there a strong disaffected element, and all factions be- 
came united in the cause against both New York and Great Ikitain. In 
the midst of this feeling a convention of committees, representing the 
towns east of the mountains, was called to be holden at Westminster, on 
the I Ith day of April, 1775. At this meeting the following proceedings 
were taken : 

"I. Voted, That Major Abijah Lovejoy^ be the Moderator of this 

" 2. Voted, That Dr. Reuben Jones ^ be the Clerk. 

" 3. Voted, as our opinion, That our inhabitants are in great danger 
of having their property unjustly, cruelly, and unconstitutionally taken 
from them by the arbitrary and designing administration of the govern- 
ment of New York ; sundry instances have already taken place. 

" 4. Voted, as our opinion. That the lives of those inhabitants are in 
the utmost hazard and imminent danger, under the present administra- 
tion. Witness the malicious and horrid massacre on the night of the 

"5. Voted, as our opinion. That it is the duty of said inhabitants, as 
predicated on the eternal and immutable law of self-preservation, to 
wholly renounce and resist the administration of the government of New 
York, till such time as the lives and property of those inhabitants may be 
secured by it ; or till such time as they can have opportunity to lay their 
grievances before his most gracious majesty in council, together with a 

' Major Abijah Lovejoy of Westminster. 

^ Ur. Reuben Jones of Rockingham, afterwards of Chester. 

At the Beginning of the Revolution. 39 

proper remonstrance against the unjustifiable conduct of that govern- 
ment ; with an humble petition to be taken out of so oppressive a juris- 
diction, and, either annexed to some other government, or erected and 
incorporated into a new one, as may appear best to the said inhabitants, 
to the royal wisdom and clemency, and till such time as his majesty 
shall settle this controversy. 

"6. Voted, That Colonel John Hazeltine, Charles Phelps, Esq , and 
Colonel Ethan Allen, be a committee to prepare such remonstrance and 
petition for the purpose aforesaid." 

" It is difficult," says Slade, " to conjecture what would have been 
the issue of this controversy had not its progress been suddenly averted 
by the commencement of the Revolutionary war. The events of the 
memorable ipth of April, 1775, produced a shock which was felt to the 
very extremity of the colonies; and ' local and provincial contests were 
at once swallowed up by the novelty, the grandeur, and the importance 
of the contest thus opened between Great Britain and America.' The 
commencement of the war at this period led to a train of causes im- 
mediately connected with the final independence of Vermont. The 
attention of New York was suddenly diverted from the subject of its 
particular controversy to a higher one, involving the independence of 
the whole American community, while the final result of the former was 
necessarily thrown forward to a more distant period. The New Hamp- 
shire grantees did not fail to profit by this delay. While they never 
for a moment lost sight of the object for which they had so long con- 
tended, they improved the delay in the cultivation of a more perfect 
union, and in a better organization of their strength ; while a violent, 
irritable state of public feeling, ill calculated to sustain a long conflict, 
gradually settled down into a more dehberate but not less decided 
hostility to the claims of New York." 

'■ In this state of things," continues the same writer, " the inhabitants 
on the grants soon began to feel their importance; and this feeling was 
not a little strengthened by the signal exploit (the surprise and capture 
of Ticonderoga on the 9th of May, 1775), which has given the brave 
Allen and his companions in arms so distinguished a place in the 
annals of the Revolution. Their frontier situation peculiarly exposed 
them to the depredations of the enemy. Their own immediate safety, 

40 History of Windsor County. 

therefore, as well as a strong sympathy in the general hostility to the 
mother country, led them to take an early and distinguished part in the 
common cause. With New York, however, they were determined to 
have no immediate connection even in the common defence." 

In the early proceedings that resulted in the declaration of independ- 
ence of Vermont, the inhabitants on the grants east of the mountains 
did not take an active part, and the first convention in which they were 
represented was that held at Dorset, on the 24th of July, 1776, at which 
time Captain Samuel Fletcher and Josiah Fish were delegates from 
Townshend, that town then being in Cumberland county, of which the 
present county of Windsor formed a part. Prior to that event, and on 
July 26, 177s, and January 16, 1776, conventions had been held at 
Dorset, but no representatives from the eastern towns of the grants 
were present. At the convention of July, 1776, it was "Voted to chose 
a committee to treat with the Inhabitants of the New Hampshire grants 
on the East side of the range of Green Mountains relative to their 
associating with this body"; and further, "Voted, That Captain 
Heman Allen, Colonel William Marsh, and Dr. Jonas Fay in conjunc- 
tion with Captain Samuel Fletcher and Mr. Joshua Fish, be a Com- 
mittee to exhibit the proceedings of this Convention to said inhabitants, 
and to do the business as above." In addition to these proceedings it 
was also voted that Dr. Jonas Fay, Colonel Thomas Chittenden and 
Lieutenant Ira Allen be appointed a committee to prepare instructions 
for the committee last above chosen. 

At this time, although the independence of Vermont had not been 
formally declared, the people were making an earnest effort to bring 
about that end through the intervention of Congress. It therefore be- 
came a part of the business of the July convention at Dorset to ascertain 
the general sentiment of all the towns relating to such a proceeding. For 
this purpose town meetings were requested to be held in the towns east 
of the mountains, at which the freemen should express their opinion as 
to the course best to be pursued. In Rockingham on the 26th of 
August it was voted to send two delegates to the convention to be held 
at Dorset in the fall, and instructed them " to use their best influence 
to obtain the passage of such resolve as would tend to establish the 
* Grants ' as a separate and independent State." And at a similar meet- 

The Westminster Convention. 41 

ing " the fullest meeting ever (then) known in Chester," held in Septem- 
ber, like measures were adopted, and the articles of association, which 
had been approved of by the Dorset committee, were signed by forty- 
two of the inhabitants. Other towns were heard from, some by written 
and others by verbal communications. 

At an adjourned session of the Dorset convention, held September 25, 
1776, ten towns east of the mountains were represented, but only one 
Windsor, was in what is now the county of that name. Ebenezer Hois- 
ington represented that town. Mr. Hoisington took an active part in 
the proceedings of this as well as subsequent conventions, and served as 
a member of several of the most important committees. 

From Dorset the convention adjourned to reassemble at Westminster 
on the 30th day of October, 1776. At the meeting at Westminster 
were two representatives from towns in this county, Mr. Hoisington for 
Windsor, and Colonel Thomas Chandler for Chester. This convention 
was in session but three days when it was voted to adjourn to meet 
again at Westminster, on the third Wednesday of January, 1777. 

At the appointed time the representatives met at the court house in 
Westminster, the delegates from the eastern towns outnumbering those 
from the west side. From the towns now of Windsor county the dele- 
gates were as follows: From Chester, Colonel Thomas Chandler; Wind- 
sor, Ebenezer Hoisington ; Hartford, Stephen Tilden ; Woodstock, 
Benjamin Emmons; Norwich, Major Thomas Moredock and Jacob Bur- 
ton. The towns of Pomfret, Barnard and Royalton sent letters to the 
convention pronouncing in favor of a new State, but neither of these 
were otherwise represented. One of the first subjects of discussion in 
this convention was the sentiment existing in the towns east of the 
mountains regarding the formation of a new State ; and for the purpose 
of receiving correct information on that subject a committee, consisting 
of Lieutenant Leonard Spaulding, of Dummerston, Ebenezer Hois- 
ington, of Windsor, and Major Thomas Moredock, of Norwich, was 
chosen to examine and report as to the number of persons in the east- 
ern towns who were in favor of a new State, and how many were op- 
posed thereto. The report of this committee states that " We find by 
examination that more than three-fourths of the people in Cumberland 
and Gloucester counties, that have acted, are for a new State ; the rest 
we view as neuters." <j 

42 History of Windsor County. 

This convention was, perhaps, the most important of any that was 
held during the period of agitation and uncertainty, for it was here that 
the representatives of the towns on the New Hampshire Grants, through 
their committee selected for the purpose, declared to the world that 
" the district of territory comprehending and usually known by the 
name and description of the New Hampshire Grants, of right out to be, 
and is hereby declared forever hereafter to be considered as a separate, 
free and independent jurisdiction or State ; by the name, and forever 
hereafter to be called, known and distinguished by the name of New 
Connecticut," etc. 

There seems to have been, and perhaps still is, considerable discus- 
sion concerning the fact whether the name of the newly created State is 
correctly given above — Nezv Connecticut, or whether it was at that time 
named New Connecticut, alias Vermont. The great bulk of reliable au- 
thority on this subject seems to incline to the belief that the name New 
Connecticut only was given in the original declaration ; that the words 
^^ alias Vermont" were afterward added, and that on the 4th of June, 
following, the name was changed to Vermont. There is no question 
but that the name New Connecticut was adopted at the Westminster 
convention, but there was a question whether the added words were a 
part of the original document. At all events the succeeding conven- 
tion, at Windsor, June 4, 1777, was dissatisfied with some of the pro- 
visions of the original proceeding, particularly from the fact that no rea- 
sons were stated for the separation from New York ; whereupon the 
body there assembled, by their first preamble, did state: "Whereas, 
This convention did at their session in Westminster, the 15th day of 
January last, among other things, declare the district of land commonly 
called and known by tlie name of the New Hampsiiire Grants, to be 'a 
free and independent State, capable of regulating their own internal 
police in all and every respect whatsoever, and that it should thereafter 

be known by the name of New Connecticut. Resolved, therefore, 

unanimously, that the said district described in the preamble to the dec- 
laration at Westminster, aforesaid, shall now hereafter be called and 
known by the name of Vermont." 

The representatives in this convention at Windsor, from those towns 
that now form a part of Windsor county, together with the towns they 

The New Constitution. 43 

respectively represented, were as follows : From Chester, Lieutenant 
Jabez Sargent ; Windsor, Ebenezer Hoisington ; Hertford (Hartland), 
Major Joel Matthews and William Gallup ; Woodstock, Benjamin Em- 
mons ; Hartford, Colonel Joseph Marsh and Stephen Tilden ; Pomfret, 
John Throop and John Winchester Dana ; Barnard, Asa Whitcomb and 
Asa Chandler; Norwich, Colonel Peter Olcott, Major Thomas More- 
dock, and Jacob Burton ; Sharon, Joel Marsh and Daniel Gilbert; Cav- 
endish, Captain John Coffein ; Reading, Andrew Spear. 

After having completed, adopted and signed the revised declaration 
of State independence, the convention next proceeded to make provis- 
ion for the temporary government of the State, and for its protection 
from the inimical persons who were endeavoring to create a new feeling 
of disaffection in many of the towns. This being arranged satisfactorily, 
the convention adjourned, but met again at the same place on the 2d 
day of July, 1777. This was a meeting equally important with any of 
its predecessors, for, at that time, the question of the adoption of a State 
constitution would have to be met. At the former convention a com- 
mittee was chosen to make the draft of a constitution, but as to who act- 
ually constituted that committee there appears to be no record. Au- 
thorities agree, however, that it was composed of Jonas Fay, Thomas 
Chittenden, Heman Allen, Reuben Jones, and, probably, Jacob Bayley. 
These persons had been appointed agents to present the cause of Ver- 
mont to Congress, seeking admission to the Union, and recognition by 
that body as a separate and independent State ; and it is believed from 
the fact that these persons, or a majority of them, visited Philadelphia, 
and attended upon Congress, and, furthermore, became so closely asso - 
ciated with Dr. Young, of that city, that he induced them to adopt a 
constitution after the form of that of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 
Whatever of accuracy there may have been in this opinion cannot now 
be determined, but it is a fact that the constitution adopted for the gov- 
ernment of the State of Vermont was modeled upon that of Pennsyl- 
vania with, of course, some additions and eliminations. Concerning the 
events that occurred at the Windsor convention when the question of 
adopting the constitution was under consideration, we lay before the 
reader the account written by Ira Allen in the year 1798, which was as 
follows : 

44 History of Windsor County. 

" A draft of a rtew constitution was laid before the convention, and 
read. The business being new, and of great consequence, required se- 
rious deliberation. The convention had it under consideration when the 
news of the evacuation of Ticonderoga arrived, which alarmed them very- 
much, as thereby the frontiers of the State were exposed to the inroads 
of an enemy. The family of the President of the Convention, as well as 
those of many other members, were exposed to the foe. In this awful 
crisis tiie convention was for leaving Windsor, but a severe thunderstorm 
came on, and gave them time to reflect, while other members, less 
alarmed at the news, called the attention of the whole to finish the Con- 
stitution, which was then read paragraph by paragraph for the last time. 
This was done, and the convention then appointed a Council of Safety 
to act during the recess, and the Convention adjourned." 

It was the duty of the Council of Safety to administer the civil and 
military affairs of the State during the seasons when the convention was 
not in session. This, of course, was a highly important service, and the 
members of the council were required to be men of undoubted ability 
and courage. The members of the council that were chosen by the 
Windsor convention were Heman and Ira Allen, of Colchester; Jacob 
Bayley, of Newbury ; Benjamin Spencer, of Clarendon, who became a 
Tory, and was superceded by Benjamin Carpenter, of Guilford ; Thomas 
Chittenden, of Williston ; Jeremiah Clark, of Shaftsbury ; Nathan Clark, 
Jonas and Joseph Fay and Moses Robinson, of Bennington ; Matthew 
Lyon, of Arlington ; and Paul Spooner, of Hartland. 

Another important act of the W^indsor convention of July, 1777, was 
the provision made for holding the first election of ofificers under the 
new constitution, the time so appointed being in December following ; 
but the unfortunate turn of affairs upon the frontier, leaving the northern 
and western portions of the State almost wholly unprotected, necessi- 
tated the assembling of another general convention, which Was called to 
meet again at Windsor on the 24th of December, 1777 ; and that body, 
when met, postponed the election of State officers until the first Tuesday 
of March, 1778. Among other things this convention made a revision 
of the constitution, but no business appears to have been transacted, 
other than above referred to, that is of any special importance in these 

Dr. Paul Spooner. 45 

Dr. Paul Spooner, the representative and member of the Council of 
Safety, from Hartland, appears first in Vermont history in a convention 
at Westminster, October 19, 1774, which convention was called, says the 
"Governor and Council," "to condemn the tea act, the Boston port bill, 
and other kindred measures. Dr Spooner was one of a committee which 
made a written report expressing surprise that the king and parliament 
should dare to assert ' a right to bind the colonies in all cases whatso- 
ever,' and to take, 'at their pleasure, the properties of the king's Ameri- 
can subjects without their consent.' ' He who has nothing,' said this 
committee, ' but what another has power at pleasure lawfully to take 
away from him, has nothing that he can call his own, and is, in the fullest 
sense of the word, a slave — a slave to him who has such power ; and as 
no part of British America stipulated to settle as slaves, the privileges 
of British subjects are their privileges, and whoever endeavors to deprive 
them of their privileges is guilty of treason ai^ainst the Americans, as 
well as the British constitution.' He again appeared as a delegate at a 
convention of Whigs at Westminster, February 7, 1775, and was secre- 
tary. Still again, June 6, 1775, he was a delegate at a Cumberland 
county Congress (so called), and was chosen one of three delegates to 
represent the county in the New York Provincial Congress. He served 
as such for the remainder of the session which commenced May 23, 
1775, was re-elected November 7, and served in the session which com- 
menced November 14. May 5, 1777, he was chosen sheriff of Cumber- 
land county under New York, but declined accepting the office in a let- 
ter dated July 15. Just one week before writing that letter he had been 
appointed one of the Vermont Council of Safety, which office he accepted 
and was appointed deputy secretary thereof in the absence of the secre- 
tary, Ira Allen. He was a member of the first council under the con- 
stitution, and was re-elected five times, serving from 1778 till October, 
1782, when he was elected lieutenant-governor, and annually re elected 
until 1787. Twice he was agent from Vermont to Congress, in 1780, 
and again in 1782. For nine years he was a judge of the Supreme 
Court, in 1779 and 1780, and again from 1782 to 1788. During the 
same period, in 1781 and 1782, he was judge of probate for Windsor 
county." He died in Hartland in 1789. 

46 History of Windsor County. 


"The Pingry Papers "—A Chapter Devoted to the Proceedings of the Committees 
of the Counties of Cumberland and Gloucester from June. 1774. to September, 
1777 ; Together with Such Other Records of Events as will be of Interest to the Pres- 
ent and Future Generations of Readers of this Work— The Narrative, with Explana- 
tions, Comprises Extracts Taken from the Book Entitled "Governor and Council," 
Volume I, Appendix A, No. i. 

MAY 16, 1774, a committee of correspondence, consisting of fifty 
members, was formed in the city of New York for the purpose of 
eliciting the sentiments of the people of the respective provinces, and 
particularly of New York, on the measures of the mother country in re- 
spect to her American colonies. Of this committee Isaac Low was 
chairman. Two days before he was confirmed in that office he addressed 
the supervisors of Cumberland county, May 21, 1774, asking informa- 
tion as to the sentiments of the people. The supervisors met in Jime, 
but took no action on this letter, and in fact endeavored to conceal it. 
By accident, Dr. Reuben Jones, of Rockingham, and Captain Azariah 
Wright, of Westminster, heard of it, and immediately notified their 
towns, when a meeting was held and a cominittee appointed in each of 
those towns to wait upon the supervisors at their September session and 
inquire whether any papers had been received which ought to be laid 
before the several towns of the county. The supervisors, with many 
excuses for their delay, produced Low's letter, when a copy of it was 
sent to each town, and a county convention was called to meet at West- 
minster on the 19th of October. In response on application of four in- 
habitants, Colonel Thomas Chandler, clerk of Chester, called a meeting 
of the freemen of that town, which was held on the loth of October, 
and appointed a committee of five to join the county committee for the 
purpose of preparing a report to be sent to the New York coinmittee of 
correspondence. The proceedings of that meeting were as follows: 

" Request for a Town Meeting. We, the Subscribers, Inhabitants of 
the Town of Chester, Desire Col" Thomas Chandler as Clerk of the Town 
Aforesaid to Call a Town meeting to know the minds of the People, 
Wither they are Willing to Choose a Com""'' to make Report to sd Com*^^ 

Town Meetings. 47 

of Correspondence and Whither the People will Stand for the Privileges 
of North America, or Wither they are Willing to Consent to Receive 
the Late Acts of Parliament as Just or Wither they view them as unjust, 
Oppressive and unconstitutional, and to act as they think proper, and we 
Desire the meeting to be Called as Soon as Possible. Chester, October 
3d, 1774, George Earl, David Hutchinson, William Atwood, Jonathan 

" Warrant or Notification. Agreeable to the above Request I hereby 
Notify the Inhabitants of Chester to meet at the House of Mr. Jonathan 
Tarbell in sd Chester on Monday the Tenth Day of October, Instant at 
Two of the Clock in tlie afternoon then and there to Act on the Articles 
mentioned in the Request, if they See Cause given under my hand in 
Chester this Third Day of Oct' A. D. 1774. Tho Chandler Supervisor 
& Clerk. 

" Meeting opened. At a meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of 
Chester Duly Notified and meet at the usual place of meeting Oct' lOth, 
1774. Tho^ Chandler, Esq., Chosen Moderator. 

"Voted that Thomas Chandler, junr., Timo Alcott, Moses Gile, John 
Smith, and John Grout be a Com*'''' to Joyn with the County Com*"'' to 
make Reports to sd Com*"' of Correspondence in the Metropelous of 
this Province. 

" At said meeting Resolved first That the People of America are Nat- 
urally Intitled to all the Privileges of Free Borne Subjects of Great 
Britain, which Privileges they have Never Forfeited. 2ly, Resolved that 
Every Man's Estate Honestly Acquired is his Own and no person on 
Earth has A Right to take it Away without the Proprietor's Consent 
unless he forfeit it by Some Crime of his Committing. 3ly, Resolved 
that all the Acts of the Britisii Parh"ament Tending to take Away or 
Abridge these Rights Ought not to be Obeyed. 4ly, Resolved that the 
People of this Town will Joyn with their Fellow American Subjects in 
Opposing in all Lawfull ways Every Incroachment on their Natural 
Rights." ^ 

" At a meeting of the committees from a number of townships in the 
county of Cumberland and province of New York, held in the County 
Hall, at Westminster, on the 19th and 20th of October, 1774, to con- 

Froin American Archives, Fourth series, vol. 2. 

48 History of Windsor County. 

sider a letter very lately received from Mr. Isaac Low, chairman of the 
committee of correspondence of New York, dated May 21, 1774, to con- 
sult on measures proper to be taken at this important day ; present, 
eighteen delegates from twelve towns. Colonel John Hazeltine chosen 

" After having read Mr. Chairman Low's letter, and the act of the Brit- 
ish Parliament in laying a duty or tax on tea, for the purpose of raising 
a revenue in America, the Boston Port Bill, so called, and divers other 
late acts of the British Parliament; sundry debates being had thereon, 
voted, that John Grout, of Chester; Joshua Webb, of Westminster; Dr. 
Paul Spooner, of Hartford ; Edward Harris, of Halifax ; and Major 
Wilh'am Williams, of Marlborough; be a committee to take into consid- 
eration the aforesaid letter, and divers aforesaid acts, and report to this 
meeting. (The report is not deemed essential in this chapter, having 
been referred to and quoted in part in an earlier chapter.) Therefore, 

^'Resolved, \. That as true and loyal subjects of our gracious Sover- 
eign, King George the Third of Great Britain, etc., we will spend our 
lives and fortunes in his service. 

" n. That we will defend our King while he reigns over us, his sub- 
jects, and wish his reign may be long and glorious, so we will defend 
our just rights, as British subjects, against every power that shall attempt 
to deprive us of them, while breath is in our nostrils, and blood in our 

"HI. That considering the late acts of the British Parliament for 
blocking up the port of Boston, etc., which we view as arbitrary and un- 
just, inasmuch as the Parliament has sentenced them unheard, and dis- 
pensed with all the modes of law and justice which we think necessary 
to distinguish between lawfully obtaining right for property injured, and 
arbitrarily enforcing to comply with their will, be it right or wrong, we 
resolve to assist the people of Boston in the defence of their liberties to 
the utmost of our abilities. 

"IV. Sensible that the strength of our opposition to the late acts con- 
sists in a uniform, manly, steady, and determined mode of procedure, 
we will bear testimony against and discourage all riotous, tumultuous, 
and unnecessary mobs which tend to injure the persons or properties of 
harmless individuals ; but endeavor to treat those persons whose abom- 

Extracts from Town Records. 49 

inable principles and actions show them to be enemies to American Hb- 
erties, as loathesome animals not fir to be touched or to have any soci- 
ety or connection with. 

" V. Resolved, That we choose a committee to correspond with the 
other Committees of Correspondence of this Province and elsewhere, 
and that Mr. Joshua Webb, John Grant, esq.. Deacon John Sessions, of 
Westminster ; Major William Williams and Captain Joab Hoisington, 
of Woodstock ; be a committee as aforesaid. 

"VI. Resolved, That the thanks of this Committee be given to the 
Committee of Correspondence in the capital of this Province, for the no- 
tice they have taken of this infant county. 

"VII. Resolved, That Mr. Chairman forward these resolves to Mr. 
Low, Chairman of the Committee of Correspondence at New York, and 
communicate to him by letter the reasons why his letter to the super- 
visors of this county was answered no sooner. 

"VIII. Resolved, That Colonel Hazeltine, the chairman, have the 
thanks of this committee for h'is good service as chairman. 

" The above report being divers times read, paragraph by para- 
graph, voted, netTiine coiitradiccnte. That the same be accepted as the 
sense of this meeting, and as their resolves." 

The following is an extract from the Dummerston town records re- 
lating to the arrest and imprisonment of Lieutenant Leonard Spaulding : 
"On the 28th of October, A. Dom. 1774, Lieutenant Leonard Spauld- 
ing of the town of Fulham alias Dummerstown, was Committed to the 
Common gaol for high treason against the British tyrant George the 
third, by the direction of the infamous Crean Brush, his attorney, & 
Noah Sabin, William Willard and Ephraim Rannsey, Esqs., and William 
Paterson the high Shreeve and Benj. Gorton, and the infamous Bil- 
dad Easton and his Deputies ; upon which, on the following day, viz., 
October the 29th a majority of the inhabitants met near the house of 
Charles Davenport on the green, and made Choice of Sundry persons to 
Serve as a Committee of Correspondence to joyn with other towns or re- 
spectable bodies of people, the better to secure and protect the rights 
and privileges of themselves and fellow creatures from the raveges and 
imbarrasments of the British tyrant & his New York and other imme- 
saries. The persons made choice of were these, viz., Solomon Harvey, 

50 History of Windsor County. 

John Butler, Jonathan Knight, Josiah Boyden, & Daniel Gates, by 
whose vigilence and activity Mr. Spaulding was released from his Con- 
finement after about eleven days ; the Committee finding it Necessary to 
be assisted by a Large Concourse of their freeborn Neighbours and 
bretherin, Consisting of the inhabitants of Dummerstown, Putney, Guil- 
ford, Halifax, and Draper (Wilmington), who discovered a patriotic Zeal 
& true heroic fortitude on the important occassion. The plain truth is, 
that the brave sons of freedom whose patience was worn out with the 
inhuman insults of the imps of power, grew quite sick of diving after re- 
dress in Legal way, & finding that the law was only made use of for 
the Emolument of its Creatures & the immesaries of the British tyrant, 
resolved upon an Easyer Method, and accordingly Opened the gaol with- 
out Key or Lockpicker, and after Congratulating Mr. Spaulding upon 
the recovery of his freedom. Dispersed Every man in pease to his re- 
spective home or place of abode. The aforegoing is a true and short re- 
lation of that Wicked affair of the New York, Cut throatly, Jacobitish 
High Church Toretical minions of George the third, the pope of Canada 
and Tyrant of Britain." ^ 

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Onnberland County Convention, 
February 7-9, 1774 : " At a Meeting of the Delegates of Twelve Towns 
in the County of Cumberland Convened at Westminster and formed into 
a Body February ye 7th 1775. istly, Voted that John Hazelton be 
Chareman of the Convention. 2dly, that Doct. Paul Spooner be the 
Clerk. 9ly, that this convention recomend it (to) their Constitiants to 
chuse a Man for their Supervisor at the next Anual meeting such as 
they would chouse if they ware to send him to New york as their As- 
semblyman; that so the Supervisors may select Two men out of their 
body, such as they shall think most proper ; which they the supervisors 
of the County are desired to Return to their Constitients for their Con- 
sideration and approbation by a Regular vote when Called upon to 
chouse Assemblymen in said County. loly. Voted, That Joshua Webb, 
Nathaniel Robertson & Abijah Lovejoy, of Westminster; Captain 
Minerd, of putney; Solomon Hervey, of fullom ; Nathaniel Frinch, of 
Brattleborough; William Bollock, Hezekiah Stowell, of Guilford; Lieut. 

' The above quotation is reproduced more on account of its extraordinary character 
as a literary curiosity than as having any bearing on the history of this county. 

Extracts from Town Records. 51 

Parterson, of Hins Hinsdall ; Edward Haries, of Halifax ; Charles Phil- 
lips, & Captain VVhitmore, of Marlborough ; Elijah Alvord, of Draper ; 
S'l Robertson, of Newfain ; John Hazelton & S'l Fletcher, of Tovvn- 
shend ; James Rogers, of Kent ; Moses Guild, of Chester ; Moses Wright, 
& Jonathan Burt, of Rockingham; Simon Stephens, Esq., of Spring- 
field ; Hezekiah Grout, «& Oliver Rider, of Weathersfield ; Benjamin 
Wait, of Windsor ; Paul Spooner, of Hertford ; Esq. Burch, of Hert- 
ford ; Jacob Haselton, of Woodstock ; John Whinchester Daviee, of 
Pomphret (John Winchester Dana, of Pomfret) be a standing Committee 
of Correspondence to Correspond with the Committee of Correspondence 
for the City of New York ; and other Committees of Correspondence 

Passing over some of the proceedings of the county committee and 
other bodies, that are sufficiently adverted to elsewhere, the attention of 
the reader is now directed to the proceedings of the county "Congress" 
of July and November, 1775. "The county Congress again met at 
Westminster on the 26th of July, 1775, and authorized Major (after- 
ward Colonel) William Williams to act for both of the delegates of the 
county in the New York Provincial Congress ; and he was permitted to 
do so, casting the two votes of the county. In August the Province 
was divided into military districts and the counties of Charlotte, Cum- 
berland, and Gloucester were embraced in one brigade. On the 4th of 
November, a new election of deputies having been ordered, the Provin- 
cial Congress was dissolved. On the 21st the county 'Congress' met 
once more at Westminster, and proceeded first as a ' Congress ' to elect 
deputies, and then as a ' Committee of Safety ' to nominate militia of- 

"Congress and Committee of Safety, November 21, 1775. May it 
please your Honour : We, the Committee of Safety for this County, have 
proceeded in the election of Deputies, pursuant to the resolves of the 
honourable Congress for the Colony of New York, of October 18, 1775 : 
And this certifies that Major William Williams and Doctor Paul Spooner 
are chosen by this County to represent the people thereof in the hon- 
ourable Provincial Congress at the city of New York. Also, we, the 
Committee of Safety for this County, have presumed to nominate Col- 
onel James Rogers to be the Brigadier for Cumberland, Gloucester, and 
Charlotte Brigade. 

52 History of Windsor County. 

" Moreover, according to the directions of the honourable Provincial 
Congress of New York, (as are transmitted to us) per our Delegate, Ma- 
jor Williams, we have recommended that the following gentlemen, be- 
longing to this County, be speedily commissioned by said Congress, viz.: 
Lower regiments in the County : Major William Williams, first Colonel; 
Major Jonathan Hunt, second Colonel; Lieutenant John Norton, first 
Major; Oliver Lovell, second Major ; Arad Hunt, Adjutant ; and Sam- 
uel Fletcher, Quartermaster. 

" Upper Regiment : Captain Joseph Marsh, first Colonel ; Captain 
John Barrett, second Colonel ; Lieutenant Hilkiah Grout, first Major ; 
Captain Joel Mathews, second Major; Timothy Spencer, Adjutant; 
Amos Robinson, Quartermaster. 

" Regiment of Minute Men : Captain Joab Hoisington, first Colonel ; 
Seth Smith, second Colonel ; Joseph Tyler, first Major ; Joel Marsh, 
second Major; Timothy Phelps, Adjutant ; Elish Havvley, Quartermas- 
ter. " The nominations of the above officers, except those for the lower 
regiment, were confirmed in January, 1776. Concerning the selection 
of officers for the accepted regiment it was urged that the meeting of 
the Committee of Safety was poorly attended, and that the selections 
made did not meet with general approbation. To remedy this a well at- 
tended meeting of the committee was held February i, 1776, and the 
following officers agreed upon : "Major William Williams, first Colonel; 
Benjamin Carpenter, second Colonel ; Oliver Lovell, first Major ; Abijah 
Lovejoy, second Major; Samuel Minott, junior, Adjutant; Samuel 
Fletcher, Quartermaster." 

"On the 22d of May, 1776, three committee men from each of the 
counties of Cumberland and Gloucester met at Windsor, in response to 
a circular issued to the Committees of Safety of these counties and the 
county of Charlotte. The latter was not represented when the commit- 
tees (six persons) for the other counties proceeded to nominate Jacob 
Bayley, of Newbury, for Brigadier-General, and Colonel Simon Stevens, 
of Springfield, for Brigade- Major, of which a return was made to the 
New York Provincial Congress by Colonel Joseph Marsh of Hartford, 
who was one of the Cumberland county committee. On the 7th of 
June, 1776, the Provincial Congress assigned one hundred and twenty - 
five men to Cumberland county and seventy -five men to Gloucester as 

Meeting at Westminster. 53 

the quota of each towards three thousand men to be raised by the prov- 
ince for continental service; and the miHtia of these counties having 
been formed into a brigade, the nominations of Brigadier- General Bay- 
ley and Brigadier-Major Stevens were confirmed on the 1st of August.'' 

Extracts ^ from the Journal of the Cumberland County Committee of 
Safety: " Meeting at Westminster, June 11-13, 1776. Towns repre- 
sented as follows : Hinsdale (Vernon), John Bridgman, Esq., Arad Hunt; 
Brattleborough, Israel Smith, John Sergeant ; Gillford, Israel Gurley^ 
Samuel Nichols; Marlborough, Jonathan Warren; Newfane, Luke 
Knoulton, Esq.; Townsend, Joseph Tyler, Samuel Fletcher; Fullom 
(Fulham-Dummerston), Joseph Hildrith, Ebenezer Haven; Putney, 
Captain James Clay, Lucas Willson; Draper (Wilmington), Elijah Al- 
vord, John Gibbs ; Westminster, John Norton, Elkanah Day ; Rocking- 
ham, William Simons, Ebenezer Fuller; Chester, John Chandler, Esq., 
Captain George Earl ; Kent (Londonderry), Captain Edward Aiken ; 
Springfield, Simon Stevens, Jerath'l Powers ; Windsor, Ebenezer Hois- 
ington, Eben'r Curtis; Weathersfield, Israel Burlingame, William Up- 
ham ; Hertford (Hartland), Jonathan Burk. 

"6thly. Voted it is the Opinion of this Body that all Persons wereing 
the Edition (additions to their names, or title,) of Gentlemen by former 
Commissions to be exempted from military training. 

"lOthly. Took under Consideration a Complaint Exhibited by Will- 
iam Taggart against Nathaniel Bennet Touching sd Bennet's abuseing 
sd Taggart's wife, 20 Members being present, resolved that the sd Ben- 
net be Committed To Frisson, — there Holden till further Orders of this 

" 15th. Voted to recommend to the Capt's of several Companys of 
Militia in the respective Towns in this County to as soon as possible 
make return of their minutemen to Mr. Lucas Wilson & Ebenezer Hois- 
ington, who are appointed by the rest of tlieir Brethren, viz., Arad Hunt, 
Israel Smith, Joseph Hildreth, Lucas Willson, John Norton, Wm. Si- 
mons, Sam'el Fletcher, Being Choose a Committee, & Impowered by 
this Body to se the minute-men Properly Imbodyed in Companys, & 
Lead them to a choice of Officers in the several Companys when so 
Formed according to the rules and orders for regulating the Milition, & 

' From the " Pingry Papers." 

54 History of Windsor County. 

to make return to this County Committee — and Likewise Choose Eben'r 
Horsington, Simon Stevens, Esqr., Jonathan Burk, Israel Burlingames 
& Eben'r Curtis, to Inspect the Uper Regiment in their proceedings as 
above directed." 

From the meeting of June 22 : "Voted that we recommend to the 
Commanding officers of each Regiment in this County do meet one of 
Each of the Sub-Committees in the several Towns in the County at the 
respective Times & places following, namely, the Commanding (officer) 
of the Lower Regement & one Sub- Committeeman of Each Town in 
the same regement do meet at Capt. Sergants in Brattleborough on 
thirsday the 27th Ins't, at one o'clock in the afternoon, then & there to 
appoint one Cap't, Two Lieuts, of such men as they shall think most 
suitable to go into the service of their Country, & Let them see if they 
Can Inlist a Company of men to go to Canady — and the Commanden 
officer of the Upper regiment, together with one Sub- Committeeman 
from Each Town in the same regement, do meet at Windsor, at the 
Townhouse. On thirsday the 26th day ot this Ins't June, at one o'Clock 
in the afternoon, there to appoint One Capt, Two Lieuts, of such men 
as they shall think best for their Cuntrys service, & Let them se if they 
can Inlist a Company of men to go to Canady ; & those officers so ap- 
pointed Make return to the Chairman of the County Committee, of the 
Number they Inlist, at or Before the i6th day of July next." 

On the 6th of August, 1776, the committees of Cumberland and 
Gloucester counties held a joint meeting at Windsor. From the pro- 
ceedings then had the following extracts are made : 

" The Committee of the County of Cumberland In Conjunction with 
the Committee for the County of Gloucester, meet at Windsor Town- 
house in Order to appoint Officers, such as Capt's, Lieuts, &c., for a 
Ranging Department granted by the Provincial Congress at N. York, 
viz., 252 Out of the Counties of Cumberland & Gloucester, to the Com- 
mand of Which they have Appointed & Commissioned Mr. Joab Hos- 
ington (Hoisington) Major. 

" FollowingMembers Being Present, Formed into a body & Proceeded 
to Business: Capt. James Clay, Elkanah Day, Eben'r Fuller, Jon'a 
Burk, Israel Burllingame, Capt. Curtis, Ebenr Hosington, Mr. Upham, 
Col. Kent, Mr. Tylden, Lieut Strong, Benja. Emmons, Lieut Powers. 
Choose Capt. Clay, Chairman, and Dr. Elkanah Day, Clerk. 

Meeting at Windsor. 55 

" 1st. Agreed to appoint 3 Capts. & 4 Lieuts in the County of Cum- 
berland, and one Capt. & 4 Lieuts in the County of Gloucester. 

"2d. Proceeded to Chuse the Officers for Cumberland County. ist 
Appointed Benjamin Wait of Windsor ye it Capt. in the above Depart- 
ment. Elisha Hawley it & Zebelon Lyon (2d) his Lieuts. 

" 3dly. Appointed Maj'r Joel Marsh, Capt. in sd Department. 

"4ly. Appointed Capt Samuel Fletcher of Townsend a Capt; Ben- 
jamin Whitney of Westminster ist Lieut. 

"5thly. Voted to Chuse a Committee, & Accordingly Choose Thomas 
Hazen, Stephen Tylden, Lieut. Strong, J. Winchester Deny (Dana) to 
join the Committee of Glouster County to appoint their proportion 
of Officers for the above Arangement, Viz. i Capt. & 4 Lieuts, and to 
meet at Abner Chamberlains in Thetford Next Tuesday at 10 o'clock 
Beforenoon & to appoint a Capt. In sted of Maj. Marsh in Case he re- 
fuse — also appointed Colo. Kent to manage sd meeting & make proper 
return to New York, signd by the Charman. 

" 6thly. Voted that the sub-committees of the several Towns in this 
County to se the Association Containd in the Late Handbill from N. 
York is Universally subscribed to & the Refusers to sign Proceeded with 
According to sd Handbill." 

The officers mentioned in the above statement from the records were 
not those that were finally chosen and commissioned. Those who 
eventually became captains, first and second lieutenants of the several 
companies, the whole being commanded by Major Joab Hoisington, 
were as follows : Captains, Benjamin Wait, John Strong, Joseph Hatch 
and Abner Seelye; first lieutenants, Elisha Hawley, Eldad Benton, Si- 
mon Stevens, Benjamin Whitney ; second lieutenants, Zebulon Lyons, 
John Barnes, Amos Chamberlain, Jehial Robbins. 

The reader cannot fail to observe, in perusing the pages of this chap- 
ter thus far, that in all the proceedings of the Committees of Safety 
there seems to have been no other recognized authority over this region 
than that of the province of New York. In all their proceedings, both 
civil and military, the committees seem to have asked for and acted 
upon the advice only of New York, notwithstanding the influence of the 
leaders on the other side of the mountains, and even after the independ 
ence of Vermont had been declared there was for some time no appar- 

56 History of Windsor County. 

ent recognition of that fact on the part of those who seemed to be the 
controUing spirits or leaders on the east side of the mountains. But, 
notwithstanding that, there was an element of the population, and a 
strong one, too, that was heart and soul in league with the Green Mount- 
ain Boys, in seeking to free the district from any allegiance to New 
York, but this was a quiet yet constantly increasing class, who saw diffi- 
culties in the way of overcoming the sentiments of the opposing people 
by harsh or rude measures. Still in their peculiar way they were grad- 
ually accomplishing their sought- for end. New York knew and felt 
this, and although she made every possible effort, through her adher- 
ents here and emissaries sent for the purpose, to stem the tide of pop- 
ular sentiment was impossible; the new State had been established and 
its permanency was certain from the very first, although it was a long 
time before the Federal government recognized it as a power, and 
equally long before New York finally consented to yield her claims to 
jurisdiction therein. One by one the leaders of the hitherto prevailing 
party, those favorable to New York, dropped from the meetings of the 
committee and allied themselves to the cause of the new State advo- 
cates. This became apparent to the New Yorkers, and they asked the 
committee of Cumberland county the cause of it. The reply is best 
stated by quoting from the report of a conmiittee: "To make a true rep- 
resentation of the broken state of the inhabitants of the county of Cum- 
berland, and assign some reasons why the county committee did not 
proceed agreeable to the resolves of the convention of the State of New 
York in respect to their choosing governor and Delegates to send to 

The report says : " We therefore the committee of the county of Cum- 
berland, and others specially appointed by the towns of Weathersfield, 
Westminster, Putney, Brattleborough, Hinsdale, and part of Guilford 
for said purposes, do represent as follows, viz.: That the convention 
held at Windsor on the fourth day of June, instant, for the purpose of 
establishing then (the) new State of Vermont, have taken into their pos- 
session the prison of this county, and have strictly forbid all committees 
acting under the authority of the State of New York ; so that it is be- 
come impracticable for the county committee or any other committee 
to proceed to any public business in this county ; and that several pris- 

Internal Dissensions. 


oners now in prison in the county, who might have been set at liberty, 
agreeable to the resolves of the convention of the State of New York, 
are still kept in prison in the most pitiful circumstances, and are so like 
to continue — and that the pubHc peace is in so far interrupted by the 
proceeding of this convention at Windsor, and those disorderly persons 
who are so warmly engaged in supporting the illegal authority of their 
new State, that it hath already considerably hindered the raising of men 
for the common defense. And we think we have reason to believe that 
if a stop is not speedily put to this spirit of disorder which rages so 
vehemently here that a final period will soon be put to any further pro- 
vision being made in this county for the common defense of America. 

"We further represent that a considerable number of the people 
in this County, who are as warmly engaged in setting up their new 
State, have not any or but little property which they can claim under 
any grant whatever ; and that we really believe that the leaders of the 
people who are for the new State in this county, are pursuing that which 
they esteem their private interest, and prefer that to the public weal of 
America ; and that they are determined to support the authority of 
their new State at all events ; and we really believe that without the 
interposition of the honorable Continental Congress, they will never 
submit to the authority of the State of New York until obliged so to do 
it by the sword. 

" And we do hereby solemnly declare that we entirely disapprove of 
the proceeding of the late convention at Windsor, and of all other per- 
sons whatever acting under authority of said convention ; and that we 
will at all times do our best endeavor to support the legal authority in 
the State of New York in this County." 

This document was duly signed by the few members constituting the 
committee on the 26th day of June, 1777, and forwarded by messengers 
to the New York convention. 

At the next meeting of the committee but seven towns were repre- 
sented. By this time popular feeling in favor of the new State was largely 
in the ascendency, and those who remained faithful to the New York 
rule were beginning to be looked upon as guilty of "enimical " conduct, 
and so at any time liable to the "misfortunes" that overtook that class 
of persons on the west side of the State. They still had, however, sufifi- 

58 History of Windsor County. 

cient courage to continue their meetings, although these were conducted 
with some privacy. The influence of New York was still felt in the 
county, but it was seldom rampant. 

At the meeting held at Westminster, September 3, 1777, this resolu- 
tion was ofifered : 

"That this committee send some suitable person to the convention or 
legislature of the State of New York, to inform them of the conduct of 
the pretended Council of Safety and pretended Committees of the State 
of Vermont, and take their advice and direction thereon, but there be- 
ing four members against the motion, we could not obtain any vote of 
that- nature." 

At this time there were no less than twenty-two towns, and perhaps 
more, entitled to representation in the Cumberland county committee 
meetings, but at the meeting above referred to at Westminster only seven 
towns were represented, and of these four members voted against inform- 
ing New York of the proceedings had by the friends of the Green Mount- 
ain Boys. And about this time the subject was receiving some atten- 
tion in town meetings, whether the people should longer act under the 
New York authority. On the 20th of May, 1777, the freemen of the 
town of Windsor at the annual meeting voted, " by a great majority," 
that they would not proceed to act according to the orders from the 
State of New York. And the freemen of Townshend, in their instructions 
to Major Joseph Tyler, said: "That you do not act with the County 
Committee of the county of Cumberland agreeable to the new constitu- 
tion of the State of New York, because it is our opinion that we do not 
belong to the jurisdiction of that State," etc. 

Other towns took similar action, of which no record is to be found. 
From all of these it will readily be observed that the influence in favor of 
the new State was rapidly increasing, while the power of the State of New 
York was proportionately diminishing. But it was a considerable time 
further off before the latter was fully wiped out ; in fact, it was not" until 
the separate independence of Vermont had been recognized by the 
United States Congress that all antagonism to her Statehood was finally 
extinguished. In the year 1 779, when Vermont had practically com- 
pleted her internal organization, and was administering her own affairs, 
as well as possible in face of the New York and Congressional opposi- 

Ethan Allen in Cumberland County. 59 

tion, it became necessary for the Governor and Council to send an armed 
force, commanded by Ethan Allen, to subdue the opposing element ex- 
isting in some of the towns of Cumberland county. That Allen did all 
that was required of him there is no possible doubt, but that he was 
severe as the following letter from Samuel Minott, as chairman of the 
Cumberland County Committee of Safety, to General Clinton, of New 
York, would seem to imply, is a question of considerable doubt. The 
letter only shows the contrary and prejudiced side of the question, and 
is as follows : 

"Sir. — The committee of this county who are now meet for the pur- 
pose of opposing the authority of the State of Vermont, take this oppor- 
tunity to inform your Excellency by express, that Colonel Ethan Allen, 
with a number of Green Mountain Boys, made his appearance in this 
county yesterday, well armed and cquipt, for the purpose of reducing the 
loyal inhabitants of this county to submission to the authority of the 
State of Vermont, and made prisoners of Colonel (Eleazer) Patterson, 
Lieutenant Colonel (John) Sargeant, and all the militia officers except 
one in Brattleboro, with Mr. (Micah) Townsend and a number of other 
persons. They have also taken the militia officers in Putney and West- 
minster with others ; the number of prisoners we cannot ascertain. Col- 
onel Allen declared that he had five hundred Green Mountain Boys with 
him— we are not able to ascertain the number, but believe there is not 
quite so many who are come from the west side of the mountains; they 
are assisted by a number of the inhabitants of this county. Where they 
will carry the prisoners we cannot tell. Colonel Allen treated the peo- 
ple here with the most insulting language, assaulted and wounded sev- 
eral persons with his sword without the least provocation, and bids defi- 
ance to the State of New York; declares they will establish their State by 
the sword and fight all who attempt to oppose them. Nothing but the 
reluctance the people here have to shedding human blood could hinder 
them from attempting the prisoners' rescue — they had every insult which 
human mind is able to conceive of to prompt them to it. Our situation 
is truly critical and distressing; we therefore most humbly beseech your 
excellency to take the most speedy and efficient measures for our relief; 
otherwise our persons and property must be at the disposal of Ethan 
Allen, which is more to be dreaded than death with all its terrors." 

6o History of Windsor County. 

The truth of the whole matter was that many of the people of Cum- 
berland county were not only covertly but openly opposing the authority 
of Vermont. On the 22d of April previously the board of war had or- 
dered a draft of men to re- enforce the mihtary on the frontier, a portion of 
whom were to be drawn from Cumberland county. At that time there 
was a well organized mihtia in the county, and William Patterson held 
a colonel's commission from New York to command them. This officer 
directed that the Vermont draft of men from his county be resisted, 
whereupon Governor Chittenden sent Allen with a strong armed force to 
arrest the interfering officers. This was promptly done, and those taken 
into custody were indicted, tried, convicted and fined. 

It was probably true that Allen represented his force to be at least all 
that it was, for he was not the man to underestimate his own or his 
State's power and strength ; but it is hardly true that he had with him 
five hundred Green Mountain Boys, as that organization at its greatest 
never numbered to exceed three hundred and fifty. It may be, how- 
ever, that the strength of his command was augmented by accessions on 
this side of the mountains, for many did join his force, and that the ag- 
gregate of his following was five hundred. Governor Chittenden ordered 
Allen to take a force of one hundred men to do the business. 

Chairman Minott also says in his letter that the persons and property 
of the friends of New York are at the disposal of Allen, "which is more 
to be dreaded than death with all its terrors." These words convey to 
the reader something of the feelings of fear that these New York sym- 
pathizers must have had for the leader of the Green Mountain Boys ; and 
it may well be asked : " Would the independence of Vermont ever have 
been an accomplished fact without the bold, determined action such as 
was always displayed by Ethan Allen and his equally brave associates?" 

The Beginning of the Revolution. 6i 


The Period of the Revolutionary War — The Cause of the People on the Grants Be- 
comes United — Allen's Exploits at Ticonderoga and on Lake Champlain— Singular Sit- 
uation of Vermont— Military Organizations Formed at the Dorset Convention — Seth 
Warner elected Colonel— The Rangers Organized East of the Mountains — New York 
Authority Prevails — First Convention at Windsor — Battles at Hubbardton and Ben- 
nington— Toryism in Cumberland County— President Chittenden's Proclamation — ^The 
Council of Safety — Effect of Burgoyne's Surrender— Exposed Condition of the Vermont 
Frontier — The Haldimand Correspondence — Negotiations with Canada - Their Effect 
Upon Vermont and the County — Indian Depredations — Attack Upon Barnard — Burn- 
ing of Royalton. 

A preceding chapter has narrated the leading events of the civil his- 
tory of the district or territory commonly known as the New Hamp- 
shire Grants, and has brought the record through that period of its exist- 
ence down to the time of the declaration of independence on the part of 
Vermont, the adoption of a State constitution, and to the time that the 
State under the new dispensation or administration by the Governor and 
Council and the General Assembly was about to commence. It is there- 
fore proper that the present chapter should be devoted to a record of 
some of the military experiences of the district; and inasmuch as this 
branch of local affairs of the district required as much watchful attention 
on the part of the district leaders and officers as did its civil affairs, the 
chapter becomes an important as well as an interesting one. 

The reader will remember that it was about the time of and soon after 
the unfortunate massacre at Westminster, in the county of Cumberland, 
that the cause of the people of the grants became a united one, and that 
it was then determined by a part of the residents of Cumberland county 
to throw off any and all further allegiance to the province of New York. 
The feelings of the settlers were then aroused to such a high pitch of ex- 
citement that the followers of New York then in the vicinity were alarmed 
for their personal safety, although no hostile demonstrations had been 
made against them. But suddenly there came the news that the intrepid 
Allen, with his then famous band of Green Mountain Boys, had surprised 
and captured Ticonderoga, "/« the name of the Great Jehovah and the 
Continental Coigress." This capture occurred on the loth day of May, 

62 History of Windsor County. 

1775, the month following that in which the war of the Revolution was 
actually and earnestly commenced by the battle at Lexington. 

At the time these events occurred the district of New Hampshire 
Grants occupied the somewhat singular position of having neither civil 
nor military government, except that furnished by the local town organ- 
izations and the Green Mountain Boys. The latter did not, however, as- 
sume to control or regulate the affairs of settlers on the grants, but did 
aim to defend the entire district against the designing authorities of New 
York as well as against the Tory residents within the limits of the dis- 
trict. Immediately following Allen's achievement at Ticonderoga, Seth 
Warner set out on an expedition against the neighboring British out- 
posts, and succeeded in capturing Crown Point and Skenesborough 
Then followed the joint expedition of the commanders Allen and Arnold, 
which resulted in the capture of the entire British fleet on Lake Cham- 
plain, so that when the Continental Congress was prepared to send an 
army to protect that region of country, August, 1775, the strongholds 
of the lake were already in control of Americans, and no strong oppos- 
ing force of British was stationed south of the Canada line. 

But it soon became necessary to have some kind of civil and military 
government for the settlers on the grants, and for that purpose the Dor- 
set convention of July 26, 1775, was called; and the result of that con- 
vention was the perfect organization of a regiment of seven companies, 
of which Seth Warner was elected colonel, and Samuel Safibrd, major. 
None of the companies, however, of Seth Warner's regiment were from 
the towns east of the mountains, although it is probable that some of the 
company members may have been from this side. It may have been as 
an explanation of this that the towns east of the mountains had not yet 
received an invitation to join with those of the west side in convention, 
nor were they so invited until the latter part of July, 1776. But a bat- 
talion of militia, Rangers they were called, was already raised in the 
towns east of the mountains, and on the 13th of August a convention was 
held at Thetford for the purpose of nominating the Gloucester county 
quota of its officers. This was done under the authority of New York. 

There was not, however, the greatest possible unanimity of feeling be- 
tween the people east and west of the mountains. In Cumberland and 
Gloucester counties the officers and magistrates were still friendly to the 

Advance of the British. 63 

New York interests, although many of the people of the towns were pro- 
nounced against that province. The officers were considered as, and in 
fact were, representing New York, and the towns were allowed repre- 
sentation in the congress of that province. But the convention at West- 
minster held in January, 1777, through a sub-committee, of which Eb- 
enezer Hoisington was chairman, requested the persons representing the 
eastern counties in the New York Congress to at once withdraw their 
membership therein. Colonel Joseph Marsh, Deacon John Sessions and 
Simeon Stevens were the persons upon whom this request was made. 
They were not elected by the people, but were appointed by the Cum- 
berland County Committee of Safety, which was organized and controlled 
in the New York interest. These things being so, it could not be sur- 
prising that the determined settlers west of the mountains had not the 
fullest confidence in those on the east side, at least while this divided 
c )ndition of sentiment and affiliation e.Kisted. Still later than the above 
the county of Cumberland was represented in New York in the years 
1779 and 1784. 

It was at the time of the convention at Windsor, in July, 1777, while 
the members were deliberating over the provisions of the constitution, 
that there was received by them the unwelcome news of the evacuation 
of Ticonderoga. and other posts on Lake Champlain, by the Americans, 
and of their occupation and the threatened invasion of Vermont by the 
army of General Burgoyne. Prior to this the convention had been ap- 
prised of Burgoyne's approach upon the forts, but, through what was 
thought to be timely exertions, it was hoped that the onward march of 
the British would be checked. In this, however, the people were dis 
appointed; Ticonderoga had fallen and the whole frontier of the new 
State was exposed to the ravages of the British and their savage Indian 
allies. This it was that compelled the convention to so hastily conclude 
their session after having passed the State control into the hands of the 
Council of Safety. 

During the year 1777 the Council of Safety was in almost continuous 
session from and after the middle of August, the greater portion of the 
time at Bennington. The retreat of the American army from Ticonder- 
oga and surrounding posts, the rendezvous and subsequent battle at Hub- 
bardton, and the final reassembling of scattered forces at Manchester, to- 

64 History of Windsor County. 

gether with the slow but steady approach of Burgoyne's army down the 
v^alley of Lake Champlain and the Hudson River, had the effect of keep- 
ing the entire people of Vermont in a state of constant excitement and 
serious concern for the safety of their lives and property. These stirring 
events in the region also had the effect of alienating many of the settlers 
from the cause for which Americans were contending, and, furthermore, 
imposed upon the council and the committees of the several towns an 
additional burden in providing defensive measures for the State and keep- 
ing in subjection and punishing Tory offenders. At Bennington there 
had been gathered a large quantity of ammunition and military stores and 
supplies, which fact having come to the knowledge of General Burgoyne, 
he at once set about gaining possession of them, his army being in press- 
ing need of provisions. For this object he sent Colonel Baum with a 
strong force to make the capture. But the council was informed of the 
British commander's intentions, and every possible effort was made to 
meet the expected attack. Not having at command a sufficient force to 
repel an invasion, the States of New Hampshire and Massachusetts were 
called upon to lend aid to Vermont in her extremity. This appeal met 
with a generous response, New Hampshire sending General John Stark 
and a strong force of State militia to aid the distressed people, while Mas- 
sachusetts likewise furnished a well equipped body of men for the same 
cause. Without narrating in detail the important events that followed, 
suffice to say that the combined forces of Americans met the British on 
the i6th of August, 1777, and, after a severe battle of several hours dur- 
ation, routed and put them to flight 

This has always been known as the "Battle of Bennington," although 
it was fought on what was then and is now the soil of New York State. 

That Toryism was rampant on the east as well as on the west side of 
the mountains will be seen from the following order addressed to the 
Committee of Safety of Windsor, by President Thomas Chittenden, on 
the 27th of August, 1777 : "Gentlemen. — All such persons as you shall 
have sufficent evidence against on Tryal as to prove them so far Enemies 
to the Liberties of America as to be dangerous persons to go at Large 
you will send to Westminster Goal, and put them in close confinement. 
If you send any prisoners to said Goal, you will send a proper Guard^ 
provided it should happen before any prisoners or Guards should be 
sent from this." 

Surrender of Burgoyne. 65 

During the year 1777, after the adjournment of the Windsor conven- 
tion of July of that year, the Council of Safety was so constantly occu- 
pied with the affairs and occurrences that transpired on the west side of 
the mountains, that they found but very little time to devote to that part 
of the State on the east side, except by the issue of an occasional order; 
so that the administration of affairs in this region was left to the commit- 
tees of safety of the counties and towns, while the military operations of 
the locality were under the direction of the colonels of militia regiments, 
notably the commands of Colonels Peter Olcutt and Joseph Marsh. 

The first session of the General Assembly, and the Governor and 
Council, under the provisions of the State constitution, was commenced 
at Windsor on the 13th of March, 1778, and after the formalities of 
organization were concluded the respective bodies at once proceeded to 
discharge the duties imposed upon them. But most of the business then 
transacted related to the civil branch of government, and needs no recital 
here. The session was ended March 26, 1778. 

Among the acts of Assembly at Windsor was one that provided for 
raising regiments of militia on each side of the mountains. On the east 
side one regiment was to be raised from the towns that extended north 
to the south lines of Tomlinson, Rockingham and Kent ; and the second 
regiment was to extend north to the south line of Norwich ; and the third 
to the Canada line. 

This organization of militia forces in the new State of Vermont became 
necessary to defend the frontier against possible invasion by the British 
and Indians. After the decisive battle of Bennington, Burgoyne and 
his army lay in camp at Stillwater, opposite Saratoga, awaiting supplies 
and re- enforcements that had been promised him, but which were much 
delayed in arrival; and it became apparent that he must act, and that 
quickly, for his forces were gradually diminishing in number. Here his 
army remained until the 19th of September, when an engagement was 
had with the Americans, but without decisive victory for either side, the 
advantage, however, being in favor of the latter. Again, on the 7th of 
October, the two armies met, and this time the British were badly 
beaten. This was followed, on the 17th of the same month, by the sur- 
render of Burgoyne's entire army to the Americans. 

This surrender practically ended the war so far as the legion of Ver- 

66 History of Windsor County. 

mont was concerned. However, it was found necessary for the new 
State to maintain a defensive attitude for the protection of her frontiers 
against the hostile Indians in the northern regions and the few British 
troops in the vicinity of Canada. But soon was the new State destined 
to receive immunity from British depredations through the acumen of 
her leaders, for in the year 1780 she entered a period of practical armis- 
tice while the somewhat celebrated "Negotiations with Canada" were 
being carried forward. These proceedings have always been known and 
designated as the " Haldimand Correspondence," and were kept up until 
the war was virtually ended. 

But while the secret negotiations were in their incipient stage, and 
before any actual or constructive armistice had been established, there 
occurred two events of very great importance to the region of Windsor 
county, the only ones on record of their kind in the county during the 
period of the early wars, and those known as the Indian attacks upon 
the towns of Barnard and Royalton, the latter one of the northern tier 
of towns in what afterward became a part of the county of Windsor, and 
the former immediately south of it. During this period Indian inva- 
sions and depredations were not of infrequent occurrence, but prior to 
the events hereafter narrated no incursions are known to have been 
made in this region. 

The plundering and burning of Royalton occurred during the month 
of October of the year 1780. and seems to have been an expedition en- 
tirely distinct from that which resulted in the capture at Barnard. And 
it seems, too, that the objective point on the last raid was Newbury, 
one of the northeastern towns of the present county of Orange. On this 
occasion not only Indians, but British soldiers as well, comprised the at- 
tacking party, and the chief object of their expedition was to capture an . 
officer, Lieutenant Whitcomb, who was alleged to have killed and robbed 
a British officer of some prominence. On journejnng toward Newbury 
the attacking party met several hunters, and by the latter was informed 
that the town was well protected by an armed force. This intelligence 
induced them to proceed to Royalton, a place in the interior and less 
strongly protected. They reached Tunbridge on Sunday, the 15th of 
October, where they remained until tlie next morning, at which time the 
attack was made. Says "Thompson's Vermont": "Tiiey commenced 

Attack on Royalton. e'j 

their depredations at the house of Mr. John Hutchinson, who hved near 
the Hne between Tunbridge and Royalton. After making Mr. Hutch- 
inson and his brother Abijah prisoners, they proceeded to the house of 
Mr. Robert Havens, where they killed Thomas Pemberand Elias Button. 
They then went to the house of Joseph Kneeland, took him and his 
father, and Simeon Belknap, Giles Gibbs and Jonathan Brown. Pro- 
ceeding thence to the house of Mr. Elias Curtis, they made him and 
John Kent and Peter Mason prisoners." 

"Thus far," continues the account, "the business was conducted with 
the greatest silence, and the prisoners were forbid making any outcry 
upon pain of death. They at length arrived at the mouth of the branch, 
White River, where they made a stand, while small parties proceeded 
in different directions to plunder the dwellings and bring in prisoners. 
One party extended its ravages down into Sharon, took two piisoners 
and burnt several houses and barns. Another proceeded up the river, 
made prisoner of David Waller, a lad who lived with General Stevens, 
plundered and set fire to the General's house, and advanced in that di- 
rection about three miles, killing the cattle and plundering and setting 
fire to the buildings as they passed." The result of this invasion to the 
Indians was the killing of two and the capture of about twenty-five pris- 
oners, the burning of some forty houses and barns, and the killing of one 
hundred and fifty head of cattle and a still greater number of swine and 
sheep, and that without any loss to the invaders. The news of this un- 
expected and wanton attack having spread through the neighboring set- 
tlements, an armed force was quickly collected to pursue the now retir- 
ing British and Indians. Captain John House commanded the pursuing 
party and succeeded in overtaking the foe, upon whom an attack was at 
once begun ; but the Indians, after having recovered from their tempo- 
rary confusion, sent an aged prisoner to Captain House, informing him 
that if the Indians were attacked every white prisoner in their power 
would be murdered, and that two had already been killed, one to avenge 
the death of an Indian slain by House's first fire, and another because he 
would not march. While House and his party were considering the 
best course to pursue the Indians began a retreat to Randolph, when 
they took another prisoner, and then proceeded to the Winooski River, 
and thence to Canada. The captives, with the exception of one who died 

68 History of Windsor County. 

in Canada, were held until the summer of 1781, and were then released 
and returned to their homes. 

Other towns than those mentioned, both east and west of the mount- 
ains, likewise suffered from similar Indian depredations, but those above 
mentioned are believed to have been the only ones of that character oc- 
curring in the county of Windsor.^ 

It has already been stated in this chapter that upon the final surrender 
of General Burgoyne and the British at Saratoga, the people of Vermont 
were granted comparative immunity from British attacks. That surren- 
der substantially ended the war so far as the locality was concerned, but 
the withdrawal of the American army from the vicinity of the Hudson 
River above Albany left the Vermont frontier at the mercy of an invad- 
ing army that might approach from the region of Lake Champlain and 
the Canadas, except for the defense that could be made by the scattered 
forces of Vermont militia. But, fortunately perhaps, for the people of 
Vermont their unprotected condition at that period worked to their ulti- 
mate advantage. The State had absolutely refused allegiance to New 
York, and the probabilities of her separate existence being soon recog- 
nized by Congress were grieviously in doubt ; therefore, to the British 
leaders, it reasonably appeared that there could be but little interest on 
the part of the people of the new State in the cause for which the other 
States were contending against England. This led to what has been 
variously termed the Haldimand Correspondence and the Negotiations 
with Canada. By these proceedings the astute leaders in Vermont suc- 
ceeded not only in protecting their own frontiers from the ravages of the 
enemy, but also in keeping inactive for several campaigns a British army 
often thousand men; and the agents of Congress and the emissaries of 
Great Britain, both of whom were in Bennington while the subject of 
Vermont's action was being discussed at a session of the Legislature of 
the State, were entirely satisfied with the result of the proceedings, — the 
agents of Congress that Vermont had no intention of returning to alle- 
giance with Great Britian, and the British emissaries that Vermont in- 
tended to return to that allegiance. Hence both were satisfied, and both 

' A more full and particular account of the burning of Royalton will be found in the 
chapter relating to the history of that town, being there compiled from what is known 
as "Steele's Narrative." 

Vermont's Diplomacy. 69 

were thereby deceived. The State never intended to take up arms 
against her sister States, but she did intend to convince Congress of her 
power and, if possible, compel that body to then recognize her independ- 
ence. In this Vermont was but partially successful at that time, for 
Congress did not declare her to be a State until some years later. These 
proceedings, the correspondence and negotiations, were commenced by 
a letter from Colonel Beverly Robinson, an English officer, to Colonel 
Ethan Allen, which bore the date of March 30th, 1780; and they were 
not finally terminated until the spring of 1783. By the latter date the 
war was virtually at an end, although the treaty of peace was not form- 
ally signed until the following fall. By the treaty the power of Great 
Britain in the United States was terminated, and Vermont was at liberty 
to devote her attention to acquiring a separate existence, and was in no 
particular manner compromised by the course pursued by her leaders 
during the closing years of the war; for by that course the United States 
received as much substantial benefit as did Vermont, and many of the 
other States of the Union were sensible enough to admit that as a fact. 


The Controversy with New York Resumed— The Situation— Petition to Congress — 
Its Reception — Governor Clinton's Proclamation— Ethan Allen's Vindication of Ver- 
mont — New Hampshire Towns Seek a Union withVermont —The Union Effected — Pro- 
test by New York — Disaffection in Cumberland County — Withdrawal from the Vermont 
Legislature — Threatened Union with New Hampshire — The Union with New Hamp- 
shire Towns Dissolved — Congress Sends a Committee to Vermont — Unsatisfactory 
Results — Vermont's Appeal to the Candid and Impartial World — Agents Sent to 
Congress — Union with New Hampshire and New York Towns— Congress Takes Favor- 
able Action— General Washington's Letter— Conditions of Vermont's Independence 

The Eastern and Western Unions Dissolved — Compensation Made to New York — Ver- 
mont Admitted to the Union. 

WHEN, on the 4th day of July, 1776, Congress declared and pub- 
lished to the whole world the Independence of the American Col- 
onies, the people then living on the New Hampshire Grants were in a 

70 History of Windsor County. 

decidedly peculiar and embarrassing situation. They had then dis- 
claimed all connection with or allegiance to the State of New York, 
and were then in a condition of almost actual warfare against that State. 
Moreover, all connection with Massachusetts and New Hampshire had 
been severed. What, therefore, was the political character of the district 
comprised by the grants? It seems to have been an isolated and ungov- 
erned territory, not recognized by Congress as having an existence sep- 
arate from New York, and left, apparently, to shift for itself or return to 
the allegiance its inhabitants had refused. 

But, however much embarrassment this singular relation, or absence 
of relation, may have produced, it caused no consternation among the 
leaders of this determined people. In fact, the situation opened for them 
an avenue through which some of the more discerning leaders saw a sep- 
arate political existence, in the condition of Statehood, similar to that 
enjoyed by the other States, the results of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and why should they not benefit by the opportunity. The war 
was now in progress, and the district of the grants was for the time freed 
from New York oppression, thereby affording the people an opportunity 
to perfect their plans for the future. To this end the Dorset conventions 
•followed; and the final result of those, and other later like assemblages, 
was that in January, 1777, at Westminster, the independence of Ver- 
mont (as New Connecticut) was proclaimed to the land. Still later a 
State constitution was adopted and officers chosen in accordance there- 

This was all very well, but the Congress of States and the State of 
New York failed to ratify or approve of what had been done, and refused 
to recognize Vermont as a State of the Union or as a separate jurisdic- 
tion. And it is the purpose of this chapter briefly to refer to some of the 
leading events that transpired subsequent to the declaration of Vermont's 
independence and down to and including the time of her admission to the 
Union, in the year 1791. 

The first step taken by the people, through their representatives in con- 
vention, was the "Declaration and Petition of the Inhabitants of the New 
Hampshire Grants, to Congress, announcing the District to be a Free 
and Independent State." The petition set forth: "We humbly pray 
that the said declaration may be received, and the district described 

Vermont's Petition Rejected. 71 

therein be ranked by your honors among' the free and independent 
American States, and delegates therefrom be admitted to seats in the 
grand Continental Congress ; and your petitioners as in duty bound 
shall ever pray." 

This proceeding and the prayer of the petition was violently and indig- 
nantly opposed by the New Yorkers and their representatives in Con- 
gress; and it \vas this opposition, seconded by that of a few other States, 
that so long kept Vermont out of the Union. Congress had taken due 
notice of the declaration and petition, and had, even before that time, 
become cognizant of the fact that the district desired a separate govern- 
ment, but it was not until the 30th of June, 1777, that that body reached 
a decision concerning the subject, and that, disheartening and unsatis- 
factory to the people of Vermont, was to the effect that the prayer of the 
petitioners "be dismissed." 

The unwelcome news of the determination of Congress became known 
to the people of Vermont just prior to the convention at Windsor, July 
2, 1777; and whatever action may have been contemplated by that body 
was obliged to be postponed on account of the intelligence received con- 
cerning the abandonment of Ticonderoga and the approach of Burgoyne's 
army. This for several months delayed all political controversies, and 
turned the attention of all the people to measures for the defense of the 
State against the impending British invasion. But when the eventful 
campaigns of the season had ended and the winter had passed, the Coun- 
cil of Safety resumed the affairs of the civil government as though no 
untoward events had occurred. 

During the latter part of February, 1778, Governor Clinton, of New 
York, issued a proclamation, by which, through the apparently peaceful 
and reasonable terms offered, it was hoped that Vermont would cease 
further opposition to New York jurisdiction. But this measure proved 
of no avail. Vermont sought and demanded a separate existence, and 
that alone would pacify her people. In answer to Governor Clinton's 
proclamation there was, in August following, published Ethan Allen's 
celebrated "Vindication of Vermont." 

And the year 1778 also witnessed for the people of Vermont a proceed- 
ing theretofore unknown and one that created considerable comment both 
within and without the borders of the State. This was nothing- less than 

72 History of Windsor County. 

a petition to the Legislature on the part of sixteen towns east of the Con- 
njcticut River asking to be taken into union with the State of Vermont. 
The subject, although it may not have been a surprise to the legislative 
body of the Commonwealth, was, nevertheless, one that occasioned much 
discussion and still more embarrassment. To settle the question the mat- 
ter of the petition was submitted to a vote of the freemen of the several 
towns of the State ; and the result was that the towns, or a majority of 
them, voted in favor of the annexation. This was approved by the 
General Assembly at their meeting in June following, by a vote thirty- 
seven in the affirmative and twelve in the negative. 

Of course this proceeding met with an indignant protest from the gov- 
ernor of New Hampshire and many of the residents of that State ; and 
the result vvas that the governmental authorities of Vermont became in- 
volved in a controversy with New Hampshire on her east side, as well 
as with New York on the west. A number of somewhat pointed letters 
were exchanged, relating to this trouble, between the governors of the 
two States, Vermont and New Hampshire, but the difficulty was not set- 
tled by this means. The annexation measure progressed well enough 
for a time, but when the Legislature adopted resolutions looking to the 
division of the State into four counties, there seems to have developed 
much opposition on the part of a strong minority. This and other prop- 
ositions created great dissatisfaction, and the feeling became so strong 
that the minority withdrew from the Legislature and announced them- 
selves free from obligation to exercise any office or place, either legisla- 
tive, executive or judicial, in the State. 

This action proved not at all conducive to the welfare of the State, and 
it now seemed that the union with the New Hampshire towns was an un- 
fortunate one from out of which no great good could come. The matter 
became the subject of special inquiry and discussion at the Windsor ses- 
sion of the General Assembly in October, 1778, and a special election 
was then directed to be held in the towns in which the representatives 
had declined to act. But the malcontents were not disposed to end their 
proceedings by simply entering a protest and withdrawing from associa- 
tion with the State ; they held a meeting and arranged for a convention 
of delegates representing all the towns in the region of the Connecticut 
River. In accordance with this a meeting was held at Cornish, N. H., 

Controversy with New Hampshire. 73 

and adopted measures by which it was proposed to New Hampshire 
that they mutually agree upon a dividing line between that State and 
the grants; or, that they agree upon a court of commissioners, com- 
posed of members chosen from the three other New England States, to 
hear and determine the matter of the controversy ; or, that the whole 
question be referred to Congress for adjustment. And the fourth or 
final proposition was to the effect that if the controversy could not be 
settled by above named plans, " and in case we can agree with New 
Hampshire upon a plan of government, inclusive of extent of territory, 
that we unite with them, and become with them one entire State, re- 
jecting the arbitrary line drawn on the west bank of Connecticut River, 
by the King of Great Britain, in 1764." 

These proceedings certainly contained nothing comforting for the 
people who were devoted to the Vermont interests, for by them it was 
proposed not only to effect a dissolution of the union with towns east of 
the Connecticut, but there was the posibility that a number of those 
towns west of the river would separate themselves from Vermont and 
form a union with New Hampshire ; and any such dismemberment Ver- 
mont could not afford. But if the latter was at all justified in admitting 
the New Hampshire towns to membership in her own government, the 
retaliatory measures proposed above were equally justifiable. 

But the people of Vermont were by no means insensible of the mis- 
take, and immediately took effective means to remedy it as far as possi- 
ble. The matter came before the next February session of the General 
Assembly, and that body chose a committee to prepare a draft or bill 
relative to dissolving the union with the New Hampshire towns. The 
report of the committee, among other things, says : " And, whereas, 
your committee has just grounds to apprehend that the, said sixteen 
towns are, of right, included within the jurisdiction of New Hampshire; 
they are, therefore, of opinion that the said union ought to be consid- 
ered as being null, from the beginning." This report was accepted by 
the Assembly, and followed by a resolution by which the union with the 
New Hampshire towns was declared to be dissolved, and made totally 
void, null and extinct. 

It may be stated, by way of explanation, that the position taken by 
the inhabitants of the New Hampshire towns who sought annexation to 

74 History of Windsor County. 

Vermont was to the effect that they did not consider themselves as 
rightfully belonging to the jurisdiction of New Hampshire, and that the 
authorities thereof had no right to exercise control if the residents of 
the towns opposed it. This position was based upon the fact that the 
early surveys and grants did not include the territory of the towns that 
sought to be set off; and it was upon the questions raised by this matter 
that Governor Chittenden and President Weare conducted their argu- 
ment. The dissolution of the union of course terminated the contro- 
versy with New Hampshire. 

The amicable adjustment of the dispute between Vermont and New 
Hampshire by no means left the former State in a condition of absolute 
contentment, for there was still active her old enemy, the State of New 
York ; and that State seemed at that time to have many warm adher- 
ents east of the mountains, few if auy of whom willingly yielded to Ver- 
mont, but who were compelled by force of superior numbers to submit 
to it. But after the termination of the trouble with New Hampshire the 
disaffected inhabitants of Cumberland county were still less inclined 
than previously to submit to Vermont authority. They therefore 
assembled a convention at Brattleboro on the 4th of May, 1779, at 
which were present delegates from nine towns, among them being rep- 
resentatives from Springfield and Weathersfield of this county, and it 
was then determined to send a statement of their grievances to the gov- 
ernor of New York, in the hope of receiving substantial relief from that 
State. And about the same time there was raised in Cumberland county 
a military association for the purpose of resisting the authority of Ver- 
mont This was an act so hostile in its intent and purpose that Gov- 
ernor Chittenden could not overlook it ; and for the purpose of subdu- 
ing the rebellious subjects he dispatched Colonel Allen to arrest the 
offenders, the details of which event is sufficiently referred to in an ear- 
lier chapter. 

However much of affection the State of New York actually possessed 
for her constantly complaining subjects east of the mountains is uncer- 
tain, but her substantial assistance seemed to be confined to assurances 
of protection and much of what was considered sound advice. In reply 
to the latest petition for relief, that of the Brattleboro convention, 
the governor of New York further assured the faithful of his official pro- 

Controversy with New York. 75 

tection, and followed that by a letter to the president of Congress to the 
effect "that matters were fast approaching a very serious crisis, which 
nothing but the immediate interposition of Congress could possibly pre- 

On the 1st of June Congress did take cognizance of the matter of the 
complaint of Governor Clinton, and on the next day chose a committee 
consisting of Messrs. Ellsworth, Edwards, Witherspoon, Atlee and Root, 
to repair to the "New Hampshire Grants, and enquire into the reasons 
why they refuse to continue citizens of the respective States, which, 
heretofore, exercised jurisdiction over said district," etc. But soon after 
this Congress became informed of Allen's expedition to Cumberland 
county, and his arrest of Colonel Patterson and others, which caused 
that body (Congress) to pass another series of resolutions, being further 
instructions to the commission above named. 

In due time a part of the committee (less than a quorum) visited 
Bennington, held several conferences with friends of Vermont and New 
York, but accomplished nothing; then returned to Philadelphia and 
subsequently made a report, but upon that report no immediate action 
was taken. Congress did, however, on the 24th of September follow- 
ing, take action on the matter of the disputes between " the States of 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay (this State now having become in- 
volved) and New York, on the one part, and the people of a district of 
country, called the New Hampshire Grants (not recognizing even the 
name Vermont), on the other," etc.; and resolved that, on the ist day 
of February next (1780) "to hear and examine into the disputes and 
differences relative to jurisdiction between the said three States." These 
resolutions were subsequently amended. 

The authorities of Vermont were of course duly apprised of all that 
was transpiring in Congress, and in the three States named, concerning 
the right to jurisdiction over the territory of their State, and were adopt- 
ing such measures as were deemed necessary to protect their rights and 
position. To this end a committee of " agents," comprising Ethan Allen, 
Jonas Fay, Paul Spooner, Stephen R. Bradley and Moses Robinson, was 
chosen to attend upon Congress, "to vindicate their right to independ- 
ence, at that honorable board." 

During the interval betM'een the time of the appointment of the agents 

y6 History of Windsor County. 

and the next February, the date fixed by Congress, the State of Ver- 
mont was in a most unfortunate and unenviable position, and was, says 
a contemporaneous writer, " literally struggling for existence ; a struggle 
requiring the exercise of no ordinary wisdom and firmness. Happily 
for her, she possessed statesmen whose resources were equal to any 
emergency, and who would have done honor to any age or any country. 
They perfectly understood the ground on which rested the claim of Ver- 
mont to independence, and, even at the most trying periods, they were 
never betrayed into a single measure, evincing, in the slighest degree, a 
disposition to abandon it." 

During this critical state of affairs, on the loth of December, 1779, by 
the direction of the Governor and Council, there was published and 
freely circulated the celebrated" "Appeal to the Candid and Impartial 
World," written by Hon. Stephen Row Bradley, one of the agents 
chosen to represent the State at the meeting of Congress. 

When the first of February arrived it seems that Congress was not 
prepared to take any action regarding the differences between the States, 
and an adjournment or postponement was directed until the 21st of 
March following. But then, there not being the desired representation 
from nine States, a further postponement was ordered to the 2d of June. 
On this occasion a series of resolutions, condemning the action of Ver- 
mont, were offered, but no decisive action was taken. Again, on the 
9th of June, the matter was further discussed, and the second Tuesday 
in September fixed upon as the time when a final determination should 
be reached. After this several postponements of the hearing were had, 
and it was not until the 27th of September, 1780, that Congress took 
any action whatever, other than to delay matters ; and when reached 
the determination was altogether unsatisfactory, it being stated in a sin- 
gle brief resolution, " That the farther consideration of the subject be 

However anxious the people of Vermont may have been to have the 
difficulties finally adjusted, they received no consideration whatever from 
Congress. And the other States, too, seemed satisfied with delay, for 
by such tactics it was hoped that the Vermonters would tire of their op- 
position. Of course the war was in progress during this period, and 
Consress was busied with other matters that were considered of far 

Proposed Enlargement of Territory. 'j'j 

greater importance. And while the United States were actively engaged 
in aggressive and defensive mihtary operations, the Vermont authorities 
were entering upon their negotiations with Canada, by which they suc- 
ceeded in protecting their State from British invasion, and greatly aided 
the cause of America by keeping inactive a strong army then in Canada. 

Singular as it may appear, and notwithstanding the distressed condi- 
tion of Vermont at this time, there were many people residing in the 
towns east of the Connecticut River who desired to have their territory 
annexed to the State of Vermont; and to the accomplishment of this 
end a large convention of delegates representing those towns met in the 
county of Cheshire, and through a committee decided that a union of 
the inhabitants of that territory with those of Vermont to be " indispen- 
sably necessary." The same committee reported in favor of a conven- 
tion to be holden at Charlestown in January following, 1781, at which 
should be present one or more representatives from each town, " to unite 
in such measures as the majority shall judge most conducive to consol- 
idate an union of the grants, and efTect a final settlement of the line of 
jurisdiction." (The people of many towns east of the river had always 
claimed to be a part of the grants, and not of the province of New 
Hampshire proper, being situated west of the " Mason line.") 

The convention was held at Charlestown on the i6th of January, 
1781, and that that body was in favor of annexation to Vermont is 
shown by the fact that in February the Legislature of that State received 
a petition for a union of the grants on both sides of the Connecticut 
River. The Vermont Legislature took due notice of this request, and 
appointed a committee to examine and report, recommending such ac- 
tion as was thought best for the State. The committee, on the 14th, 
reported as follows: " Therefore, your committee do recommend, that 
the Legislature of this State do lay a jurisdictional claim to all the land 
situate north of the north line of the State of Massachusetts, and ex- 
tending the same to Hudson's Rive)-," etc. These italicized words 
are noticeable from the fact that they indicate an extension westwardly, 
something not contemplated by anything previously stated. The fact 
is, that about the time the petition for the eastern union was received, 
there came another and similar request from several towns of New York 
State east of the Hudson River ; and this annexation being favorably 

78 History of Windsor County. 

considered by the Legislature, the jurisdictional claim was extended in 
that direction as well as the other, but the union with the New York 
towns was not completed until a later date. 

In April an adjourned session of the Legislature was held at Windsor, 
and at the same time a convention of delegates from the towns east of 
the river was in session at Cornish. On canvassing the votes of the 
several towns of Vermont (the question of annexation having been sub- 
mitted to the people) it was found that a very large majority -were in 
favor of the union, whereupon the union with the New Hampshire towns 
was effected, and their representatives admitted to seats in the Vermont 

The towns, now forming apart of Windsor county, that voted in favor 
of the union, were Bethel, Pomfret, Chester, Windsor, Reading, Barn- 
ard, Royalton, Sharon and Norwich; while those that disapproved of 
the annexation were Woodstock and Hartland. Others from which no 
vote was received were Weathersfield, Cavendish and Hartford. 

After Vermont had completed her union with the New Hampshire 
towns, the public attention was next turned to the petition of the towns 
of New York State, which, likewise, were asking for annexation to the 
State, the very existence of which had been denied by the Federal gov- 
ernment, but which had before this laid claim to jurisdiction over the 
territory on which the petitioners lived. But there was not the same 
unanimity of feeling regarding the western union as was shown in favor 
of the eastern, for when the question was put to a vote it carried by a 
majority of but nine, there being forty-eight in the affirmative, and thirty- 
eight opposed to the proposition. Then followed a convention and 
the adoption of articles of union, at Cambridge, after which, on the i6th 
of June, 1 78 1, the union was made complete, and the New York towns, 
like those formerly of New Hampshire, became entitled to a representa- 
tion in the legislative hall of Vermont; and likewise became, for the 
time being, a part of the State of Vermont. 

In relation to the unions just referred to, William Slade very aptly 
remarks: "We cannot forbear pausing, for a moment, to contemplate 
the interesting attitude in which Vermont had now placed herself No 
measures could have better exhibited the peculiar genius of her states- 
men, and none could have more effectually contributed to sustain her 

Enlargement of Territory. 79 

independence, than those we have just recorded. By the unions, thus 
formed, she had added an extent of territory equal, at least, to that over 
which she originally claimed jurisdiction. By this bold and decisive 
policy she had augmented her resources, compelled the respect of her 
enemies, gained upon the confidence of her friends, quieted disaffection 
at home, invited immigration, and thus laid the foundation for a large 
and powerful State. 

" But there is another view of the advantages resulting from this 
policy, which produces a still higher conviction of its importance, and 
exhibits a coincidence of events as striking, perhaps, as any which dis- 
tinguishes the early history of this State. We allude to the influence 
produced by this policy upon the negotiations with the enemy in Canada. 
No people were more firmly attached to the cause of American independ- 
ence. than the people of Vermont; and none had more successfully con- 
tributed to sustain it ; yet, after all their efforts and sacrifices in the 
common cause, they had the mortification to find themselves denied par- 
ticipation in the blessings they had labored to secure. Their claims to 
independence had been treated with indifference, they were threatened 
with dismemberment of their territory and the annihilation of their sov- 
ereignty, and, to crown the whole, were abandoned by the power which 
ought to have protected them, and left to contend, single handed, 
against the common enemy. Much, therefore, as they were attached to 
the cause of their country, they could not fail to perceive that every step 
taken to support it only rendered their condition more hopeless ; and 
that it was of no importance to them that the struggle with a foreign 
enemy should be brought to a successful termination, while they were 
threatened with subjection to a more detested enemy at home." 

After completing her eastern and western unions Vermont again 
turned her attention to Congress, hoping now, in view of her increased 
strength and power, to obtain that boon so long witheld — her independ- 
ence as a State of the Federal Union; but, notwithstanding the fact that 
Congress did, on this application, give some indication of recognition 
of her claims, the people of the State were destined to wait ten more long 
and tedious years before their cherished object was finally accomplished. 
Congress so far relaxed the rigors attending former applications as to re- 
solve that as an indispensable prerequisite to recognizing any independ- 

8o History of Windsor County.- 

ence for Vermont the unions with parts of New York and New Hamp- 
shire must be dissolved. But this Vermont was wholly opposed to doing; 
and this unwillingness, coupled with other events occurring about that 
time, had the effect of delaying Congressional recognition for a long time. 
At last Governor Chittenden, in his extremity, addressed General 
Washington concerning the unfortunate condition of affairs, and the 
reply of that distinguished officer contributed as much to a change of 
sentiment on the part of the authorities of Vermont as all other things 
combined. Seeing at last that it would be almost impossible to obtain 
recognition as a State without some relaxation on their part, the govern- 
ment of Vermont reluctantly consented to dissolve the bands that had 
united her with parts of New Hampshire and New York ; and this ledto 
such action on the part of Congress as made it possible for Vermont to 
become one of the United States. But before this could be accomplished 
the State was obliged to relinquish all claim to jurisdiction over the ter- 
ritory of New York that lay west of the established twenty-mile line from 
the Hudson River; and in addition thereto she was compelled to pay to 
the State of New York the sum of thirty thousand dollars, on or before 
the first day of June, 1794. The conditions being complied with, Con- 
gress passed an act by which it was declared that on the 4th day of 
March, 1791, "the said state by the name and style of ' the state of Ver- 
mont,' shall be received and admitted into this Union, as a new and en- 
tire member of the United States of America." 


A Brief Resume on Divisions of the Grants into Counties — Courts Estai)- 
lished — County Seat at Chester— Changed to Westminster — Erection of Cumberland 
County by Vermont — Officers appointed — Some Personal Sketches— County Lines De- 
fined — Windsor County Formed— New Hampshire Towns Annexed to this County — 
Locating the County Seat— Woodstock Selected -Windsor Temporarily a Half-Shire 
Town— Judges of the County Court -The First Court-House— Its destruction by Fire — 
The Second Court-House also Burned — The Present County Buildings — Civil List — 
Officers of the Ancient County of Cumberland— Officers of Windsor County. 

THE preceding chapters of this work have been devoted almost wholly 
to a record of the events that pertained more particularly to the 
Commonwealth ot Vermont and the region roundabout, in order that the 

Organization Under the Government of New York. 8i 

reader might have a fair understanding of what occurred during the early- 
period of the State's existence, and even before the State had a being of 
any organized kind. This has been deemed essential as a foundation 
for the chapters that related particularly to the history of Windsor 
county, which was not brought into life until the year 1781. And now, 
that the events that pertained to the military operations during the 
Revolution, and those relating to the controversy with surrounding prov- 
inces and States, have been sufficiently narrated, it is proposed to devote 
the present chapter to the civil or internal policy of the State of Vermont 
with regard to the sub -division of its territory into counties, the erection 
of Windsor county, and then, having eliminated that district from the 
others of the State, to confine all further chapters to the social, civil, 
political and military history of the county. 

But it will be necessary, owing to the singular condition of affairs in 
the region east of the mountains, to make some allusion to the civil or- 
ganization of the counties under the authority and government of New 
York. In fact, during the few years succeeding 1777, the territory now 
embraced by Windsor county had a double existence, the recognized 
State of New York and the independent State of Vermont both having 
a civil organization in the locality, each separate from and in conflict 
with the other. 

A division of the State, or, as it was then known, the district of the 
New Hampshire Grants, into counties, was made by the province of New 
York, on the 3d of July, 1766, by virtue of an act of the Provincial As- 
sembly. By that act all the district of the grants that lay eastward of 
the Green Mountains was erected into a county by the name of Cumber- 
land. This act, however, was annulled by the Royal decree of 1767, 
which was intended to forbid New York from exercising further author- 
ity over the district, at least for the time being, but that province con- 
tinued its policy, notwithstanding the king's order, and in 1768 re- 
passed the act and proceeded again to organize the county. They 
established a Court of Common Pleas and appointed judges for the 
county. For a number of years the courts were held at Chester, one of 
the towns of Windsor county, but there seemed to be an element of the 
population in Chester that strongly favored the new State policy, and, 
as the New York control had erected no county buildings in the town, 

History of Windsor County 

it was deemed expedient to move the seat of justice to Westminster, 
where existed less opposition to New York. This removal to the more 
congenial locality was made during the year 1772. 

In the year 1770, by an act of the Provincial Assembly of New York, 
passed March 7th, the territory of Cumberland county was divided, and 
the county of Gloucester was formed, comprising the lands lying north 
of the present north line of Windsor county, and the county seat of the 
new sub-division was fixed at Newbury. Thus did the district of land 
east of the mountains remain until the year 1778, after the independence 
of Vermont had been declared ; and from that time forth until the New 
York dominancy became gradually extinguished the people of theterri 
tory now of Windsor county were living under the double and conflict- 
ing authority of the two States. 

In March, 1778, the Governor and Council and the General Assembly 
of Vermont met in session at the meeting-house in Windsor; and among 
the proceedings of that session were those looking to the erection of 
counties and the establishment of such other institutions as were neces- 
sary to complete the civil organization of the districts. On the 17th of 
March the Governor and Council recommended that the Assembly di- 
vide the territory of the State into two counties, that portion west of the 
main chain of the mountains to be known as Bennington, and the part 
east to be known as " Unity county." The first request was complied 
with, but the latter was, on the 21st of March, amended or altered by 
the Assembly, the name " Cumberland county" being adopted instead 
of " Unity county." It was also voted at the same time that each county 
have four probate districts; also that the county elections be held on 
the 4th day of June, 1778. 

On the 26th of March the Council appointed John Hatch, Joshua 
Bayley, Ezra Sargeant and Darius Sessions as county surveyors for the 
county of Cumberland for the time being; also John Benjamin as 
sheriff, for the time being, which meant until the forthcoming election. 
The shire town of the county of Cumberland was fixed upon as West- 
minster, and judges of its courts were appointed by the Assembly as 
follows: Major John Shepardson, first ; Mr. Stephen Tilden, second ; 
Hubbel Wells, third; Deacon Hezekiah Thomson, fourth; and Nathaniel 
Robinson, fifth judges for the shire. And on the 17th of June the As- 

Prominent Representatives. 83 

sembly voted to appoint special judges for the several shires, those for 
Cumberland county as follows: John Shepardson, Stephen Tilden, 
Hezekiah Thomson, Colonel Samuel Fletcher and Joshua Webb. 

In October, 1778, after the State election, the Legislature again met 
at Windsor ; and there were present members elected by the towns that 
form a part of Windsor county, as follows: Springfield, Lieutenant Sam- 
uel Scott; Chester, Major Thomas Chandler; Weathersfield, Captain 
William Upham ; Windsor, Captain Ebenezer Curtiss and Thomas 
Cooper; Hertferd (Hartland), William Gallop; Woodstock, Captain 
Phineas Williams and Captain John Strong; Hartford, Stephen Tilden ; 
Pomfret, Captain John Throop ; Barnard, Captain Edmond Hodges; 
Sharon, Benjamin Spaulding ; Royalton, Lieutenant Joseph Parkhurst ; 
Norwich, Abel Curtiss and Captain Joseph Hatch. 

During this same fiscal year the county, now called Windsor, seems 
also to have had a fair representation in the higher body of State officials 
— the Council of Governor Chittenden ; for the records disclose that Pe- 
ter Olcutt of Norwich, Paul Spooner of Hartland, Thomas Murdock of 
Norwich, and Benjamin Emmons^ of Woodstock, were elected council- 
lors, while Joseph Marsh of Hartford was elected lieutenant-governor. 
These persons were chosen to the same offices in the preceding March 
election, and their re-election seems to have shown that each possessed 
the entire confidence of his constituency. Concerning these persons it 
is proper that a brief biographical mention be here made. 2 

Joseph Marsh was born in Lebanon, Conn., January 12, 1726, and 
on the loth of January, 1750, was married to Dorothy Mason, a de- 
scendant of John Mason, who at one time was major-general of the en- 
tire military force of Connecticut. Mr. Marsh and his family came to 
the New Hampshire Grants in 1772, locating in the town of Hartford, 
where he at once became an active participant in the affairs of his town 
and county, and soon began to be looked upon as a leader. The county 
then being under the New York control, Mr. Marsh was chosen as colonel 
of the upper regiment of militia in 1775, and in January of the next 
year was chosen to represent Cumberland county in the New York 

' Benjamin Emmons, of Woodstock, was not elected, but appointed in the stead of 
Elisha Payne, who declined to serv'e. 

' Condensed from sketches found in the " Governor and Council." 

84 History ok Windsor County. 

Provincial Congress. In July, 1777, his regiment came under the juris- 
diction of Vermont. Colonel Marsh was chosen to fill a number of offi- 
ces of responsibility, but his greatest honor was obtained in his election 
to the lieutenant- governorship, in March, 1778, and his re-election in 
October of the same year. Still later he was annually re-elected from 
1787 to 1790. Other prominent offices held by him were: Member 
and chairman of the Eastern Vermout Court of Confiscation ; chairman 
of a committee of safety for a part of Vermont ; representative of the 
town of Hartford in the General Assembly of 1781 and 1782; one of 
the first Council of Censors in 1785 ; and for a period of nine years, from 
1787 to 1795, he was chief judge of the County Court of Windsor county. 

" Colonel Marsh (said Roswell Marsh) went to school but a single 
month, and his advantages from books were limited ; but what he read 
he fully mastered and then held with a tenacious memory. He excelled 
in acquiring knowledge from conversation ; and his own was exceedingly 
interesting. His knowledge, however acquired, was utilized by a close 
logical mind. His temper was equable, and children loved him. In 
poHtics nothing, save remarks disrespectful to President Washington, 
ever disturbed him, for he was of the pure Washingtonian school, and 
trained his children in it. He was an earnest Christian, but free from 
bigotry. In person he was of large stature and well proportioned — 
broad shouldered, large boned, lean, and of great muscular power; in 
weight over two hundred. His dress was of the Washington pattern — 
small clothes and the triangular hat. He was a bold and graceful horse- 
man, kept a chaise, but never used it for himself alone." Among the 
descendants of Colonel Joseph Marsh may be named the late Hon. 
Charles Marsh, of Woodstock ; the late professor and president, James 
Marsh, of the University of Vermont ; the late Dr. Leonard Marsh, of 
Burlington, and Hon. George P. Marsh, of the same city. 

Benjamin Emmons, the councillor from Woodstock, was supposed to 
be originally from Massachusetts, but after the close of the French and 
Indian war several brothers of the family settled in New Hampshire. In 
April, 1772, Benjamin Emmons with his family came to Woodstock, 
and settled in the township. He, too, was an active man in the affairs 
of the region, and held many offices and positions of trust, among them 
the following : Supervisor, chosen at the first town meeting in May, 

Prominent Representatives. 85 

1773 ; member of the Committee of Safety of Cumberland county during 
the existence of that body ; was chosen as heutenant, under New York, 
in August, 1775, of the upper regiment of the county; chosen by the 
Westminster convention, October 30, 1776, as one of the committee to 
canvass Cumberland and Gloucester counties in the interests of a new 
State ; chosen to the subsequent conventions at Westminster and Wood- 
stock, representing the town of Woodstock; a member of the Windsor 
convention that framed the constitution of Vermont ; chosen councillor 
in March, 1778, and re-elected in October, serving in that capacity sev- 
eral years; appointed member of the Court of Confiscation in 1778. 
In 1 78 1 Mr. Emmons was appointed assistant judge of the Windsor 
County Court, but in October following declined the office. From 1779 
till 1786 he was annually elected councillor, and in the latter year was 
chosen to represent his town in the General Assembly, serving in that 
capacity eleven years. It was by his efforts that Woodstock was des- 
ignated as the shire town of the county of Windsor. In 1791 Mr. Em- 
mons was a member of the convention which adopted the constitution of 
the United States, and one of the Council of Censors for 1799. His 
public service ended with his last membership in the General Assembly 
in 1803. About the year 1806 Mr. Emmons was induced to join his 
children in the then far West, beyond the Mississippi ; and there, after 
a brief residence of but six weeks, he ended his days, then being about 
eighty-six years of age. 

Thomas Murdock and General Peter Olcutt were members of the first 
Council, and both lived in the town of Norwich. The former was a 
member of the Westminster convention of January 15, 1777, and of the 
Windsor convention held in June following. He was councillor and mem- 
ber of the Court of Confiscation in 1778, and until October, 1779; and 
judge of Windsor County Court from 1782 to 1787. He represented 
Norwich in 1780 and 1782. He died in Norwich in 1803. 

General Peter Olcutt, the colleague in the Council of Thomas Mur- 
dock, and likewise his fellow townsman, was another of the eminent men 
of Norwich, and active both in civil and military affairs. In May, 1777, 
he served NewYork in the capacity of commissioner to receive the prop- 
erty of those who had joined the enemy; and in 1778 he performed 
like services for Vermont as a member of the Court of Confiscation for 

S6 History of Windsor County. 

Eastern Vermont; was a member of the convention that adopted the 
State constitution. In 1777 he commanded a regiment in Gloucester 
county; was councillor from the first session until October, 1779; again 
from 1 78 1 to 1790; lieutenant-governor from 1790 to 1793; and judge 
of the Supreme Court from 1782 to 1784. 

For the sketch of Paul Spooner the reader is referred to the closing 
pages of chapter four. 

But these sketches would not be considered complete without some 
mention of the worthy secretary of state and secretary of the Council. 
This was Thomas Chandler, jr., of Chester, concerning whom the "Gov- 
ernor and Council" states: "Thomas Chandler, jr., secretary, seems 
to have filled that station by virtue of his election as Secretary of State, 
by the General Assembly, March 13, 1778. He was the son of Thomas 
Chandler, sr., who was the chief judge of the royal court at Westminster, 
which was captured and overthrown by the Whigs immediately after the 
Westminster massacre. Thomas Chandler, jr., was born September 23, 
1740, and came to New Flamstead (now Chester) with his father in 1763. 
In March of that year he was appointed town clerk, and held that office 
until March, 1780. July 16, 1766, he was appointed (by New York) 
assistant justice of the Inferior Court of the Common Pleas for Cumber- 
land county, and he held the office until after the Westminster massacre. 
He was a delegate in the Westminster convention in October, 1776, and 
January, 1777. He was elected to the first General Assembly in March, 
1778, also October, 1778-81, and in 1787. He was elected clerk of the 
first General Assembly (while representative), but abandoned both posts 
to be Secretary of State. He was speaker of the Assembly in October, 
1778-80, resigning in the middle of the session of the last year on ac- 
count of charges affecting his character, for which he brought a libel suit 
and recovered damages. He was judge of the first Supreme Court, 
elected in October, 1778, and of Windsor County Court in 1786." 

Returning from this digression to the narrative of the events of the 
county of Cumberland, it is found that, in pursuance of an act of the 
General Assembly at Bennington in June previous, justices of the peace 
were chosen by many towns of the State, and those for that part of Cum- 
berland that is now Windsor county were as follows : Daniel Heald, for 
Chester; Thomas Cooper, for Windsor; Elias Weld, Hartland; John W. 
Dana, Pomfret; Asa Whitcomb, Barnard; Joshua Hazen, Hartford. 

Boundary Lines Established for Cumberland County. 87 

It was not until the year 1779 that the affairs of theseveral counties of 
the State began to assume defifinite form. In fact it appears that none of 
the acts of the Assembly for 1778 are found to be in existence. To be 
sure the laws of that year may have been declared to be temporary, but 
no sufficient explanation of their absence -from the Assembly Journal is 
to be found among the records. And it is difficult indeed to glean from 
the minutes alone sufficient information to make any reliable statements. 
But in 1779 there seems to have been more method in the manner of 
transacting business, and the laws of that year, and those succeeding as 
well, are preserved in substantial form. 

During this year, at the session of the Legislature at Bennington, in 
February, the General Assembly passed an act establishing the lines 
bounding the two counties of the State ; and that part of the act that de- 
fined the lines of Cumberland county was as follows: ''Be it further en- 
acted, by the authority, aforesaid, that the tract of land in the hereafter 
described limits, as well the lands that are, as those that are not, appro- 
priated, shall be and remain one entire county, and known by the name 
of the county of Cumberland, viz.: Beginning at the southeast corner of 
the county of Bennington, in the north line of the State of the Massa- 
chusetts-Bay ; thence east in said line, to Connecticut River, being the 
south line of this State ; thence up said river as it tends, to the south 
line of the Province of Quebec, being the east line of this State; thence 
west in the south line of the Province of Quebec, to the northeast cor- 
ner of the county of Bennington, being the north line of this State; 
thence southerly in the east line of the county of Bennington, to the 
southeast corner thereof." 

The east line of Bennington county, mentioned in the foregoing section, 
was particularly described in that part of the act that defined the bound- 
aries of that county: it commenced at a point in the south line of the 
Province of Quebec fifty miles east of the " deepest channel " of Lake 
Champlain, thence southerly to the northeast corner of \Vorcester, thence 
southerly on the easterly lines of the towns of Worcester, Middlesex and 
Berlin, to the southeast corner thereof; thence on a straight line to the 
northwest corner of Tunbridge; thence on the westerly line of Tunbridge, 
to the southwest corner thereof; thence in a straight line to the north- 
westerly corner of Bradford; thence in the westerly line of Bradford and 

History of Windsor County 

Bridgewater, to the southwesterly corner thereof; thence southerly in a 
straight line, to the northeast corner of Shrewsbury; thence on the east- 
erly line of Shrewsbury, to the southeasterly corner thereof; thence to 
the northeast corner of Wallingford ; thence southerly on the easterly 
lines of Wallingford, Harwich,- Bromley (Peru), Winhall and Stratton, to 
the southeasterly corner of the latter ; thence southerly on the westerly 
line of Somerset, to the southwest corner thereof; thence southerly to 
the northwest corner of Draper ; thence in the west lines of Draper and 
Cumberland, to the north line of the Massachusetts-Bay. Thus were the 
lines of the county of Cumberland for the first time particularly de- 
scribed, and so did they remain until the Legislature of 1781 divided the 
old county, and in its place erected three entirely new ones — Windham, 
Windsor and Orange. During the same year Bennington county was 
also divided, and Rutland county formed. The acts of the Legislature 
by which this division was made are not to be found, although sufficient 
memoranda is preserved to ascertain with reasonable certainty the 
boundary lines of the counties then established. From that time to this 
there has been no material alteration of the boundaries of the county of 
Windsor, on the west side of the Connecticut. 

Preceding chapters have shown that the authorities of Vermont did, 
in the year 1781, extend the jurisdiction of the State so as to include a 
large tract of land on the east side of the Connecticut; and, for the 
proper exercise of her authority over those lands and the towns they 
comprised, it became necessary to either erect them into counties or an- 
nex them to the counties already in existence on the west side of the 
river. To this end the Vermont General Assembly, at the session at 
Windsor in April, 1781, passed an act that considerably extended the 
limits of Windsor county, by including within it the New Hampshire 
towns that lay to the eastward, and over which Vermont's jurisdictional 
claim had been declared. The part of the act that referred to these 
towns reads as follows : " Be it further enacted, that all the lands lying 
and being within this State, on the east side of Connecticut river, oppo- 
site to the county of Windsor, and northward of the northerly lines of 
the towns of Claremont, Newport, Unity and Wendal, be, and hereby 
are, for the time being, annexed to the county of Windsor." 

The annexation of this territory was not approved of by all the towns 

County Seat Located. 

that belonged to Windsor county as originally laid out, for, no sooner 
had the act that created the county become a law, than the question of 
locating the shire town began to be agitated. Of course, if the conven- 
ience of the greatest number of people should be a moving considera- 
tion in determining upon a site for the seat of justice, then one of the 
centrally located towns must necessarily be selected, and there was, per- 
haps, no town in the whole county that possessed all the essential pre- 
requisites except Woodstock. Its location among the towns of the 
county was not only central, but it was the most easily accessible of any. 
More than this, the town was well supplied with the necessary conven- 
iences that must be found at a county seat. And it was, moreover, one 
of the large towns of the county. 

It is needless to state that the residents of Woodstock were greatly in 
favor of having their town selected for the county seat ; and it is equally 
true that a number of the surrounding towns shared in this sentiment, 
because it was out of the question for any of them to be designated for 
the purpose, and they therefore desired the county buildings to be 
located at a point best suited to their convenience, under the circum- 
stances. So, when the Legislature of Vermont extended her jurisdiction 
over the New Hampshire towns, and proposed to annex them to the 
counties adjoining on the west, there was considerable disturbance in 
the camp of the Woodstock people. By such an annexation, should it 
become permanent, the probabilities of that town being selected as the 
county seat were decidedly remote. This subject of annexation was 
made the order of the day at a meeting of the freemen of Woodstock, 
who voted to petition the Legislature not to have the county lines ex- 
tended across the Connecticut River. But justice to the pioneer resi- 
dents of Woodstock demands that it be stated that that town was not 
in favor of annexing the New Hampshire towns to the State of Ver- 
mont, to say nothing of having them attached to Windsor county. The 
truth of the matter is, that a number of the eastern towns of this State, 
and some on the v/est as well, were not only opposed to this, but to the 
first union with the towns east of the river. No good results came to 
the State by the first union, and many residents argued seriously against 
the second extension of jurisdiction. Subsequent events demonstrated 
that their reasoning upon the matter was truthful and logical. 

90 History of Windsor County. 

Fortunately, however, for the town of Woodstock, the union with the 
New Hampshire towns was dissolved by a resolution of the General 
Assembly of Vermont, passed February 23, 1782, and the people were 
at liberty consistently to press their claims for the county buildings. 
What might or what might not have happened had the union been a 
permanent one is hardly a fair subject for discussion here, but the disso- 
lution of the union with the eastern towns certainly gave much encour- 
agement to the hopes and ambitions of the people of Woodstock, and 
correspondingly lessened the chances of the town of Windsor and others 
to the north of it, the claims of which were strongly advocated by able 
and representative men. 

But the one man who, above all others, labored zealously to have 
Woodstock made the shire town of Windsor county, was Benjamin Em- 
mons. He, as earlier pages of this chapter will show, was one of the 
Governor's Council from 1779 till 1786; and being there, was well in- 
formed concerning all that was taking place. He matured and carried 
out his plans successfully, but he did not succeed in accomplishing his 
cherished project until the year 1786, he then being in the Assembly on 
his first term. Mr. Emmons was regularly elected to the Assembly, 
from Woodstock, during that year. On the 14th of October, soon after 
the legislative bodies of the State were organized for business, Hon. 
Nathaniel Niles resigned his membership in the Council, whereupon Mr. 
Emmons was elected in his stead ; but, holding the matter of locating 
the county buildings of his county to be of greater importance, he de- 
clined to accept the proffered position. 

The laws passed by the Assembly at the Rutland session of 1786 do 
not contain the act by which Woodstock was designated as the shire 
town of this county; and the only record evidence to be found, showing 
that such an act was passed, is that contained in the proceedings of the 
Governor and Council, on the 27th of October, 1786, which reads as 
follows: "An act establishing Woodstock the Shire Town for the County 
of Windsor having passed the House was read and Concurred." 

As a matter of course courts were held in Windsor county prior to the 
designation of Woodstock as the county seat, most of them, all the rcg 
ularly appointed terms, at Windsor, while special terms or sessions were 
held at various places to suit the convenience of the justices or the liti- 

Judges of the Courts. 91 

gating parties. The judges of the courts were chosen in pursuance of an 
act passed at the February session of the General Assembly, held at 
Windsor, in 1781, which act provided that the freemen of the respective 
towns meet at the usual place for holding town meetings, on the last 
Tuesday of March thereafter, and, after due organization be perfected, 
"give in their ballot for whom they would have for chief judge, for the 
county court." Likewise they were directed to choose four assistant 
judges ; also for a sheriff, one judge of probate for each probate district, 
and for two justices of the peace " in each town wherein is one hundred 
taxable inhabitants." As to the successful aspirants for judicial honors 
the records of the Governor and Council say : " The following gentlemen 
were nominated and are hereby appointed for the time being Justices of 
the Peace and Judges of the County Court for the county of Windsor, 
viz. : Elisha Payne, esq., (of Lebanon, N. H.,) Chief Judge; Joseph 
Marsh, esq., Benjamin Emmons, esq., Beza Woodward, esq., (of Dresden 
now Hanover, N. H.,) and John Weld, esq.. Side Judges. Samuel Chase, 
William Ripley, (of Cornish, N. H.,) Moses Whipple, (of Croydon, N. H.,) 
John Stevens, (of Plainfield, N. H.,) Abel Stevens, (of New Grantham, 
N. H.,) John Wheatley, (of Lebanon, N. H ,) Elihu Hyde, (of Lebanon, 
N. H.,) Aaron Barney, Bezaleel Woodward, (of Dresden, now Hanover, 
N. H.,) and Jonathan Freeman, (of Hanover, N. H.,) Esquires, Justices 
of the Peace for said County." 

It appears, by an act passed during the year 1787, that the county of 
Windsor partook of the character of a two-shire county, provision being 
made therein for the holding of courts at both Woodstock and Windsor; 
and to the act just referred to was the following contingency: "Provided 
always, and this grant is upon this express condition, that the court- 
house in said Woodstock, and the court-house in said Windsor, shall be 
furnished by the respective towns, free of any expense to said county, 
and furnished with good iron stoves, to the acceptance of the judges of the 
Supreme Court before the next stated term of that court in said county." 
"In 1 79 1," says the authority from which the foregoing paragraph is 
taken, " it was enacted that the act making said two shires should remain 
in force for three years after the passing of the same, after which Wood- 
stock should be and remain as the shire town of said county." 

It was not an unusual or surprising thing, nor was it a condition single 

92 History of Windsor County. 

to this county, that it was required of the town in which was to be located 
the county buildings that the same should be erected without expense 
to the county. The same condition was imposed regarding the erection 
of the county buildings at Manchester, the north shire town of Benning- 
ton county But unlike this county, Bennington has remained a two- 
shire county to the present day, although an effort was made some time 
ago, but without success, to consolidate the shires. In this respect the 
county just named is the only one of its kind in Vermont. 

The first term of the County Court for Windsor county was held at 
Windsor in May, 1781, at which Hon. Elisha Payne presided in the 
capacity of chief judge, while Joseph Marsh and Bezaleel Woodward 
were assistant judges. James Wheelock was appointed clerk of the 

Briant Brown was the first sheriff of Windsor county, after the act of 
February, 1771, but he resigned the office soon after his election. The 
Council then appointed Captain Ebenezer Brewster to that position. His 
sureties were Colonel Elisha Payne and Major Thomas Murdock. Of 
the subsequent officers of Windsor county mention will be found on the 
closing pages of this chapter. 

The fact that the Windsor half shire of the county was but temporary 
gave very little encouragement to the people of that locality in the build- 
ing of a court-house; "and as for that matter the town of Woodstock 
failed to take the prompt action that might naturally be expected on it, 
being selected for a permanent seat of justice of a new county. And 
it was not until the latter part of 1787 that the people began any deci- 
sive work in that direction. In March of that year the Assembly had 
passed an act directing that terms of court should continue to be held at 
Windsor until the town of Woodstock had provided a suitable court- 
house building ; but later on in the same year another act directed that 
all writs and processes be made returnable at Woodstock, from which it 
may be inferred that the people were induced to bestir themselves, and 
the building was made ready for occupancy during that year. It is un- 
derstood at all events that the first court-house in Woodstock was built, 
or nearly completed, during the summer and fall of 1787, although it is 
not certain that it was occupied until the following spring. 

This ancient structure was located on what now would be called the 

The First Court-House at Woodstock. 93 

south or perhaps the southeast side of the park, on the site now occupied 
by the large brick residence of Mrs. Allen, a few rods west from the 
Eagle Hotel. It was erected under the supervision of a committee, con- 
sisting of William Perry, Captain Israel Richardson, Elias Thomas and 
others, and on lands that had been donated for the purpose by Captain 
Richardson. A short distance further to the west was located the jail, a 
small, rather unpretentious structure, built partly of wood and part stone, 
and is generally understood to have been the handiwork of Phineas Will- 
iams and John Strong, the former constructing that part commonly 
known as the "dungeon," while to Mr. Strong was credited the carpen- 
ter work. 

Within the walls of this first named primitive structure were the courts 
conducted for the space of something like four years, but on the night 
of October 24th, 1791, it was destroyed by fire. The fire was believed 
to have been started by a negro, an employee in the family of one of the 
leading physicians of the town. He was arrested and indicted for the 
offense, but on tlie trial, for want of evidence sufficient to convict, was 

After the unfortunate and untimely destruction of the first court-house 
provision was at once made for the erection of another, though not on 
the same location. For the new building more land was desired, and 
again was the generosity of Captain Richardson levied upon by Charles 
Marsh, who had been selected as the superintendent of construction. 
But the worthy captain and Agent Marsh fell into a disagreement over 
the extent of lands that the latter thought ought to be donated to the 
public use, whereupon Mr. Marsh made arrangements to have the court- 
house erected on his own lands at a point some distance from the 
" green " or common, where it formerly stood. This threatened removal 
had the effect of overcoming Mr. Richardson's objections, and he do- 
nated the entire tract now covered by " Woodstock Park " to the public 
use, and also furnished the land for the desired buildings, the latter being 
the tract on the north side of the park, on the corner that became known 
in later years as the Philo Hatch property. Here the second court- 
house was erected in 1793 ; but that, too, in course of time fell a victim 
to the fieiy element, the result of the carelessness of some enthusiastic 
patriot, who, on the 4th of July, 1854, threw a lighted fire-cracker on 
the shingle roof, which ignited and burned the building to the ground. 

94 History of Windsor County. 

The second building is said to have been as much of an improvement 
on the original as the present one over its predecessor. Its internal ar- 
rangement was peculiar, but none the less convenient. Reaching to a 
considerable heighth above the roof on the extreme front was a belfry in 
which was placed a bell of fair size ; the first court-house in the State it 
is claimed to be so provided. In 1836 extensive repairs and alterations 
were made, entailing an expense of two thousand dollars, which was 
paid in part by the town and the balance by voluntary contributions 
from individuals. 

The next, the present court-house building, was erected during the 
years 1854-55, on lands purchased from Harriet Myrick, situated a few 
rods east from the Eagle Hotel, and on the south side of the park. The 
site was purchased by a fund raised by subscription amounting to twelve 
hundred dollars. For the building the town was taxed to the extent of 
five thousand dollars, which, with the insurance received upon the old 
court-house, together with the other means provided by the county, a 
fund of fourteen thousand dollars was created, with which the structure 
was built. This court-house, it appears, is the joint property of the town 
and county. About the time of its erection the town 'was in need of a 
hall for such gatherings as were generally assembled each year, and the 
contemplated erection of the new court-house opened to the town a way 
to secure the desired building by joining with the county in its construc- 
tion, sharing the expense, and so arranging the interior as to serve the 
double purpose of a court-house and town hall combined. Upon such 
an understanding the building was erected, the town hall occupying the 
lower floor, while that above is designed for court uses. The building 
is of brick, of good proportions, and substantially constructed, comfort 
and convenience seeming to have been more desirable than architectural 
display; still, the building is by no means devoid of ornamentation, and 
with its adjoining building, the library, as a companion, presents a de- 
cidedly attractive appearance. Its distance from the street is such 
as to admit of a lawn, while the small park between the premises proper 
and the street lends an additional attraction to the whole scene. 

The old jail that stood near the west end of the common served the 
requirements of the county until the year 1797, at which time the Gen- 
eral Assemby ordered another to be built. Accordingly land was pro- 

The Present Court- House. 


cured, the same on which the present jail stands ; and here, by the efforts 
of Benjamin Emmons, Jacob Wilder, Colton White and Nathaniel Smith, 
the second county jail was erected, being part of stone and part frame. 
But even this presumably substantial structure was found, after a score 
or so of years, to be unsafe and unsuitable for every use and necessity, 
whereupon Judge Elias Keyes was appointed to erect a stone jail, which 
he did at an expense to the shire of about fifteen thousand dollars ; but 
in 1867, the year in which Woodstock was visited by a sweeping fire, the 
wood part of Judge Keyes's jail was burned. The next year the brick 
jail was erected. In 188 1 some substantial additions were made, since 
which time the building has remained as it at present appears. By rea- 
son of the somewhat unusual arrangement concerning the ownership 
and use of the court-house, the county clerk, judge of probate and other 
county officers are required to have their offices in the building con- 
nected with the jail. Here they have, perhaps, as commodious quarters 
as the court-house would afford if the town hall was not a part of it, but 
the singular arrangement makes the premises somewhat remarkable. 

Now, having made some mention of the events that led to the divis- 
ion of old Cumberland county and the erection of Windsor county from 
a part of it; having noted the events of the time of organizing the last 
named, furnishing the names of its earliest officers in various depart- 
ments of its civil government ; having referred to the acts that estab- 
lished the county seat at Woodstock, and having described briefly the 
several buildings erected for county purposes, it is appropriate that some 
space should be devoted to recording the names of those who have been 
connected with the several offices of the county, as provided by the 
laws of the State, from the time of its organization to the present. But 
as the old county of Cumberland was an c>rganized department of the 
government of two States — New York and Vermont — at the same time 
(but prior to its division in 1781), which States were contending for the 
mastery, it is also proper that a record be made of the officers of Cum- 
berland county under the New York authority as well as under that of 
Vermont. The name " Cumberland," however, became lost to Ver- 
mont when the division was made, but was continued under New York 
for several years thereafter. 

96 History of Windsor County. 

Civil Officers of Cumberland County under New York.^ 

Dedimus Potestatem Commissioners. — Date of commission, July 17, 
1766, Thomas Chandler, Joseph Lord, Samuel Wells, John Chandler. 
April 7. 1768, same appointments renewed. April 14, 1772, Samuel 
Wells, Crean Brush. May 5, 1774, Samuel Gale. May 15, 1777, John 
Sessions, John Stevens. October 24, 1778, Pelatiah Fitch, John Ses- 
sions, James Clay, Micah Townsend. June 5, 1782, Charles Phelps, 
James Clay, Hilkiah Grout. 

Commissioners of the Court. — Date of commission, February 18, 1774, 
Samuel Wells, Crean Brush, Samuel Knight. 

Commissioners to receive property of those who had joined the enemy, 
March 6, 1777, James Clay, Amos Robertson, Israel Smith. 

Commissioner of Forfeiture. — February 25, 1780, John Sergeant. 

Judges of Inferior Court of Common Pleas. — July 16, 1766, and April 
7, 1768, Thomas Chandler, Joseph Lord. Samuel Wells. April 14, 
1772, Thomas Chandler, Joseph Lord, Samuel Wells, Noah Sabin. 
August 18, 1778, Pelatiah Fitch, John Sessions, James Clay. 

Assistant Judges of Inferior Common Pleas. — July 16, 1766, Oliver 
Willard, John Arms, James Rogers, Zedekiah Stone, Benjamin Bellows, 
Thomas Chandler, jr., John Chandler. April 7, 1768, Oliver Willard, 
Thomas Chandler, jr., John Chandler, Samuel Stevens, Nathan Stone, 
William Willard, Thomas Bridgman. April 14, 1772, James Rogers, 
Nathan Stone. William Willard, Stephen Greenleaf, Thomas Chandler, jr., 
Benjamin Butterfield. August 18, 1778. Eleazer Patterson, Hilkiah 
Grout, Stephen Greenleaf. 

Justices of the Oyer and Terminer. — June 5, 1782, Charles Phelps, 
James Clay, Eleazer Patterson, Hilkiah Grout, Simon Stevens, Elijah 
Prouty, Michael Gilson. 

Justices of the Peace. — July 16, 1766, Thomas Chandler, Joseph Lord, 
Samuel Wells, Oliver Willard, John Arms, James Rogers, Zedekiah 
Stone, Benjamin Bellows, Thomas Chandler, jr., John Chandler, Will- 
iam Willard, John Church, Thomas Bridgman, Bildad Andross, Israel 
Curtis. April 7, 1768, Thomas Chandler, Joseph Lord, Samuel Wells, 
Oliver Willard, Thomas Chandler, jr., John Chandler, Samuel Stevens, 
Nathan Stone, William Willard, Thomas Bridgman, Bildad Andross, 

'From B. H. Hall's Eastern Vermont. 

Officials. 97 

Israel Curtis, Henry Wells, Simon Stevens. April 14, 1772, Thomas 
Chandler, Joseph Lord, Samuel Wells, Noah Sabin, James Rogers, Na- 
than Stone, William Willard, Stephen Greenleaf, Thomas Chandler, jr., 
Benjamin Butterfield, Bildad Andross, Israel Curtis, Simon Stevens, 
Zadock Wright, Samuel Nichols, William Williams, John Bridgman, 
David Loy, Ephraim Ranney, Oliver Lovell, John Bolton, Jonathan 
Burke, Luke Knowlton, John Winchester Dana. June 5, 1782, Charles 
Phelps, James Clay, Eleazer Patterson, Hilkiah Grout, Simon Stevens, 
Elijah Prouty, Michael Gilson, Samuel Bixby, Daniel Shepardson, Hez- 
ekiah Stovvell, Bethuel Church, John Pannel, Nathan Fish, Joseph Win- 
chester, Daniel Kathan. 

County Clerks. — July 16, 1766, to April 7, 1768, John Chandler. 
February 25, 1772, Crean Brush, vice John Chandler, removed. March 
7, 1774, Samuel Gale, vice Crean Brush, resigned. August, 1788, 
Micah Townsend. 

Sheriffs. — July 16, 1766, Nathan Stone, term expired October 14, 
1767. March 31, 1768, John Arms, by appointment. October 13, 
1769, John Arms, served six months. April 17, 1770, Daniel Whip- 
ple, by appointment. October 12, 1770, to October 6, 1772, Daniel 
Whipple. October i, 1773, to July 10, 1775, William Patterson. July 
10, 1775, Jesse Burk. May 5, 1777, Paul Spooner, declined. August 
18, 1778, to February 18, 1780, Simeon Edwards. June 5, 1782, Tim- 
othy Phelps. 

Surrogates. — July 16, 1776, to April 14, 1772, Thomas Chandler. 
April 14, 1772, Crean Brush. August 18, 1778, James Clay. 

Attorneys- at- Lazu. — Solomon Phelps, Micah Townsend, Charles 
Phelps, Samuel Knight. 

Civil Officers of Windsor County. 

State Senators. — Prior to the year 1836 the authority of the Senate 
was vested in the body known by the name of "Governor and Council," 
and senators were previously unknown. But in the year named the 
State constitution was revised, and the office of representative in the 
State Senate created. According to the provisions of the laws as then 
established, the county of Windsor was entitled to four representatives 
in that branch of the Legislature. This was continued for a period of 


98 History of Windsor County. 

something like fifteen years (1862), when three senators were elected 
from the county, the latter representation being maintained to the pres- 
ent day. 

Again, prior to the year 1870, senators were elected annually, but 
subsequently they have held their offices for a term of two years, thus 
following the sessions of the Legislature. The senators who, since 1835, 
have represented Windsor county, with the years of their respective in- 
cumbency, have been as follows: 1836. — Francis E. Phelps, Samuel W. 
Porter, William Steele, Julius Converse. 1837. — Francis E. Phelps, 
Samuel W. Porter, William Steele, Julius Converse. 1838. — Daniel 
Brown, Ptolemy Edson, William Steele, Julius Converse. 1839. — 
Daniel Brown, Ptolemy Edson, Andrew Tracy, Julius Converse. 1840. 
— Abel Gilson, Barnabas Dean, Walter Palmer, Thomas P. Russell. 
1 841. — Abel Gilson, Barnabas Dean, Walter Palmer, Thomas P. Rus- 
sell. 1842. — Hampden Cutts, John Porter, Salmon F. Dutton, Abner 
Field. 1843 — Hampden Cutts, John Porter, Salmon F. Dutton, Abner 
Field. 1844. — James Barrett, Thomas S. Barrett, Benjamin Billings, 
Justin Morgan. 1845. — J^mes Barrett, Thomas S. Barrett, Benjamin 
Billings, Justin Morgan. 1846. — Artemas Cushman, Harvey Burton, 
Robert B. Cram, Dearborn H. Hilton. 1847. — Artemas Cushman, 
Harvey Burton, Robert B. Cram, Dearborn H. Hilton. 1848 — Oliver 
P. Chandler, Joseph W. Colburn, Solon Danforth, Calvin French. 
1849. — Oliver P. Chandler, Joseph W. Colburn, Solon Danforth, Cal- 
vin French. 1850. — Oliver P. Chandler, Joseph W. Colburn, Daniel 
L. Lyman, Warren Currier. 1851. — Oliver P. Chandler, Joseph W. 
Colburn, Daniel L Lyman, Warren Currier. 1852. — Warren Currier, 
Daniel L. Lyman, Asa B. Foster, Crosby Miller. 1853. — Carlos 

Coolidgc, Benoni Buck, Harvey, D. C. Dennison. 1854. — Carlos 

Coolidge, D. C. Dennison, Daniel A. Heald, Norman Williams. 1855. 

— Carlos Coolidge, Norman Williams, Julius Converse, Johnson. 

1856. Johnson, Julius Converse, A P. Hunton, Davis. 

1857. — A. P. Hunton. Davis, Jo. D. Hatch, Charles S. Ray- 
mond. 1858. — Charles S. Raymond, Jo D. Hatch, Orrin C. French, 
John Wilder. 1859 — Orrin C. French, John Wilder, Daniel Needham, 
Joshua M. Aldrich. i860. — Daniel Needham, Joshua M. Aldrich, 
T. S. Hubbard, P'rcderick C. Robbins. 1861 — T. S. Hubbard, Frederick 

Governor Carlos Coolidge. 

Officials. 99 

C. Robbins, Thomas E. Powers, Prosper Merrill. 1862. — Prosper 
Merrill, James A. Pollard, Noah B. Safford. 1863. — James A. Pollard^ 
Noah B. Safford, Wendell W. Williams. 1864. — Hugh Henry, Wendell 
W. Williams, Clark H. Chapman. 1865. — Clark H. Chapman, Hosea 
Doton, Merrick Gay. 1866. — Hosea Doton, Merrick Gay, Hiram Har- 
low. 1867. — W. H. Walker, F. W. Anderson, Albert Brown. 1868. 
_W. H. Walker, F. W. Anderson, Albert Brown. 1869.— William 
CoUamer, A. G. Dewey, William M. Pingry. 1870. — William Collamer 
A. G. Dewey, William M. Pingry. 1872.— Charles M. Lamb, Luther 
Adams, Charles A. Scott. 1874. — James G. Wilson, Joseph C. Parker 
Merritt C. Edmunds. 1876. — Artemas Cushman, Ervin J. Whitcomb, 
Gilbert A. Davis. 1874. — James G. Wilson, Joseph C. Parker, Merritt 
C. Edmunds. 1876. — Artemas Cushman, Ervin J. Whitcomb, Gilbert 
A. Davis. 1878. — John F. Deane, William C. Danforth, Nelson Gay. 
1880. — Ora Paul, Frederick G. Field, Hugh Henry. 1882. — Justus 
Dartt, James M. Mcintosh, Elam M. Goodwin. 1884. — Norman Paul, 
E. A. Howe, Rollin Amsden. 1886. — Chester Pierce, Henry A. 
Fletcher, D. L. Gushing. 1888.— WiUiam E. Johnson, Marsh O. Per- 
kins, Henry J. Parker. 

County Clerks. — James Wheelock, 1 781-1782 ; Briant Brown, 1782- 
1789; Lewis R. Morris, 1789-1796; Benjamin Swan, 1796-1839; Nor- 
man Williams, 1839-1867; George B. French, 1867-1885 ; Jay Read 
Pember, the present incumbent. 

Sheriffs. — John Benjamin, 1 778-1779 ; Benjamin Wait,' 1779-1781 ; 
Briant Brown, 1 781-1786; Ebenezer Brewster (appointed April 18, 
1781, to succeed Briant Brown, resigned); Benjamin Wait, 1786-1788; 
Paul Brigham, 1788- 1790; William Sweetzer, 1790- 1796; Lucius Hub- 
bard, 1796-1798; William Rice, 1798-1802; William Strong, 1802- 
18 10; Paschal P. Enos, 1 8 10-18 14 ; Amos Heald, 1814-1815 ; Solomon 
W. Burk, 1815-1820; Asaph Fletcher, jr., 1820-1830; Lysander Ray- 
mond, 1 830-1 834; Daniel Brown, 1 834-1 837 ; John Pettes, 1 837-1 839; 
Joel Lull, 1 839-1 842; Zenas F. Hyde, 1 842-1 844; Gilman Henry, 1844- 
1850; Lorenzo Richmond, 1 850-1 868 ; Surry W. Stimson, 1 868-1 880 • 
RoUin Amsden, 1 880-1 884; Gardner J. Wallace, 1 884-1 888; Wilson 
S. Lovell, 1888, the present sheriff. 

' These two sheriffs were officers of Cumberland county under Vermont. 

loo History of Windsor County. 

States Attorneys. — Stephen Jacobs, 1786; Amasa Paine, 1 796-1 802; 
Daniel Buck, 1 802-1 803 ; Titus Hutchinson, 1803-18 13 ; Horace Ever- 
ett, 181 3-1 8 18; Asa Aiken, 18 18-1820; Jacob CoUamer, 1 820-1 824; 
Isaac N. Cushman, 1824-1827; Wyllys Lyman, 1827-1831; Carlos 
Coolidge, 1831-1836; Oliver P. Chandler, 1836-1838 ; Edwin Hutchin- 
son, 1838-1840; Henry Closson, 1840-1842; Sevvall Fullam, 1842-1844; 
Julius Converse, 1844-1847; Sewall Fullam, 1847-1849; Luther Ad- 
ams, 1849-1851 ; Warren C. French, 1851-1853; Calvin French, 1853- 
1854; James Barrett, 1854-1856; John Ward, 1856-1858; Dudley C. 
Dennison, 1858-1860; William Rounds, 1860-1861 ; Charles P. Marshy 
1861-1865 ; John F. Deane, 1865-1867 ; Samuel E. Pingree, 1867-1869; 
James N. Edminster, 1 869-1 872 ; William E. Johnson, 1 872-1 874; Will- 
iam H. Walker, 1874-1876; Norman Paul, 1876-1878 ; Gilbert A. Da- 
vis, 1878-1880; Thomas O. Seaver, 1880-1882; William W. Stickney^ 
1 882-1 884; James J. Wilson, 1 884-1 886; WilHam Batchelder, 1886- 
1888; Wilham B.C. Stickney, 1888-1890. 

Judges of Probate. — Windsor District. Paul Spooner,^ 1778-1782; 
Ebenezer Curtis, 1 782-1 786 ; Briant Brown, 1786-1787; Elijah Robin- 
son, 1787-1802; William Hunter, 1802-1816; Uriel C. Hatch, 1816- 
1823; Jonathan Whipple, 1 823-1 830; Jabez Proctor, 1 830-1 834; Nom- 
lass Cobb, 1834-1835; Thomas F. Hammond, 1835-1849; Salmon F. 
Dutton, 1849-1857; Henry Closson, 1857-1868; Wilham Rounds, 1868- 
1878; William H.Walker, 1878-1884; Hugh Henry, 1884, the present 

Hartford District. John Throop, 1783-1793; Paul Brigham, 1793- 
1796; William Perry, 1796-1800; Paul Brigham, 1800-1801 ; Oliver 
Gallup, 1 801-1803 ; Jesse Williams, 1803-18 15 ; Benjamin Clapp, 1815- 
1820; Henry C. Denison, 1820-1826; Isaiah Raymond, 1826-1836; 
John S. Marcy, 1836-1841 ; Thomas P. Russell, 1841-1843: George E. 
Wales, 1 843-1 848 ; Josiah P. Danforth, 1 848-1 850; John Porter, 1850- 
1886; Thomas O. Seaver, 1886, present probate judge of the district. 

Present County Officials. — William Rounds and Charles P. Marsh, as- 
sistant judges. Officers of the Court: Jay Read Pember, clerk; Nor- 
man Paul, deputy clerk; Wilson S. Lovell, sheriff; W. B. C. Stickney, 
State's attorney; Lester C. Howe, high bailiff; Jay Read Pember, sten- 

' Appointed as an officer of Cumberland county. 

Officials. ioi 

ographer. Deputy sherififs : Elliott G. White, Cavendish ; William P. 
Dodge, Chester; Lester C. Howe, Ludlow; Samuel A. Armstrong, 
Norwich; Levi B. Moore, Plymouth; L. G. Coolridge, Reading; Dan- 
iel C. Jones, South Royalton ; Romaine A. Spafiford, Springfield ; O. A. 
Randall, White River Junction ; Edward D. Harpin, Woodstock; B. J. 
Mullins, Windsor. County treasurer, Hosea V. French. County audi- 
tor, Luther O. Greene. County commissioner, George O. Henry. Jail 
commissioners, Thomas O. Seaver, Enos R. Jennings, Hosea V. French. 
Road commissioners, Henry Safford, Henry J. Parker, Myron Burnett. 
County examining board, J. G. Sargent, W. H. Sanderson, Miss Jessie 


Town Organizations — Not Affected by Vermont's Admission to the Union — Char- 
acter of Town Government — Dates of Org-anization both by Verinont, New Hampshire 
and New York — From 1791 to the War of 181 2-1 5 — Events of the War— Peace Re- 
stored — An Era of Prosperity^Increase of Population — Subsequent Decrease— Causes 
of the DecHne — Emigration Westward. 

WHEN the State of Vermont was admitted to the Federal Union, 
in 1 79 1, all that had been previously done by the State toward 
erecting and maintaining an independent government was confirmed and 
sanctioned by Congress, while the jurisdiction theretofore attempted to 
be exercised by New York was withdrawn and declared at an end. At 
that time the county of Windsor, and others of the State as well, was 
fairly well organized, the officers of each branch of the local government 
were in the exercise of their functions, and peace and plenty prevailed 
on every hand. 

But the townships of Windsor county, or at least a majority of them, 
were organizations the creation of which antedated that of the State 
and that of the county, by a number of years. Between the governor 
of New Hampshire on the one side, and of New York on the other, 
there was but little of the territory of Vermont that had not in some 

History of Windsor County. 

manner been granted and chartered. These grants, of course, were con- 
flicting in numerous cases, and the grantees and their successors were 
compelled to pay allegiance to one or the other of the Commonwealths; 
and instances are not wanting in which the settlers of towns surrendered 
their original charter from th^^ one government, and purchased anew 
from the other. 

Of the several towns that now comprise Windsor county the first to 
be chartered was that now known as Chester, but which under the orig- 
inal grant was named Fiamstead. The first grant of this town was 
made February 22, 1754. However, the charter proprietors failed to 
comply with the conditions and requirements of the grant, whereupon 
it was forfeited. The second charter of the same territory was made on 
the 3d of November, 1761, to another set of proprietors, and under an- 
other name, the latter being New Fiamstead. Under this grant settle- 
ments were made and pioneer improvements commenced. But it 
appears that during the early years of the controversy between New 
York and the Green Mountain Boys, the inhabitants of this town were 
disposed to favor the New York interests, and being imbued with such 
spirit, yielded up or set at nought the New Hampshire charter and pro- 
cured another from the former province. Under this last grant, which 
was made on July 14, 1766, the name of Chester was given the town- 
ship, and by that name it has ever since been known. In 1771, under 
the New York authority, an enumeration of the town's inhabitants was 
made, and Chester was found to contain one hundred and fifty-two souls. 

The next grants of townships now of Windsor county under the 
authority of New Hampshire were made on the 4th day of July, 1761, 
by which the towns of Hartford and Norwich were brought into exist- 
ence. Then, following, two days later, on July 6th, Governor Went- 
worth made grants of the townships of Salt-'ish (now Plymouth), Read- 
ing and Windsor. Pomfret came next, July 8, 1761, and was followed 
on the lOth of the same month by Hertferd (Hartland), Woodstock and 
Bridgewater. Barnard was chartered on the 17th of July, 176 1; Stock- 
bridge on the 2 1 St; Sharon on the 17th of August; Springfield and 
Weathersfield on the 20th; Ludlow on September i6th; Cavendish on 
October 12th; Andover on October 13th. All of these towns were 
granted during the year 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth of New 

Various Township Grants. 103 

Hampshire. But not all of these towns were organized and continued 
under the authority of the New Hampshire charters, some subsequently, 
like Chester, receiving a new grant from the provincial governor of New 

And there were other towns, too, that now form a part of this county 
that were organized or granted under still another jurisdiction — that of 
the independent district or State of Vermont, although they were, of 
course, a later-day creation. Bethel was one of the latter class of town- 
ships, being the result of an association, which was formed at Hanover, 
N. H., and which petitioned the Vermont authority for a charter right 
for the purpose of making a settlement on the White River and its 
branches. This petition was made to the Vermont Legislature in 1778, 
and was granted during the month of March of the same year. 

In substantial!}' the same manner was the town of Rochester brought 
into existence, the grant therefor being made on the 30th of July, 1781. 
It contained originally slightly more than twenty- three thousand acres 
of land, but its township area was materially increased by subsequent 
annexations from adjoining towns. 

Royalton was one of the townships granted first under the authority 
of New York, on November 13, 1769, but the claimants under that 
charter felt insecure in their possession, and were fearful less the con- 
stantly increasing and arbitrary power of Vermont should deprive them 
of their believed rights, and were consequently induced to apply for a 
new charter under the new State, which was granted to the petitioners 
on December 20,' 1781. 

Next in the order of formation came the township of Baltimore ; a 
small, triangular tract of land, embracing some three thousand acres, 
which, for the convenience of the residents of that part of the town of 
Cavendish who lived southeast of Hawk's Mountain, was set off into a 
separate sub-division of the county, by an act of the Vermont Legisla- 
ture passed October 19, 1793. This is the smallest by several fold of 
any of the coiint}''s sub-divisions, but none the less a township, organ- 
ized and conducted upon the same truly democratic plan of govern- 
ment so characteristic of all New England towns. 

The same necessity that led to the formation of Baltimore also induced 
the erection of the township of Weston out of the lands that formerly 

104 History of Windsor County. 

formed a part of Andover and the five thousand acre tract known as 
Benton's Gore. The extremely high ridges known as Mount Terrible 
and Markham Mountain extended north and south about through the 
central part of Andover, thus making it exceedingly difficult for the res- 
idents of the western part of that township to hold business communica- 
tion with the eastern half; and for this reason the western inhabitants 
betook themselves to the State Legislature, asking that their section be 
erected into a separate township. Their prayer was heard, and on the 
26th of October, 1799, the western part of the town, toge her with the 
gore, was erected into a separate town and named Weston. 

The town of West Windsor is the junior of the sub-divisions of the 
county, its separation from the township of Windsor having been effected 
first in 1 8 14, but restored during the next year. Again, in 1848, the 
town of Windsor was divided, and West Windsor set off". The act of the 
Legislature that effected the last division was passed October 26, 1848. 
The causes that led to this separation, the restoration and final division 
will be found in detail in the chapter devoted to the history of the towns 
affected, which need no further allusion in this place. Likewise, in the 
history of the several towns of the county, on subsequent pages, there 
will be found special mention of all the facts relating to the organization, 
settlement, growth and development of each from the time of its charter 
to the present day. 

In the present connection, however, it is proper to furnish to the 
reader the names of the townships of this county which were organized 
under the jurisdiction and control of the province and subsequent State 
of New York ; and this mention, collectively, becomes important from 
the fact that the preceding pages of this chapter have noted the organ- 
ization under the New Hampshire and Vermont authority. The towns 
now forming a part of Windsor county which were chartered or granted 
by the governors of New York, together with the date of each, are as 
follows : 

Bethel. 1 — This town was first chartered or granted to a company of 
men, most of whom were then, or afterwards became, Tories. The date 
of this charter is unknown. 

Cavendish. — This town was chartered by New York June 16, 1772. 

These statements are made upon the authority of Demings Catalogjie. 

Town Grants from New York. 105 

Chester. — Already mentioned ; chartered by New York July 14, 1766. 

Hartland. — Chartered as "Hertferd" by New Hampshire July 10, 
1761 ; but charter confirmed by New York to other proprietors July 23, 

Plymouth, formerly Saltash. — Town granted by New York to Ichabod 
Fisher and others May 13, 1772. 

Reading. — Granted by New York March 6, 1772, to Simon Stevens 
and others. 

Royalton. — Chartered by New York November 13, 1769. 

Springfield. — Granted by New York to Gideon Lyman March 16, 
1772. . • 

Stockbridge. — Granted by New York to William Story and others in 

Weathersfield. — Granted, April 8, 1772, to Gideon Lyman and others. 

Windsor. — Granted, July 7, 1766, to David Stone, 2d, and others. 

From what has already been stated in this chapter it will be observed 
that the greater part of the towns of Windsor county were in existence 
a number of years prior to the organization of the county itself. When 
Windsor county was set off by the division of Cumberland county the 
character of the government of the towns was in no manner changed, 
and the only effect of that act was to lessen the territory included within 
the county, and to make its government more convenient for its in- 
habitants and for the State. And by the extinguishment of the New 
York authority and jurisdiction there seems not to have been occasioned 
any material change in any of the towns, and no interests appear to have 
been adversely affected. The people were merely changed from the 
jurisdiction of one State to that of another, and all controversy over the 
rights of States was at once and for all time ended and forgotten. Those 
of the town that were organized and governed under the New York 
charters continued for the time being their distinctive character, and the 
succeeding elections not infrequently found ofhcers chosen under Ver- 
mont that had previously served under New York. 

Such became the situation of affairs in this county, and in others, when 
Vermont was admitted to the Union in 1791. Disagreements and dis- 
putes were alike compromised and dropped as the result of that consum- 
mation, and an interest in the general welfare of the whole people took 
the place of petty strifes and contention among individuals. 1* 

io6 History of Windsor County. 

With the end attained, the people of the several towns of the county 
entered upon an era of prosperity not before enjoyed in the history of 
the Commonwealth. And the people of the region were fully able to 
appreciate the advantages and blessings of peace and quiet, as for forty 
years prior to that event those who had lived in the State and upon the 
grants had seen nothing but a succession of combats and misfortunes 
and strifes and dissensions, and to them in particular was the peace that 
followed the year 1791 a double blessing. 

But for only one short score of years were the people to be thus fa- 
vored, when America found herself on the verge of another war with 
Great Britain; and again' was the farmer to leave the field, the woods- 
man the forest, and the mechanic his shop, and with sword and musket 
again join the ranks in the defense of that independence he had so lately 
fought to gain. During the five years next preceding 1812 the whole 
country was in a state of nominal peace; but throughout these years 
there was gathering in the political horizon that dark cloud which was 
destined to plunge the nation into another foreign war. In 177S. and 
the years following, America fought for independence, and achieved a 
recognition among the powers of the earth. In 18 12 she again engaged 
against the mother country to maintain that independence which in years 
past had been forcibly acquired. 

The events which led to the second war with England were numerous. 
The United States had scrupulously observed the provisions of the 
peace treaty made with Great Britain at the close of the Revolution. 
There had been maintained, too, a strict neutrality during the progress 
of the Napoleonic war with the British kingdom, when perhaps every 
consideration of gratitude should have induced a participation in it as 
against the mother country. For several years the aggressive acts of 
the British had been a subject of anxiety and regret, and feelings of ani 
mosity increased on this side of the Atlantic. The embargo laid by 
Congress on the shipping in America ports was found so injurious to 
Commercial interests that it was repealed, and the non- intercourse act 
passed in its stead. In April, 1809, the English ambassador in Wash- 
ington opened negotiations for the amicable adjustment of existing diffi- 
culties, and consented to a withdrawal of the obnoxious " orders in coun- 
cil," so far as they affected the United States, on condition that the 

War of 1812. 107 

non-intercourse act with Great Britain be repealed. This was agreed 
upon, and the President issued a proclamation announcing that, on the 
lOth day of June, trade with Great Britain might be resumed; but the 
English government refused to ratify the proceedings and recalled their 
minister, whereupon the President revoked his proclamation and the 
non-intercourse act again became operative. 

Besides the odious acts of the British Parliament, injurious and insult- 
ing in their character, the English officers claimed the right to search 
American vessels, seize all who were suspected of being subjects of the 
king, and force them into their service. Under cover of this claim the 
greatest outrages were perpetrated, and by it many true and loyal per- 
sons were pressed into the service of Great Britain, both against their 
inclination and the well established proof of their identity. 

On the 1 2th of June, 18 12, President James Madison sent a confiden- 
tial communication to Congress, in which he recapitulated the long list 
of British aggressions, and declared it the duty of Congress to consider 
whether the American people should longer passively submit to the ac- 
cummulated wrongs and insults perpetrated by the British, and at the 
same time he cautioned the House to avoid entanglements in the con- 
tests and views of other powers. 

War was formally declared on the 19th day of June, 181 2, but the 
measure was not universally sustained throughout all parts of the Middle 
and New England States. The opposing element was embraced in the 
Federal party, its chief ground of opposition being that the country was 
not prepared for war. The Federalists constituted a large and influen- 
tial minority of the political element of Congress, and had a considerable 
following in the several States not in active politics. They asked for 
further negotiations, and met the denunciations made by the ruling party 
(that is, the Democratic and Republican, for it went by both names) 
upon the English government with savage and bitter attacks upon Na- 
poleon, whom they accused the majority with favoring. 

To say that there was an entire unanimity of sentiment, regarding tlie 
war measures, in Windsor county would be indeed an error. Both par- 
ties had their advocates, the Federalists being in the minority in the 
county, and generally in the towns. The subject of the war formed the 
uppermost topic of conversation at the usual places of resort, and fac- 

io8 History of Windsor County. 

tional feeling ran high, especially just preceding the fall elections. But 
the battles were fought mainly at the polls, although personal collisions 
were not unknown. Party nominations were made with regard to the 
factional sentiments, those of F"ederalistic tendencies calling theirs the 
Peace Party, and denominating their opponents as Screaming War 
Hawks. The Democrats and Republicans, on the other hand, were in 
favor of the war, and were content to be called the War Party, while for 
their opponents they entertained feelings of supreme contempt, charging 
them with cowardice and being afraid of going to war. 

But this was not all that was done in Windsor county during the short 
but decisive struggle that followed. When the governor and the State 
Legislature called for troops from the counties of Vermont, no locality 
responded more promptly than the men of Windsor county, and all the 
various militia organizations were at once prepared for active operations. 
The events of the war need not be retold here. Men from this county 
were engaged in the battle at Plattsburgh, and other operations in the re- 
gion of Lake Champlain, while still others joined the regular army and 
fought in the battles in the Middle, Southern and Western States. 
Man}'^ went with the army who never returned to their homes. 

The results of the war are written in the conflicts on Lake Erie, the 
repulse of the invaders on the Delaware, the distressing scenes on the 
Chesapeake, the invasion of New York and the attempt to control the 
Hudson River and Lake Champlain. The battle at Plattsburgh, the 
capture of Niagara and Oswego, the burning of Newark, the battles at 
Black Rock and Lundy's Lane and New Orleans, together with the naval 
engagements in American waters, were the chief events of the war, and 
were followed by the withdrawal and surrender of the British forces, and 
the final treaty of peace, which was ratified February 17, 181 5. The 
Americans had fought their last battle with a European foe. 

After the close of the second war with England the people entered 
another epoch of peace, an era of unexampled prosperity in the history 
of the State, during which the latent and hitherto undeveloped resources 
of every county were brought to light and utilized to their fullest ex- 
tent During these years greater progress marked the history of Wind- 
sor, and other counties, than had all others combined. Enterprise 
followed enterprise, manufacture followed manufacture, agricultural 


""^ ^<¥S>^ 

,^ c^^^^^-f^/^ — 

Population. 109 

pursuits increased several fold, and all the arts of peace prospered be- 
yond expectation. The population of the several towns increased 
with the constantly growing wealth and progress of their people, the 
maximum of inhabitants of the county being reached in the year 1830, 
as indicated by the Federal census of that year. About this time the 
vast extent of western country was being opened and prepared for civ- 
ilized settlement, cultivation and improvement. Western Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and other territorial 
lands, were inviting fields for labor and speculation, and drew largely 
and constantly from the ambitious people of this county and State; in 
fact from all New England, and from New York, New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania as well. 

Let us look for a moment and observe the fluctuations of the aggre- 
gate population of the towns of Windsor county. In 1771, six years 
before Vermont declared her independence, while the district was known 
as the New Hampshire Grants, the province of New York caused to be 
made an enumeration of the inhabitants of the several towns that after- 
ward became a part of Windsor county ; and the gross population as 
shown by that census, ten towns being included by it, was 1,205. 
Twenty years later, in 1791, the first Federal census was taken, and the 
county was shown to have a population of 15,740, since which time the 
enumeration made at the beginning of each decade of years has shown 
as follows : In 1800,26,944; 1810, 34,877; 1820,38,233; 1830, 40,- 
625 ; 1840, 40,356; 1850, 38,320; 1860,37,193; 1870, 36,063; and in 
1880, 35.196. 

Vermont is noted for her high and attractive mountains, of which all 
her counties are possessed to a greater or less extent, Windsor forming 
no exception to the rule; and while these grand hills afford a beautiful 
view to delight the eye of the observer, they have not a specially invit- 
ing aspect to attract the agriculturist. The lands in the valleys and 
on the foot-hills are, or might be with little effort, very fertile, but the 
higher elevations are either unfit for cultivation, or if fit are so difficult 
of access as to make tillage unprofitable. But in the western country 
an altogether different condition of affairs exists. There mechanical 
devices have largely taken the place of "hand " labor, and a more than 
reasonably good return is generally assured the husbandman with a but 

History of Windsor County. 

comparatively small expenditure of means or muscle. Hence the emi- 
gration to other States which has told so seriously against the popula- 
tion and prospects of this region. Other causes than those mentioned 
may also have helped to contribute to the reduction of the population. 
It is claimed by some authorities that certain legislative restrictions have 
been factors in bringing about this state of things, but however that may 
be, is a subject for discussion not to be debated here. 



WHEN on that eventful morning of April, i86i, Fort Moultrie's 
guns spelled upon the political sky of our countrx', in letters red 
as blood, the words " Civil War," the loyal sons of Windsor county, 
and of Vermont, breathing a spirit of patriotism as pure as the air of the 
grand hills around them, rushed to the Nation's Capital to uphold the 
honor of the flag, and preserve intact the republic. It was not with 
them a question what battles were to be fought, what graves filled, or 
what altars shivered ; but donning the blue vowed, no matter what the 
cost, that the serpent of secession should find an eternal grave, and 
gasp its last amid shrieking shell and hissing bullet. 

The " mystic chord of memory stretching from every battlefield and 
patriot grave " brings before us, in meteoric brilliancy, the important 
part performed by Windsor county's soldiery in that great struggle. 
Loyal citizens only knew that they were needed, and they hastened to 
respond. They exchanged the rippling music of the mountain stream 
for the thunder of the deep-mouthed cannon and the deafening musketry 
volley; they went forth from the roof-tree of home to camp on South- 
ern soil, and stand guard in the pitiless night beneath the sorrowing 
stars; they went out to be shot to death, if need be ; to be fired at by a 
concealed and merciless foe; to struggle in delirium in hospitals, or 

The War of the Rebellion. 

shiver and starve in loathsome pens, with stones for pillows and vermin 
for companions, that the flag might be preserved unsullied. This was 
the spirit that animated the volunteers of Windsor as they sprung into 
the arena where Titans struggled. 

Remembering the beautiful sentiment expressed by Colonel Stuart 
Taylor, it may well be asked : Fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters 
of Wmdsor county, can you look up to see the morning furrow all the 
orient into gold without thinking what sacred graves it gilds ? Or can 
you watch the slow declining day without wishing it could be always 
sunlight on the silent mounds of Windsor's patriot dead ? Do you ever 
see the spring-time daisy, or the purple violet, but that you think of the 
darling dust which feeds the wild flowers of the Wilderness, of Antietam, 
of Gettysburg, of Spottsylvania, of Petersburg, and other fields where 
loved and lost are sleeping? 

But the martial spirit of Windsor county was not born with the out- 
break of the Rebellion; it was in being in the days when the sturdy pio- 
neer woodsman first felled the forest, that prosperous towns might spring 
up, agricultural interests be enlarged, and the mechanical arls add to the 
wealth of the progressive inhabitants; it was in existence when the New 
York authorities sought to dispossess the struggling settlers from the 
lands which they had purchased, and to which they were justly entitled 
under the New Hampshire charters ; it existed when Ethan Allen, Seth 
Warner, Remember Baker, Robert Cochran, and other brave patriots 
and their followers organized themselves into the famous band of Green 
Mountain Boys, for the protection of homes as well as rights; it existed 
during the dark days of the Revolution, when the inhabitants and loyal 
people of the State and county found themselves deserted by their sister 
States, and were compelled, almost single-handed, to combat the com- 
mon enemy in a battle for self-preservation; it certainly existed when, 
on the 1 6th of August, 1777, the British arms received their first decisive 
defeat on the bloody battlefield of Bennington. That martial spirit ex- 
isted during the period of uncertainty, after the Revolution had passed, 
when Vermont was seeking admission to the Union, and, being practi 
cally denied by Congress, was compelled to substantially defy the power 
of the Federal government, in order to achieve that much desired inde- 
pendence and statehood for which her people were asking. Had it not 

History of Windsor County 

bjen for that determined martial spirit, Vermont as a State would never 
have been known. 

That same determined spirit was inherited by a later generation of 
sons of Vermont, and became patent when, in 1 8 1 2 and the years follow- 
ing, the government of Great Britain again sought to wrest the control 
of America from the people who held it ; for, despite the opposition of 
the Federalists, and their obstructive measures, the loyal men of the 
county again marched in the defense of their country, and performed 
well their part in driving the invaders from the land, thus preserving in- 
tact our federal institutions. 

Following the second war with England that spirit slept, and the only 
manifestation of its being was shown on the grand old days of " general 
training," when the farmer, the mechanic and the woodsman abandoned 
toil, and hied away to the "muster" for a season of jollification, to eat 
Yankee gingerbread and drink new cider, and boast of the prowess of 
the American eagle. 

But the record made by the volunteers of Windsor county from the 
first blaze of hostile cannon until secession was buried at Appomattox 
by the surrender of General Lee's sword, forms one of the most brilliant 
of the many grand chapters of its history. To faintly picture their serv- 
ices it will be necessary to refer to the regiments to which they be- 
longed, which forms an unbroken chain of testimony to demonstrate the 
patriotism of the county's soldiery. 

It is not to keep alive sectional animosity that the historian recites the 
acts of a victorious host. Would the Athenians meeting in the Angora 
listen to a proposition that no m^n speak of Marathon ? Would Romans 
teach nothing but philosophy, and withhold from a rising generation all 
knowledge of the victory of Scipio over Hannibal, or how Horatius held 
the bridge? It was not Marathon, but the memory of Marathon, which 
fixed the home of civilization in Europe instead of in Asia. It was not 
the surrender at Appomattox that binds in iron bands the States of this 
Union, but it is the memory of its cost, kept alive in the hearts of the 
people which gave to civilization its grandest onward step, and which 
some future Guizot, in tracing the pathway of human advancement, shall 
declare to the world the fullest enlargement of human liberty. And as 
other generations shall know the record of the services of the sons of 

The First Vermont Regiment. 113 

Windsor county, from 1861 to 1865, it will inspire them to preserve 
sacred the patriotic sentiment of " country first, the citizen afterward." 

The first considerable contribution of Windsor county volunteers for 
service was made in response to the call of President Lincoln for seventy- 
five thousand men, in April, 1861 ; but it was not until the 2d of May 
that the regiment, the First Vermont, was mustered into the United States 
service. To this command the county furnished two companies, B and E, 
known, respectively, as the Woodstock Light Infantry, and the Caven- 
dish Light Infantry, by which names it will be seen that the greater part 
of each was from the town for which it was named, although other towns 
were represented as the company rosters will show. The other towns 
from which the regiment was made up were Brandon, Middlebury, Rut- 
land, Northfield, Bradford, Burlington, St. Albans and Swanton. 

The First Vermont was under the command of Colonel J. Wolcott 
Phelps, of Brattleboro ; Lieutenant- Colonel Peter T. Washburn, of 
Woodstock; Major Harry N. Worthen, of Bradford; Adjutant Hiram 
Stevens, of Enosburg, and others in the several positions, among them 
Drum-Major Thomas R. Clarke, of Chester. 

The regiment left Rutland on the morning of May 9, 1861, under or- 
ders to proceed to Fortress Monroe, Va., at which place it arrived on the 
13th of the same month. For nearly a month after their arrival at this 
place the First was engaged in camp and reconnoissance duty, and it was 
not until the loth of June that the men were actually under fire. This 
was the battle at Great Bethel, the only one with which the command 
stands credited, and that was not a specially severe nor sanguinary en- 
gagement, the fatigue of hard marches and constant exposure having a 
more telling effect upon the men than the battle itself After the affair 
at Bethel the men of the First were kept at garrison duty and marching 
on scouting expeditions, until the 4th of August, when, the term of en- 
listment having expired, they embarked on steamers and voyaged to 
New Haven, arriving at that city two days later, and thence, after hav- 
ing been paid off and mustered out, proceeded to their several homes. 
Of the seven hundred and eighty- two officers and men of the First Ver- 
mont Regiment that went to Virginia, all but five returned to the State; 
and of those five only one, Dana H. Whitney, of Company B, was the 
Windsor county soldier that was killed, and he between Newport News 
and Hampton, on July 22, 1861. i^ 

114 History of Windsor County. 

Inasmuch as the succeeding pages will make no further account of the 
three months' men, but will furnish the names, by townships, of the vol- 
unteers of the county in subsequent regiments, equal justice seems to 
demand that at least a roll of the members of companies B and E be given. 
Therefore the following list shows the name of each man and the town 
of which he was a resident at the time of enlistment. 

Roster Company B, First Regiment. 

William W. Pelton, captain, Woodstock ; Andrew J. Dike and Solo- 
mon E. Woodward, first lieutenants, and William E. Sweet, George Dim- 
ick and Royal Darby, sergeants, of Woodstock ; Harvey N. Bruce, ser- 
geant, of Pomfret ; Charles O. Thompson, Edwin C. Emmons, Crayton 

A. Woodbury, Norman M. Hoisington, corporals, and George H. Mur- 
dock, musician, of Woodstock. 

Privates from Woodstock. — Edwin R. Carroll, Sylvanus Chamberlain. 
Nathan C. Chaflin, George W. Cobb, Homer Darling, Irving J. Faunce, 
Frederick Fay, Henry H. French, John Gilman, Jesse W. Leonard, Mar- 
tin A. Lucas, Lewis L. Marsh, Oliver H. McKenzie, jr., Chauncey L. 
Murdock, Reuben M. Parker, Edwin R. Payne, George W. Paul, George 
C. Randall, Chauncey E. Raymond, George L. Raymond, Clifton Rich- 
mond, Edward L Richmond, Franklin B. Rice, Charles J. Taft, Henry 

B. Thompson, Dana H. Whitney, Henry Williamson, Seth J. Winslow. 
From Hartford. — Joseph P. Aiken, Henry P. H}de, Sumner H. Lincoln, 
Mahlon M. Young. Bariiard. — Milton J. Aiken, Henry F. Buckman, 
Orlando C. Smith. Plymouth. — Michael H. Barker, James Brown, Daniel 
P. Cilley, Orville M. Hudson, Luther F. Moore. Mount Hoi ley. ^ — Henry 
H. Bishop. Ludlow. — Henry P. Bixby, John M. Buckley, Henry C 
Cleveland, George Levey, John B. Pollard. Hartland. — Horace Brad 
ley. Fairfield, Mc.^ — Selden Conner. Bridgewater. — Myron M. Dim 
ick, John Y. Raistrick, W. Wallace Southgate, Edwin Weecieu. Pomfret. 
— Henry H. Harding, Edwin B. Maxhatn, Ora Paul jr., Richard A 
Seaver. Stoekbridge — Albeit B. Kimball, Hiram A Kimball. RoeJi- 
ester. — Edgar B. Leonard. Acton, Mass."" — George W. Mason. Bethel, 
— George W Packard. Reading. — Edwin Spear. Sherburne} — Wil- 
ton G. Wood. 

' Out of county. 


The First Vermont Regiment. 115 

Roster Company E, First Regiment. 

Oscar S. Tuttle, captain, Asaph Clark, first lieutenant, Salmon But- 
ton, second lieutenant, of Cavendish. George B. French, Cavendish, 
William H. Thompson, Chester, Geo. M. R. Howard, Cavendish, Ben- 
oni B. Fullam, Ludlow, sergeants. Nathan G. B. Witherell, Cavendish, 
Charles Boutin, Windham, Henry C. Williams, Springfield, Lowell B. 
Payne, Cavendish, corporals. Isaac T. Chase, Andover, Geo. C. Max- 
field, Chester, musicians. 

Privates from Cavendish. — Oliver H. Blanchard, William W. Carey, 
Fremont C. Conant, Nelson W. Emery, Samuel Fitch, Jason E. Free- 
man, William H. Ingleston, George S. Miller, Charles A. Shepard, Will- 
iam J. Sperry, George T. Spaulding, Edmund Stone, Alick Stearns, 
George D. Taylor, Isaac H. Weston, Jonathan B. Witherell. From 
Springfield.— ]dimcs H. Allen, Albert W. Allen, William H. Blodgett, 
Albert S. Clapp, Ezra M. De Camp, Roswell W. Frost, Benjamin S. 
Kendrick, Luke Kendall, William H. Perkins, Charles Wheeler. 
Weathers field. — Henry Allen, John Hart, Allen D. Russell. Chester. — 
Perry S. Bridges, Edward M. Carlisle, Martin Chapman, James F. Cor- 
lis, Riley Deming, Alphonso S. Field, Ira G. Hazelton, Charles A. Mar- 
shall, Jerold E. Marsdale, Gardner H. Porter, Ransom W. Rand, Henry 
E. Smith, George S. Spring, Benjamin M. Ware, John E. Willey. Liid- 
low. — Joseph Barber, Leonard P. Bingham, Charles W. Bishop, William 
H. H. Buckley, Enos M. Gould, Henry E. Lawrence, Orris Pier, Frank 
D. Sargent. Andover. — Ira E. Chase, James W. Larkin, Charles W. 
Larkin. From out of county. — Orrin S. Adams, Troy, N. H., Sewell 
Barker, Grafton, John Conlin, Rutland, Edward L. Hazelton, Hebron, 
N. H., George S. Orr, Moses E. Orr, Pawlet, William Scholar, Middle- 
ton, William F. Williams, Winchendon, Mass. 

If the reader will but glance at the succeeding pages of the present 
chapter, especially at the roster of commissioned officers, it will at once 
be seen that there was scarcely a branch of the military service in which 
there were not some representatives from Windsor county. Most of the 
volunteers, enlisted in the companies and regiments subsequent to the 
First Vermont, were for three years' service, while not a few were among 
what was known as the nine months' men. Some, however, were en- 

ii6 History of Windsor County. 

listed for one year. Taking these subsequent commands in the order of 
organization, it is proposed to make a brief mention of each, showing 
their formation, the locaUties in which the companies in whole or in part 
were reunited, and the battles in which they participated. 

The Second Regiment. 

There were comparatively few recruits from Windsor county in this 
command, it having been raised during the latter part of May and the 
early part of June, i86i, while the men of the First were away at the 
front. Those of the Second from this locality were scattered through 
three companies, C, E, and I, the second named having the strongest 
representation. None of the field and staff officers seem to have been 
from this county. The regiment was placed under command of Colonel 
Henry Whiting of St. Clair, Mich., but a native of New York State, and 
a graduate of the United States Military Academy. Upon the resigna- 
tion of Colonel Whiting, in 1863, James H. Walbridge, formerly captain 
of Company A, was promoted to the command of the regiment. The 
other original and leading field officers of the Second were Lieutenant- 
Colonel George J. Stannard, Major Charles H. Joyce, and Adjutant 
Guilford S. Ladd. The principal company officers from Windsor county 
were Captain Orville Bixby and Captain Charles C. Morey, both of Roy- 
alton, who successively commanded Company E; Captain Volney S. 
Fullam of Ludlow, and Captain Daniel S. White of Cavendish, of Com- 
pany L Captain Charles C. Morey was formerly first lieutenant of Com- 
pany C. 

During the fall of 1861 the Second was formed with other State regi- 
ments into what became known as the famous Vermont Brigade, com- 
posed of the Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and, finally, the Sixth Infantry 
Regiments. After that organization was effected the record history of 
the Second was that of the brigade, commencing with the battle of Lee's 
Mills and continuing through the years 1862, '63, '64, and to the 6th of 
April, 1865. But before the Vermont Brigade was organized the Second 
was engaged at Bull Run, on the 2 1st of July, 1861. The regiment was 
mustered into service June 20, 1861, and mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Official List of Engagements. — Bull Run, July 21, 1861 ; Lee's Mills, 
April 16, 1862; Williamsburg, May 5 ; Golding's Farm, June 26; Sav- 

The Second and Third Vermont Regiments. 117 

age Station, June 29; White Oak Swamp, June 30 to July 2 ; Cramp- 
ton's Gap, September 14; Antietam, September 17; Fredericksburg, 
December 13 ; Marye's Heights, May 3, 1863 ; Salem Heights, May 4 ; 
Fredericksburg, June 5 ; Gettysburg, July 3 ; Funkstown, July 10; Rap- 
pahannock Station, November 7; Wilderness, May 5 to 10, 1864; 
Spottsylvania, May 10 to 18; Cold Harbor, June i to 12; Petersburg, 
June 18; Charlestown, August 21; Opequan, September 13; Winchester, 
September 19; Fisher's Hill, September 21-22; Mount Jackson, Sep- 
tember 24; Cedar Creek, October 19; Petersburg, March 25 and April 
2, 1865 ; Sailor's Run, April 6, 1865. A total of twenty-eight distinct 

The Third Regiment. 

The Third Regiment of Vermont Volunteers was raised about the 
same time as was its immediate predecessor, but was not mustered into 
service until six weeks later. The author of "Vermont in the Civil War " 
credits to Windsor county two companies, or parts of two, from the 
towns of Springfield and Hartford. Just how the companies were 
made up will be seen by reference to the town enrollments, but there 
was but one company, G, in the entire regiment that had no officers 
from this county, while all the others seem to have been pretty fairly 
represented. The roster of commissioned officers shows that not only 
Springfield and Hartford contributed to the strength of the regiment, 
but Pomfret, Cavendish, Royalton, Bethel and Weathersfield as well, 
with some representation from other towns. 

In the organization of the Third this county seems not to have been 
forgotten, and it is a somewhat noticeable fact that among the officers, 
field, staff and line, there appears the names of a number from Windsor 
county who have filled distinguished places in county, State and national 
affairs. And it is also noticeable that comparatively few of the repre- 
sentatives from this county were commissioned in their respective offices 
or positions on the field and staff at the time of organization, but were 
subsequently raised thereto by promotion, generally for meritorious serv- 
ices. Wheelock G. Veazey, then of Springfield, now generally known 
as Judge Veazey, was commissioned captain of Company A, May 21, 
1861, but on the loth of August was promoted major, and three days 

ii8 History of Windsor County. 

later to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Afterward, September i6, 1862, 
he was promoted to the colonelcy of the Sixteenth Vermont Volunteer 
Militia. Likewise Thomas O. Seaver, now Judge Seaver of Woodstock, 
was captain of Company F, by commission dated May 24, 1861, and 
was promoted major August 13, 1861, lieutenant-colonel September 
27, 1862, and colonel Januar)/' 15, 1863. Horace W. Floyd, ofSpring- 
field, entered the service as second-lieutenant in Company A, and by a 
series of promotions, in recognition of meritorious services, was advanced 
to the rank of colonel, his commission as such bearing date June 4, 
1865. Samuel E. Pingree, of Hartford, was first a lieutenant in Com- 
pany F, but the muster-out found him commissioned colonel. The 
name of Redfield Proctor is known to every patriotic Vermonter. He 
was the first regimental quartermaster of the Third, but was promoted 
in September to major of the Fifth Vermont. Quartermaster Proctor 
entered the service as a resident of Cavendish. 

Ten days after the Third was mustered into service it' was encamped 
on Georgetown Heights, six miles from Washington, where for the first 
time the men saw their regimental commander, William F. Smith, for- 
merly and then an ofiicer of the United States army. 

The experiences and vicissitudes of the field and camp-life of the 
Third need no recital here. The regiment formed a part of the Ver- 
mont Brigade, the First, and its record is written substantially in the his- 
tory of that organization. Still, the Third was engaged in many moves 
and expeditions in which the brigade had no part. A good proportion 
of the men veteranized, and those who did not were mustered out of 
service July 27, 1864. Those that were veterans, with recruits, were 
then consolidated into six companies. The regiment proper was mus- 
tered out of service July ii, 1865. 

The Third Vermont stands credited with having participated in twenty- 
eight engagements, as follows: Lewisville, September ii, 1861 ; Lee's 
Mills, April 16, 1862 ; WiUiamsburg, May 5 ; Golding's Farm, June 26; 
Savage Station, June 29; White Oak Swamp, June 30 to July 2; 
Crampton's Gap, September 14; Antietam, September 17; Fredericks- 
burg, December 13; Marye's Heights, May 3, 1863; Salem Heights, 
May 4; Fredericksburg, June 5 ; Gettysburg, July 3 ; Funkstown, July 
10; Rappahannock Station, November 7; Wilderness, May 5 to 10, 

The Fourth Vermont Regiment. 119 

1864; Spottsylvania, May 10 to 18; Cold Harbor, June i to 12; Peters- 
burg, June 18 ; Ream's Station, June 29 ; Washington, July 1 1 ; Charles- 
town, August 21; Opequan, September 13; Winchester, September 
19; Fisher's Hill, September 21-22 ; Cedar Creek, October 19 ; Peters- 
burg, March 25 and 27, and April 2, 1865. 

The Fourth Regiment. 

The Windsor county contribution to this command was, like that of 
theThird, scattered through the several companies that composed it, there 
being scarcely a single company in which some one at least of the 
county's towns was not represented. But there seems not to have been 
so great a county representation on the field and staff in the Fourth as 
was the case in theThird ; neither is it probable that the county furnished 
as many men to this regiment as to the former. On the field and staff 
was Lieutenant -Colonel Stephen M. Pingree of Stockbridge, who was 
formerly first lieutenant of Company E, but who by several promotions 
was elevated to the rank named, his commission bearing date April 30, 
1864. George B. French of Cavendish was first lieutenant of Com- 
pany C, but when mustered out he was adjutant of the regiment. Henry 
W. Spafford of Weathersfield enlisted as regimental commissary ser- 
geant, but was mustered out as quartermaster. Dr. Samuel J. Allen, of 
Hartford, was commissioned surgeon August 15, 1861, and served as 
such until September 30, 1864. 

The Fourth was mustered into the United States service September 
21, 1861, with Colonel Edwin H. Stoughton commanding; Harry N. 
Worthen, lieutenant colonel; John C. Tyler, major; and Charles B. 
Stoughton, adjutant. None of the Windsor county contingent figured 
as original members of the field and staff, except Surgeon Allen. This 
regiment was raised during the early fall of 1861, in response to Governor 
Fairbanks'scall for two regiments in addition to those already at the front, 
in respect to which call the governor's proclamation, according to Ben- 
edict, says : "The events of the 21st instant (meaning the disastrous 
result of Bull Run battle, July 2ist), and the retreat of the United States 
army from the field near Manassas Junction, demonstrated the neces- 
sity of a greatly increased national force, and although no formal requi- 
sition has been made upon me by the secretary of war, nor any appor- 

I20 History of Windsor County. 

tionment of troops as the quota for this State communicated, yet the 
events referred to indicate clearly the necessity of exercising the discre- 
tionary power conferred on me by the aforesaid act for raising and or- 
ganizing additional regiments. Orders will therefore be issued immedi- 
ately to the adjutant aud inspector-general for enlisting the Fourth and 
Fifth regiments of volunteers for three years or during the war, to be 
tendered to the general government as soon as may be practicable to 
arm, equip and descipline the troops for service." 

These, then, were the circumstances under which the Fourth was re- 
cruited ; and with such promptness was the request of the governor com- 
plied with, that within thirty days from the time both the Fourth and 
Fifth Regiments were raised and ready for arms and equipments. Im- 
mediately after the muster-in the Fourth left their rendezvous at Brattle- 
boro and proceeded to the national capital, where they arrived on the 
evening of September 23d. Four days later the men were marched to 
Chain Bridge, and there joined the preceding Vermont regiments. From 
that time forth the service of the Fourth was exceedingly active, as will 
be seen from the appended list of engagements. The muster record of 
the Fourth Regiment states thus : " Mustered into service September 21, 
1 86 1. Original members, not veterans, mustered out September 30, 
1864 First, Second and Third Companies of Sharpshooters trans- 
ferred to Fourth Regiment February 25, 1865. Veterans, recruits and 
troops transferred from the Sharpshooters consolidated into eight com- 
panies February 25, 1865. Recruits for one year and recruits whose 
term of service would expire previous to October ist, 1865, mustered out 
of service June 19, 1865. Remainder of regiment mustered out of serv- 
ice July 13, 1865." 

Official list of engagements : Total, twenty-six. Lee's Mills, April 16, 
1862 ; Williamsburg, May 5 ; Golding's Farm, June 26 ; Savage Station^ 
June 29 ; White Oak Swamp, June 30 to July 2 ; Crampton's Gap, Sep- 
tember 14; Antietam, September 17; Fredericksburg, December 13- 
Marye's Heights, May 3, 1863 ; Salem Heights, May 4; Fredericksburg, 
June 5 ; Gettysburg, July 3 ; Funkstown, July 10; Rappahannock Sta- 
tion, November 7 ; Wilderness, May 5 to 10, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 
10 to 18; Cold Harbor, June i to 12; Petersburg, June 18; Weldon 
Railroad, June 23 ; Charlestown, August 21 ; Opequan, September 13- 

The Fifth and Sixth Vermont Regiments. 121 

Winchester, September 19; Fisher's Hill, September 21-22; Cedar 
Creek, October 19; Petersburg, March 25, 27 and April 2, 1865. 

The Fifth Regiment. 

The contingent of Windsor soldiery in this command was so exceed- 
ing small as to need but slight mention in this chapter. The regiment 
may be considered as having been the companion of the Fourth, as it 
was raised at the same time and under the same call, though mainly 
from a distant section of the State. It was mustered into service Sep- 
tember 16, 1 86 1. Redfield Proctor of Cavendish was appointed major, 
September 25, 1861, while Myron S. Dudley of Chester, who enlisted 
as private in Company E, November 28, 1863, was ultimately advanced 
to the rank of captain of Company K. Whatever of troops were in the 
various companies of this regiment will be found by reference to the 
town rolls. 

The Sixth Regiment. 

The Sixth Regiment of Vermont Volunteers was raised during the 
last half of the month of September, 1861, in pursuance of a request 
made upon Governor Fairbanks by the war department, and received 
by that officer on the same day that the Fifth was mustered into serv- 
ice. It would seem that having already at the front four complete reg- 
iments, all recruited within a very few months of each other, some diffi- 
culty might be encountered in at once preparing for the field another 
thousand men, but such was not the case. Immediately upon receipt 
of the request Governor Fairbanks caused recruiting offices to be estab- 
lished in various sections of the State for the purpose of organizing the 
Sixth Regiment. In this county recruiting stations were made at Nor- 
wich, Royalton and Woodstock, while there was perhaps a dozen simi 
lar offices in other counties throughout the State. The result of this 
effort was the enlistment of nearly enough men for a full regiment within 
the space of twelve days, and the lacking number was obtained very 
soon thereafter. The men were rendezvoused at Montpelier, where the 
regimental organization was perfected. On the 15th it was mustered 
into service, and four days later took its departure for Washington, 
where it lay in camp until the 24th of October, and then marched to 


122 History of Windsor County. 

Camp Griffin. Here it was attached to the First Vermont Brigade, the 
new accession completing the strength of that celebrated military or- 

The contribution of Windsor county to the numerical strength of the 
Sixth seems to have been recognized by the selection of Oscar S. Tuttle 
of Cavendish as major. Major Tuttle was subsequently promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and lastly, on December i8, 1862, to the command of 
the regiment. Also, Sumner H. Lincoln of Hartford, who was ap- 
pointed adjutant in February, 1863, was advanced from rank to rank 
until in June, 1865, when he, in turn, was commissioned as colonel. 
WiUiam J. Sperry of Cavendish enlisted as private in Company E, but 
June 4, 1865, found him possessed of a commission as lieutenant-col- 
onel. Hiram S. English of Woodstock, too, was enlisted as private in 
Company C, in August, 1862, and he was several times promoted, un- 
til he became adjutant of the regiment. Alonzo Webster of Windsor 
was appointed chaplain on October 3, 1863. 

The towns generally of the county contributed to the regiment, no 
full company, it is understood, being raised in any one town ; and in 
the same manner were the men assigned, not to a single company, but 
scattered through several as the squads were reported or as necessity 

On the i6th of October, 1861, the Sixth was mustered into service. 
Original members, not veterans, were mustered out October 28, 1864. 
Veterans and recruits were consolidated into six companies, October 16, 

1864. Recruits for one year, and recruits whose term of service would 
expire previous to October i, 1865, were mustered out June 19, 1865. 
The remainder of the regiment was mustered out of service June 26, 

1865. A total of twenty-five battles are credited to the Sixth Regiment, 
being those between and inclusive of Lee's Mills, in April, 1862, and 
Petersburg, on the 2d of April, 1865. See preceding list. 

The Seventh Regiment. 

Company G, of Cavendish, and Company H, of Woodstock, com- 
prised the Windsor county contingent of the Seventh Vermont. The 
command was raised in pursuance of an act of the State Legislature 
that authorized the governor to recruit two regiments, one to become a 

The Seventh Vermont Regiment. 123 

part of the division that General Butler was then forming, and the other 
"to serve in the army of the United States until the expiration of three 
years from the first day of June, A. D. 1861." Under this latter pro- 
vision the Seventh was organized, but the crafty Butler soon obtained 
from the war department an assignment of the regiment to his division, 
an arrangement not entirely satisfactory to the men of the command ; 
but, notwithstanding that, the murmurs of dissatisfaction were not loud 
nor long. The men, of course, would have preferred joining with the 
other State regiments in the Army of the Potomac, but circumstances 
took them in another direction. 

The Seventh Regiment was mustered into service on the 12th of Feb- 
ruary, 1862 ; and on the loth of March, following, left the rendezvous 
at Rutland and proceeded to New York city, where the officers were 
given a public reception. On the 14th the regiment was embarked on 
two transports and at once began a voyage — a long and tedious one — 
to their destination, Ship Island, in the Gulf of Mexico, at which place 
the last arriving steamer landed its passengers on the loth of April, 
Here the men of the Seventh found themselves in company with the 
Eighth Vermont, which had been organized and sent to this point, ar- 
riving a day or two earlier than the first division of their own regiment. 
In due time the regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, that organ- 
ization being composed of the Seventh and Eighth Vermont, the Ninth, 
Tenth and Thirteenth Connecticut, the Eighth New Hampshire, Seventh 
and Eighth Maine, Fourth Massachusetts Battery, First and Second 
Vermont Batteries and a company of the Second Massachusetts Cav- 
alry. The First Brigade was commanded by General Phelps. 

From the early part of summer, in the year 1862, until the muster- 
out of the regiment, the men of the Seventh were actively engaged in 
this southeastern country ; and when not occupied in field duty every 
exertion was found necessary to counteract the evil influences of the 
climate and the poor quality of provisions with which they were mea- 
gerly supplied. The battles in which the regiment participated will be 
found in the official list appended to this sketch, but they faintly tell of 
the constant dangers and hardships to which the men were exposed. 

In the organization of the regiment George T. Roberts, of Rutland, 
was appointed colonel, while Volney S. Fullam, of Ludlow, was given 

124 History of Windsor County. 

the lieutenant-colonelcy, the latter being the only field officer with which 
Windsor county was honored. The companies which were recruited in 
the county, G and H, were officered respectively by Salmon Button, of 
Cavendish, and Mahlon M. Young, of Hartford, captains; George 
M. R. Howard, of Cavendish, and Henry H. French, of Woodstock, first 
lieutenants; Leonard P. Bingham, of Ludlow, and George H. Kelley, 
of Barnard, second lieutenants. Of course as the regiment continued in 
service changes were made in the company officers, but the above shows 
the arrangement of officers at the company organization. 

List of engagements: Siege of Vicksburg, June and July, 1862; 
Baton Rouge, August 5th; Gonzales Station, Jaly 15, 1864; Spanish 
Fort, March 27 to April ii, 1865 ; Whistler, April 13, 1865. 

The Eighth Regiment. 

The Windsor county contingent in this command was quite small ; 
still it was recognized by the elevation of Henry F. Button, of Ludlow, 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, in Becember, 1863. He had formerly 
been captain of Company H. Buring the latter part of the regiment's 
service Henry M. Pollard, also of Ludlow, was promoted to the rank of 
major, having previously been first lieutenant and then captain of Com- 
pany L Samuel W. Shattuck, of Norwich, was drafted July 15, 1863, 
and was appointed adjutant October 20, 1863. This was the entire rep- 
resentation of the county on the field and staff. The company officers 
and privates were mainly in Companies H and I, although others had a 
few members from the county. Company H was re- organized as a 
Ludlow organization. The regiment was mustered into service Feb- 
ruary 18, 1862, and mustered out June 28, 1865. It was attached to 
that branch of the army that operated in the southwest, being a part of 
General Phelps's brigade, to which the Seventh Vermont was also at 
tached. The official list of engagements of the Eighth Vermont was as 
follows: Gotten, January 14, 1863; Bisland, April 12, 1863; Siege of 
Port Hudson, May 25 to July 9, 1864; Winchester, September 9. 1864; 
Fisher's Hill, September 21-22, 1864; Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864; 
Newton, November 11, 1864. 

To the Ninth Vermont Regiment of volunteer infantry the towns of 
Cavendish and VVeathersfield made a small contribution of men, while 

The Eighth and Tenth Vermont Regiments. 125 

Ludlow and Pomfret are also credited with a slight representation. 
None of them, however, furnished a sufficient number to deserve much 
remark in this chapter. Those that were from the county were mainly 
in Company D, with a few in Company H. Charles Jarvis, of Weathers- 
field, was major of the regiment by commission dated May 24, 1863. 
He died of wounds received while on scout near Cedar Point, N. C, De- 
cember I, 1863. Lucius Dickinson, of Cavendish, was chaplain of the 
Ninth from July, 1862, to June 13, 1865. 

The Tenth Regiment. 

In the composition of the Tenth it has been generally understood that 
Company H was an organization of the town of Ludlow ; and this im- 
pression has been formed from the fact that the company was recruited 
in that town. It appears, however, that comparatively few of the mem- 
bers of the company were residents of the town, for Windsor furnished 
over twenty, Weathersfield twelve, Springfield eighteen, and other towns 
less members, while Ludlow furnished only sixteen. Lucius T. Hunt, of 
Ludlow, organized the company in that town, but he received his men 
from wherever they happened to come. Other towns than those men- 
tioned also had men in Captain Hunt's company, and still others, like- 
wise residents of the county, were in other companies. 

The Tenth Regiment was mustered into the United States service Sep- 
tember I, 1862, and on the 6th of the same month left Brattleboro for 
Washington, at which city it arrived on the 8th. Within a week from 
that time the Tenth was actively engaged in the operations be'^ween Ed- 
ward's F'erry and Muddy Run, being there brigaded with regiments from 
Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and under command at that 
time of General Currier Grover. The regiment was marched about from 
place to place for a considerable time, doing various duties, but it was 
not until the fall of 1863 that it participated in any set engagement, for 
which it was then reasonably well prepared. From that time forth until 
the final muster-out June 29, 1865, the Tenth took part in the following 
battles: Orange Grove, November 27, 1863; Wilderness, May 5 to 10, 
1864; Spottsylvania, May loth to i8th; Tolopotomy, May 31st; Cold 
Harbor, June ist to 12th ; Weldon Railroad, June 22-23d ; Monocacy, 
July 9th; Winchester, September 19th; Fisher's Hill, September 

126 History of Windsor County. 

2i-22d ; Cedar Creek, October 19th; Petersburg, March 25, 1865 ; Pe- 
tersburg, April 2d; Sailor's Creek, April 6, 1865. 

First Artillery — Eleventh Vermont Regiment. 

Company H, of Royalton, Captain James D. Rich, was the main 
Windsor county contribution to the formation of the Eleventh Regiment, 
although the county furnished other men to the command who were in 
companies other than H. The Eleventh was the largest regiment sent 
to the front by the State of Vermont, the original members, officers and 
men, numbering 1,315; and this aggregate was swelled by accessions 
from all sources to a total of 2,320. 

The regiment was raised at the same time as was the Tenth, and was 
mustered into service on the ist of September, 1862, and on the 7th left 
Brattleboro for Washington, arriving at the last named city on the even- 
ing of the 9th, going into camp after one night's rest on Capitol Hill. 
On the 27th the regiment was divided into detachments among the forts 
on the line of the northern defenses. Company H being ordered to Fort 

One of the most noticeable events in connection with the early history 
of the Eleventh was the change made in the character of the duties re- 
quired to be performed by its members. It was recruited under the ex- 
pectation of being an infantry regiment, but, by an order of the secretary 
of war, on the loth of December, 1862, the regiment was made a heavy 
artillery regiment, its official designation being "First Artillery, Eleventh 
Vermont Volunteers." The department of war also authorized that the 
number of companies be increased to twelve, and that each, both old and 
new, be increased to one hundred and fifty men. This change and ad- 
dition required some time to accomplish, but as the winter was approach- 
ing, no service was really lost by the delay. The regiment was not 
entirely filled until the expiration of several months. In February its 
membership reached 1,835, the greatest number attained at any one time. 
The Eleventh remained in the defenses of the capital until the early part 
of May, 1864, when it was ordered to the front, to join the Army of the 
Potomac, where they were to meet with and fight beside their old breth- 
ren of Vermont, the First Brigade. From this time until the regiment 
was finally mustered out, August 26, 1865, the men were constantly in 

First Artillery and Twelfth Regiment. 127 

active service. Their battles, however, ended with the last Petersburg, 
April 2, 1865. Official list of battles: Spottsylvania, May 15 to 18, 
1864; Cold Harbor, June ist to 12th; Petersburg, June i8th; Weldon 
Railroad, June 23d; Washington, July nth; Charlestown, August 21st; 
Gilbert's Ford, September 13th; Opequan, September 19th; Fisher's 
Hill, September 21-22; Cedar Creek, October 19th; Petersburg, 
March 25 and 27th, and April 2, 1865. 

The following list shows the names of the members of Company H, 
the Windsor county company, who were captured and died, with the 
place of their death, in the enemy's hands. All who are here named 
were captured by the Confederates in the disastrous affair of Weldon 
Railroad on the 23d of June, 1864. Sergeant George Day died at An- 
dersonville ; Henry K. Barrett, Charleston ; Wilmoth Ayres, in prison ; 
John H. Bruce, Andersonville ; Carlos R Bugbee, Goldsboro ; Horace S, 
Button, Florence ; Arthur M. French, James B. Goodrick, in prison; 
Pembroke S. Grover, Crowell M. Knowles, Andersonville ; Harvey J. 
Lyman, Florence ; George L. Morse, in prison ; Samuel F. Parker, Flo- 
rence ; Carlos A. Stowell, in prison ; Edwin W. Weston, in prison ; Levi 
F. Wilder, Andersonville; Corporal William E. Willard, in Charleston; 
Samuel P. Woodward, Andersonville; Edward M. Ailes, Florence; John 
Brown, Andersonville ; Heman Dole, in prison ; Eli Faneuf, Charles W. 
Gleason, John Graves, jr., David Johnson, Curtis W. Ruscoe and James 
A. Stone, Andersonville; Carroll V. Kenyon, Goldsboro; Edward F. 
Smith, Danville ; Jared Blanchard, jr., supposed dead ; Carlos C. Hinck- 
ley, supposed dead ; Charles Morey. 

The Twelfth Regiment — (Nine Months). 

This regiment, as well as those that followed it, was a part of the en- 
rolled militia-men of the State of Vermont. It was organized for active 
service early in the fall of 1862, and was mustered in on the 4th of Octo- 
ber of the same year. Two of the companies were from Windsor county, 
A and B, known as the West Windsor Guards, Charles L. Savage, cap- 
tain, and the Woodstock Light Infantry, Ora Paul, jr., captain. 

On the 25th of September the regiment went into camp at Brattle- 
boro, where the men were thoroughly drilled preparatory to active serv- 
ice. On the 7th of October it left camp and proceeded to Washington, 

128 History of Windsor County. 

where it arrived a few days later, and was soon afterwards attached to 
Casey's division of the Reserve Army Corps for the defense of Washing- 
ton. Here the Eleventh remained for about three weeks, when, on the 
30th October, the other Vermont regiments — Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth — having arrived, all were united and formed into 
the Second Vermont Brigade. 

The Sixteenth Regiment — (Nine Months). 

This regiment was organized almost wholly from the enrolled militia 
of Windsor and Windham counties. It had, by far, a stronger contingent 
of this county's men than any command that was recruited in the vicinity 
prior to its organization. The companies of the county in the Sixteenth 
were as follows : Company A, of Bethel, Henry A. Eaton, captain; Com- 
pany C, of Ludlow, Asa G. Foster, captain ; Company E, of Springfield* 
Alvin C. Mason, captain ; Company G, of Barnard, Harvey N. Bruce, 
captain ; Company H, of Felchville, Joseph C. Sawyer, captain ; Com- 
pany K, of Chester, Samuel Hutchinson, captain. The regiment was 
mustered into service on the 23d of October, 1862, having field and staff" 
officers as follows: Colonel, Wheelock G. Veazey, Springfield; lieuten- 
ant-colonel, Charles Cummings, Brattleboro ; major, William Rounds^ 
Chester; adjutant, Jabez D. Bridgman, Rockingham; quartermaster, 
James D. Henry, Royalton ; surgeon, Castanus B. Park, jr., Grafton- 
assistant surgeon, George Spafford, Windham ; chaplain. Rev. Alonzo 
Webster, Windsor. 

The Sixteenth Regiment was mustered into service on October 23 
1862, and on the next day left its rendezvous for Washington, arriving 
there on the 27th. It was very soon afterward formed with the other 
nine months Vermont regiments into the Second Brigade. The brigade 
was then attached to Casey's division of the Reserve Corps. On the 30th 
of October the brigade broke camp at Capitol Hill and marched to occupy 
the position formerly held by General Sickel's brigade on the road to 
Mount Vernon, and in this vicinity it remained during the following 
month. Here preparations for the winter were made, and " Camp Ver- 
mont " established, but before all was completed marching orders were 
received by which part of the brigade — the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and 
Fifteenth Regiments — were sent to the vicinity of Union Mills, to picket 

The Sixteenth Vermont Regiment. 129 

the line of the Occoquan and Bull Run road, from which the last detach- 
ment did not return until the 5th of December. On the i ith the brigade 
was ordered to occupy Sigel's vacated position near Fairfax Court House, 
to which place they marched on the I2th. 

The only important event that occurred here during the winter was the 
movement made by the Confederate cavalry commanded by General 
Stuart, that crafty officer hoping to find some unguarded or unprepared 
post upon which to make an attack. As his forces approached they were 
fired upon by the brigade, and when he withdrew beyond range the ar- 
tillery opened fire upon them. The enemy, however, did not make an 
attack, nor remain in the neighborhood very long. During the latter part 
of January, 1863, the Second Brigade occupied the quarters vacated by 
General Slocum's Corps at Fairfax Station. On the 2d of February the 
troops on the defenses of the capital were organized into the Twenty- 
second Army Corps, under command of Major- General Heintzleman, and 
to this command the brigade was attached, still forming, however, a part 
of Casey's division. The events that occurred in this vicinity during the 
balance of the winter were occasionally interesting, but of no sp.ecial im- 
portance. During the latter part of March, the Twelfth, Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth Regiments were stationed at Wolf Run Shoals, while the Fif- 
teenth and Sixteenth were sent to Union Mills. On the 20th of April 
General George J. Stannard succeeded to the command of the brigade. 

On the 25th of June General Stannard concentrated his brigade at Union 
Mills, under orders to follow the main army on the famous northward 
march that ended in the battle at Gettysburg. This order meant several 
days of severe marching, but it was accomplished, the brigade covering 
a distance of one hundred and twenty miles in six days, and reaching 
Emmitsburg, near the Pennsylvania line, on the evening of June 30. In 
the arrangement and disposition of the forces massed about Gettysburg, 
the Second Brigade was attached to the Third Division of the First Corps, 
the division commander being Brigadier- General Thomas A. Rowley. In 
an engagement so terrific and long continued as that at Gettysburg, it 
would seem impossible that any one division or brigade could perform 
a service so signal as to draw to itself the attention and commendation of 
the commanders of the whole army engaged, yet such appears to have 
been the case on the part of a portion of the Second Vermont Brigade, 

I30 History of Windsor County. 

This special performance that at once made famous this body of men was 
the flank movement in the rear of Pickett's charging division of Confed- 
erates, just at the proper moment, neither too soon or too late, which 
had the effect of checking that impetuous charge, and finally turning the 
possibility of defeat into a glorious victory for the Union arms. This 
was the only engagement of any importance in which the Sixteenth Reg- 
iment participated, but in the short space of its duration the regiment 
and the brigade to which it belonged made a record more enviable than 
that achieved by some others in all their service of years. Four days 
after the battle three regiments of the brigade, among them the Six- 
teenth, left Middletown and marched to South Mountain; thence through 
Boonesboro, at the latter place in plain hearing of the battle then pro- 
gressing at Funkstown. On the I2th Funkstown was passed, not two 
hours previously having been in possession of the enemy, and the regi- 
ment then halted and formed near Hagarstown. Here, or not far from 
this place, a detachment of one hundred and fifty men from the Sixteenth 
Regiment did the last fighting of the brigade. 

Then began the homeward march, although the term of enlistment had 
not quite expired. On the 20th of July New York was reached, and 
Brattleboro one day liter. The regiments that comprised the Second 
Brigade were mustered out in the following order: The Twelfth, July 14; 
the Thirteenth, July 21; the Fourteenth, July 30; the Fifteenth, 
August 5; and the Sixteenth, August 10, 1863. 

The Seventeenth Regiment. 

This regiment was recruited generally in the State, as many towns be- 
ing represented in its composition, probably, as could be found in any 
two previous regiments. The greater part of the Windsor count}- con- 
tribution to its strength was in Company D, which was commanded by 
Captain Henry A. Eaton, of Rochester, but other companies had among 
their members men from this shire. The regiment was mustered into 
service, by companies, during the early months of 1864, and at Alexan- 
dria, where it arrived April 22, was assigned to the Second Brigade of 
the Second Division of the Ninth Corps, the latter being under the com- 
mand of General Ambrose E. Burnside. 

The field seivice of the Seventeenth commenced early in May, 1864, 

Seventeenth Regiment and First Vermont Cavalry. 131 

and ended with the last Petersburg battle, April 2, 1865. During this 
comparatively brief time the regiment took part in thirteen distinct en- 
gagements, several of which covered a number of days, and many of 
which were among the most sanguinary of the war. They were as fol- 
lows: Wilderness, May 6 to 9, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 12 to 15 ; 
Spottsylvania, May 18; North Anna, May 25-26; Tolopotomy, May 
31; Bethesda Church, June 3; Cold Harbor, June 7-8; Petersburg, 
June 17; Petersburg Mine, July 30; Weldon Railroad, August 21; 
Poplar Spring Church, September 30 ; Hatcher's Run, October 27 and 
28; Petersburg, April 2, 1865. 

The First Vermont Cavalry. 

This somewhat famous organization was the only one of its kind 
raised in Vermont during the war; moreover it was the largest com- 
mand sent out of the State in that time, numbering as it did, from first 
to last, 2,297 officers and men. This cavalry regiment was not recruited 
under the authority of the State, for the laws made no provision for 
such an organization. So when its originator, Lemuel B. Piatt, proposed 
to Governor Fairbanks to raise a regiment of cavalry the latter was com- 
pelled to decline. Mr. Piatt then turned to the general government 
and obtained the desired permission. This was at a time when the gov- 
ernor was recruiting infantry regiments, and it was thought that Mr. 
Piatt might meet with some difficulty in accomplishing his task, but 
events proved to the contrary. Within forty-two days his regiment 
was full. It was mustered into service November 19, 1861. Windsor 
county representatives were scattered through several companies, but 
Company E had much the stronger contingent, in fact was considered 
a Windsor county company, Samuel P. Rundlett, of Royalton, was its 
first captain; Andrew J. Grover, of Hartford, first lieutenant ; and John 
C. Holmes, of Springfield, second lieutenant. When their term of en- 
listment expired many of the men became veterans, and thus served 
throughout the war. The First Cavalry took to the field about the mid- 
dle of December, 1861, but did not engage much in active service until 
the succeeding spring. From April 16, 1862, until the muster-out, 
however, there was no more busily occupied regiment in the service. 
Seventy-three engagements stand to their credit, commencing with 

132 History of Windsor County. 

Mount Jackson, April i6, 1862, and ending with Lee's surrender at Ap- 
pomattox Court House, on the 9th of April, 1865. 

In Other Commands. 

Among the regiments of Vermont soldiers to which the county of 
Windsor contributed recruits were those known as the United States 
Sharpshooters. These were not raised under the direct authority of 
the State, but of the United States government, the authority therefore 
being conferred upon Hiram Berdan, of New York. Of the eight States 
in which men for this special branch of the service were recruited, Ver- 
mont furnished a greater number than any other, being one- sixth of the 
gross number enlisted. The recruiting station in the vicinity of this 
county was located at Randolph, and of course the efforts of the officers 
in obtaining men naturally drew some recruits from this county. The 
county, however, had no original field or line officers, but Henry E. 
Kinsman, of Royalton, was raised from private in Company F through 
several grades, and was eventually commissioned first lieutenant, in the 
First Regiment. In the Second Regiment William F. Tilson, of Bethel, 
was, in 1864, promoted to the second lieutenancy of Company E, and 
Curtis Abbott, of the same town, to the rank of first lieutenant in Com- 
pany H. Such of the county's men as were privates in either of these 
or other companies will be found in the town rolls of volunteers on later 

In the Second, also the Third Battery of Light Artillery, the county 
was represented by recruits, mainly from the northern towns, Norwich 
and Rochester, perhaps, furnishing the largest number, while other 
towns sent a less number. In the Second, Charles H. Dyer, of Roch- 
ester, was at one time first lieutenant, having been promoted from a 
lower grade. In the Third Battery, John H. Wright, of Norwich, was 
second lieutenant and promoted first lieutenant. In the same command 
John W. Marsh was enlisted as private, and subsequently commissioned 
second lieutenant. These batteries also had privates from the county, 
as will be shown by reference to the town rolls. 

The command known as the Frontier Cavalry also seems to have had 
at least two commissioned officers from Windsor county. These were 
George B. French, of Cavendish, captain of the Second Company, and 
Francis G. Clark, of Chester, a first lieutenant in the same command. 


Roster of Commissioned Officers. 133 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 

The following is a complete roster of the field and staff and commis- 
sioned company officers that enlisted as residents of the several towns of 
Windsor county ; and is arranged with reference to regiment members, 
the three months' men being first. The same order is followed as is found 
in the adjutant and inspector-general's report, from which the following 
is compiled. 

First Regiment, Three Months Men. — Peter T. Washburn, lieutenant- 
colonel ; commisssioned April 26, 1861 ; mustered out of service August 
16, 1 86 1. William W. Pelton, captain Company B; commissioned April 
27, 1861 ; mustered out of service August 15, 1861. Oscar S. Tuttle, 
captain Company E; mustered out of service August 15, 1861. An- 
drew J. Dike, first lieutenant company B; resigned June 18, 1861. 
Solomon E. Woodward, first lieutenant Company B ; promoted from 
second lieutenant; mustered out August 15, 1861. Asaph Clark, first 
lieutenant Company E ; mustered out of service August 15, 1861. Will- 
iam Sweet, second lieutenant Company B ; promoted from first sergeant 
June 19, 1 861 ; mustered out August 15, 1861. Salmon Dutton, second 
lieutenant Company E ; mustered out August 15, 1861. 

Second Regiment, Three Years' Service. — Augustus A. Atwood, assist- 
ant surgeon ; resigned June 25, 1863. Orville Bixby, captain Company 
E; commissioned second lieutenant May 26, 1861; promoted first lieu- 
tenant January 1 1, 1862; captain August 24, 1862; killed in action at 
Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Charles C. Morey, captain Company E ; 
private Company E April 22, 1861 ; promoted corporal June 20, 1861; 
sergeant February 10, 1862 ; first sergeant December 27, 1862 ; re en- 
listed January 31, 1864; first lieutenant Company C June 20, 1864- 
promoted captain December 24, 1864; killed in action before Peters- 
burg, Va., April 2, 1865. Volney S. Fullam, captain Company I May 
22, 1861 ; promoted lieutenant colonel Seventh Vermont Volunteers 
January 18, 1 862. Daniel S. White, captain Company I ; private May 
7, 1861 ; sergeant June 20, 1861; first sergeant February 9, 1862 ; sec- 
ond lieutenant January 8, 1863 ; captain January 26, 1863 ; resigned and 
honorably discharged October 24, 1864, for wounds received at Wilder- 
ness, May 5, 1864. Sherman W. Parkhurst, first lieutenant Company 

134 History of Windsor County. 

I; resigned November 9, 1 861. Harrison Dewey, second lieutenant 
Company E ; enlisted private April 22, 1861 ; first sergeant June 20, 
1861 ; dismissed from the service October 4, 1862, for absence without 
leave. George S. Adams, second lieutenant Company E ; private April 
22, 1861 ; corporal August 28, 1862; re-enHsted December 21, 1863; 
sergeant October 18, 1864; first sergeant February 7, 1865 5 mustered 
out as first sergeant July 15, 1865. Isaac N. Wadleigh, second lieuten- 
ant Company I ; resigned December 14, 186 1. Albert A. May, second 
lieutenant Company I ; private Company I May 7, 1861 ; corporal Au- 
gust 18, 1862; re enlisted December 21, 1863; wounded May 5, 1864; 
sergeant January 20, 1865; first sergeant February 15, 1865 ; mustered 
out July 15, 1865. 

Third Regiment. — Thomas O. Seaver, colonel ; captain Company F 
May 24, 1861 ; major August 13, 1861 ; lieutenant-colonel September 
27, 1862; colonel January 15, 1863; mustered out of service July 27, 
1864. Horace W. Floyd, colonel ; second lieutenant Company A May 
21, 1 86 1 ; first lieutenant Company F August 13, 1861 ; transferred to 
Company A December i, 1861 ; captain Company C September 22, 
1862; wounded June 21, 1864 ; major August 4, 1864; lieutenant-colo- 
nel October j8, 1864; brevet-colonel October 19, 1864, for gallantry 
and good conduct before Richmond and in Shenandoah Valley; colonel 
June 4, 1865; mustered out of service July ii, 1865. Wheelock G. 
Veazey, lieutenant-colonel August 13, 1861; captain Company A May 
21, 1861 ; promoted major August 10,1861 ; promoted colonel Sixteenth 
Vermont Volunteer Militia September 27, 1862. Samuel E. Pingree, 
lieutenant- colonel ; first lieutenant Company F May 24, 1861 ; captain 
August 13, 1 86 1 ; wounded severely April 16, 1862 ; major September 
27, 1862 ; lieutenant-colonel January 15, 1863 ; mustered out July 27, 
1864. Redfield Proctor, quartermaster; commissioned June 19, 1861 • 
promoted major Fifth Vermont Volunteers September 25, 1861. Fred- 
erick Grain, quartermaster ; first heutenant Company A May 24, 1861 ; 
quartermaster September 25, 1861 ; mustered out of service July 27, 
1864. Daniel A. Mack, chaplain January 1 1, 1862 ; mustered out July 
27, 1 864. Luke B. Fairbanks, captain Company C; enlisted private May 
10, 1861 ; promoted corporal July 16, 1861 ; wounded April 16, 1862; 
re-enlisted December 21, 1863; ^^'st lieutenant Company H June 26, 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 135 

1864; mustered out of service July 1 1, 1865. Thomas F. Leonard, cap- 
tain Company I; private Company F May 10, 1861 ; promoted corporal; 
to sergeant ; re-enlisted December 21, 1863; wounded July 10, 1863, 
May 6, 1864, and May 12, 1864; promoted second lieutenant Company 
C August 4, 1864; first lieutenant February 25, 1865; captain Com- 
pany I May 10, 1865 ; mustered out of service July 1 1, 1865. Leonard 
E. Bennett, captain Company K; private Company A May 21, 1861 ; 
first sergeant July 16, 1861 ; captain Company K August 16, 1861 ; 
wounded June 29, 1862; resigned November 26, 1862. Horace French, 
captain Company K; private Company F May 10, 1861 ; sergeant July 
16, 1861 ; first sergeant; second lieutenant Company F January 15, 
1863 ; transferred to Company B by reason of consolidation of regiment 
July 24, 1864; captain Company K March 26, 1865 ; mustered out of 
service July 11, 1865. Frank E. Rew, first lieutenant Company B; pri- 
vate Company F May 10, 1861 ; sergeant July 16, 1861 ; quartermaster- 
sergeant July I, 1862; second lieutenant Company E November 10, 
1862; first lieutenant Company B January 15, 1863 ; mustered out of 
service July 27, 1864. Orasmus B. Robinson, first lieutenant Company 
B ; private Company A June i, 1861 ; corporal November i, 1861 ; ser- 
geant November 7, 1863 ; re-enlisted December 21, 1863 ; sergeant ma- 
jor July 24, 1864; wounded September 19, 1864; second lieutenant 
Company A October 18, 1864; first lieutenant Company B February 
25. 1865 ; mustered out of service July 1 1, 1865. Edwin M. Noyes, first 
lieutenant Company C ; second lieutenant May 23, 1861 ; first lieutenant 
November 7, 1861 ; died August 31, 1862. Gardner C. Hawkins, first 
lieutenant Company E; private Company F January 28, 1864; trans- 
ferred to Company I July 25, 1864; second lieutenant Company I 
October 18,1864; first lieutenant Company E February 25, 1865; dis- 
charged June 2. 1865, for wounds at Petersburg, April 2, 1865. Ed- 
ward A. Chandler, first lieutenant Company F; second lieutenant May 
24, 1861 ; first lieutenant December 5, 1861 ; wounded severely April 
16. 1862 ; mustered out of service July 27, 1864. Hubbard M. Phillips, 
first lieutenant Company H; private Company A June i, 1861; sergeant 
July 16, 1861 ; first lieutenant August 13, 1861 ; second lieutenant Com- 
pany E January 15, 1863 ; on detached service from June 20, 1863, to 
March 31, 1864; first lieutenant Company H July 21, 1863; mustered 

136 History of Windsor County. 

out of service July 27, 1864. John R. Seaver, second lieutenant Com- 
pany A; private Company F May 10, 1861 ; regimental commissary- 
sergeant July 13, 1862; second lieutenant Company A September 22^ 
1862 ; resigned February 14, 1863. Willis W. Wood, second lieutenant 
Company A; private June i, 1861 ; corporal November 7, 1863; re- 
enlisted December 21, 1863; sergeant May 14, 1864; wounded August 
21, 1864; first sergeant May 9, 1865 ; second lieutenant May ID, 1865 ; 
mustered out July ii, 1865. Edmund E. Cushman, second lieutenant 
Company B ; private Company A July 2, 1861 ; corporal April i, 1863; 
re-enlisted December 21, 1863 ; sergeant May 14, 1864; fi.rst sergeant 
August 31, 1864; wounded October 19, 1864; second lieutenant Com- 
pany B March 28, 1865 ; mustered out of service July ii, 1865. Louis A. 
Pierce, second lieutenant Company D; private Company A June i, 
1 861 ; sergeant July 16, 1861; second lieutenant Company D October 
13, 1862; honorably discharged April 13, 1863, for disability. Philip V. 
Thomas, second lieutenant Company F ; private Company F May 10, 
1861 ; first sergeant July 16, 1861 ; second lieutenant December 16, 
1861 ; resigned October 18, 1862. Daniel B. Yeazey, second lieutenant 
Company 1 ; private Company A June 20, 1861 ; second lieutenant 
Company I November i, 1863 ; mustered out July 27, 1864. Abram J. 
Locke, second lieutenant Company K ; private Company F October 14, 
1861 ; corporal June i, 1863; re-enlisted December 21, 1863; sergeant 
August 27, 1864; sergeant-major November 13, 1864; wounded May 

5, 1864, and April 2, 1865 ; second lieutenant Company K June i, 
1865 ; mustered out of service July ii, 1865. 

Fourth Regiment. — Stephen M. Pingree, lieutenant-colonel; first lieu- 
tenant Company E September 6, 1861; captain Company K April 21, 
1862; major November 5, 1862; lieutenant-colonel April 30, 1864; 
mustered out of service July 13, 1865. George B. French, adjutant; 
first lieutenant Company C September 3, 1861 ; promoted adjutant July 
17, 1862; wounded May 5, 1864; mustered out of service September 30, 
1864. Henry W. Spafford, quartermaster; enlisted as regimental com- 
missary-sergeant October 25, 1864; promoted quartermaster November 

6, 1864; mustered out of service July 13, 1865. Samuel J Allen, sur- 
geon ; commissioned August 15, 1861 ; mustered out of service Septem- 
ber 30, 1864; Joseph P. Aikens, captain Company A; private Company I 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 137 

D August 28, 1861; promoted corporal; sergeant; first sergeant Janu- 
ary I, 1863; re-enlisted December 15, 1863; first lieutenant Company 
C May 5, 1864; captain Company A August 9, 1864; wounded Octo- 
ber 19, 1864; honorably discharged March 8, 1865, for wounds. James 
H. Piatt, jr., captain Company B; commissioned August 30, 1861; pris- 
oner May 30, 1864; paroled and mustered out of service November 21, 

1864. Henry B. Atherton, captain Company C; commissioned Septem- 
ber 3, 1861 ; resigned August 12, 1862. Henry L. Terry, captain Com- 
pany E; commissioned September 6, 1861 ; discharged September 22, 
1862, for disability. William C. Tracy, captain Cornpany G; second lieu 
tenant Company K September 14, 1 86 1 ; first lieutenant Company H No- 
vember 5, 1862; captain Company G May 5, 1864; wounded same day; 
killed in action before Petersburg, Va., June 23, 1864. Daniel Lillie 
captain Company I ; second lieutenant Company E September 6, 1861 ; 
first lieutenant April 21, 1862 ; captain Company I August i, 1862 ; died 
June 6, 1864, at Washington, D. C, of wounds received at Wilderness, 
May 6, 1864. Francis B. Gove, captain Company K ; commis- 
sioned September 14, 1 86 1 ; resigned April 13, 1862. George P. Spauld- 
ing, first lieutenant Company B; private Company C August 20, 1861 ; 
sergeant September 21, 1861 ; first sergeant; re- enlisted December 15, 
1863 ; second lieutenant Company K May 5, 1864 5 prisoner from June 
20, 1864, to December 2, 1864; transferred to Company E; first lieu- 
tenant Company B June 4, 1865; mustered out as second lieutenant 
Company E July 13, 1865. Harlan P. Page, first lieutenant Company 
C; private Company E August 23, 1861 ; corporal September 21, 186 1 ; 
sergeant May 18, 1862; first sergeant February 22, 1864; re-enlisted 
March 28, 1864; ^fst lieutenant January 21, 1865; resigned May 9, 

1865. Daniel D Wheeler, first lieutenant Company D ; commissioned 
April 21, 1862; transferred to Company G March 20, 1862 (see below). 
Thomas Ensworth, jr., first lieutenant Company D ; private Company K 
September 2, 1861 ; first sergeant September 21, 1861 ; second lieutenant 
Company C June 25, 1862 ; wounded May 4, 1863 ; first lieutenant Oc- 
tober 20, 1863; died of wounds May 7, 1864. Charles A. Read, first 
lieutenant Company F; private Company C August 19, 1861 ; sergeant 
September 21, 1861 ; sergeant-major March i, 1862; first lieutenant 
July 17, 1862 ; resigned January 2, 1863. Daniel D. Wheeler, first lieu- 


138 History of Windsor County. 

tenant Company G; second lieutenant Company C September 3, 1861 ; 
first lieutenant Company D April 21, 1862 ; transferred to Company G 
January 18, 1863; promoted captain and A. A. G. U. S. Volunteers 
June 30, 1864. Curtis Abbott, first lieutenant Company H ; private 
Company H Second U. S. S. S. November 12, 1861 ; corporal Decem- 
ber I, 1862; re-enlisted December 21, 1863; wounded May, 1864; 
first sergeant November i, 1864; first lieutenant Company H, U. S. S. S., 
January 22, 1865 ; transferred to Company H Fourth Regiment Febru- 
ary 25, 1865 ; mustered out of service July 13, 1865. Ransom W. Towle, 
second lieutenant Company A ; private Company E August 24, 1861 ; 
sergeant September 21, 1861 ; wounded June 29, 1862; second lieu 
tenant Company A May 17, 1864; died of wounds received at Win- 
chester, Va., September 19, 1864. Lafayette Richardson, second 
Heutenant Company C ; private Company E August 28, 1861 ; sergeant 
September 21, 1861 ; first sergeant February 9, 1863 ; second lieutenant 
Company C October 20, 1863 ; re-enlisted December 15, 1863 ; honor- 
ably discharged for wounds received at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864 
James Drury, second lieutenant Company D ; private Company C Au- 
gust 26, 1861 ; corporal October 27, 1863; re-enlisted December 15, 
1863; sergeant June 18, 1864; second lieutenant Company D June 4, 
1865 ; mustered out as sergeant July 26, 1865. William F. Tilson, sec- 
ond lieutenant Company G; private Company E Second U. S. S. S. 
November 5, 1861 ; sergeant January 3, 1863; re-enlisted December 
21, 1863; wounded May 6, 1864; first sergeant; second lieutenant 
January 22, 1865 ; transferred to Company G Fourth Vermont Volun- 
teers February 25, 1865 ; discharged September 8, 1865, for wounds 
received April 2, 1865, at Petersburg, Va. 

Fiftli Regi7neut. —Redheld Proctor, major; quartermaster Third Ver- 
mont Volunteers June 19, 1861 ; commissioned adjutant Fifth Volun- 
teers September 25, 1861 ; resigned July 11, 1862. Myron S. Dudley, 
captain Company K ; private Company E November 28, 1863; wounded 
May 5, 1864; sergeant July i, 1864; first lieutenant Company E Sep- 
tember 15, 1864; captain Company K November 10, 1864; mustered 
out June 29, 1865. 

SixtJi Regiment. — Oscar S. Tuttle, colonel; major September 25, 
1861 ; lieutenant-colonel September 19, 1862; colonel December 18, 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 139 

1862; resigned March 18, 1863. Sumner H. Lincoln, colonel; private 
Company B September 17, 1861 ; corporal October 15, 1861 ; adjutant 
February 3, 1863; wounded May 5 and September 19, 1865; major 
October 21, 1864; lieutenant-colonel January 7, 1865; colonel June 4, 
1865 ; mustered out of service as lieutenant-colonel June 26, 1865. 
William J. Sperry, lieutenant-colonel; private Company E September 
26, 1861 ; sergeant October 15, 1861 ; second lieutenant August 21, 
1862 ; first lieutenant March 3, 1863; captain Company ^C August 8, 
1864; major January 7, 1865; brevet lieutenant-colonel April 2, 1865, 
for gallantry in assault on Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; lieutenant- 
colonel June 4, 1865; mustered out of service June 26, 1865. Hiram 
S. English, adjutant; private Company C August 14, 1862; promoted 
corporal; wounded May 4, 1863; sergeant May 20, 1864; first lieuten- 
ant Company C October 29, 1864; adjutant November 12, 1864; mus- 
tered out June 19, 1865. Alonzo Webster, chaplain; commissioned 
October 3, 1863; mustered out of service October 28, 1864. Alonzo 
B, Hutchinson, captain Company B; commissioned October 5, 1861 ; 
honorably discharged July 23, 1863, for wounds received in action at 
Bank's Ford, Virginia, May 4, 1863. Jesse C. Spaulding, captain Com- 
pany C ; commissioned October 7, 1861 ; resigned January 10, 1863. 
Thomas R. Clark, captain Company E ; first lieutenant October 19, 
1861 ; captain March 3, 1863 ; mustered out of service October 28, 1864. 
George C. Randall, captain Company F ; first lieutenant Company C 
October 7, 1861 ; captain Company F August 21, 1862 ; killed in action 
at Wilderness, Virginia, May 5, 1864. William W. Carey, first lieuten- 
ant Company F; private Company E September 26, 1861 ; corporal 
October 15, 1861 ; wounded April 16, 1862; sergeant-major January i, 
1863; first lieutenant Company F May 15, 1864; mustered out Octo- 
ber 28, 1864. Benoni B. Fullam, first lieutenant Company G ; sergeant- 
major October 15, 1861 ; first lieutenant June 14, 1862; resigned Oc- 
tober 25, 1862. Hiram A. Kimball, second lieutenant Company C ; 
commissioned October 7, 1861; resigned July ii, 1862. John Y. Rais- 
trick, second lieutenant Company C; private September 23, 1861 ; ser- 
geant October 15, 1861 ; first sergeant November 20, 1861 ; second 
lieutenant August 21, 1862; wounded June 6, 1863 ; resigned April 21, 
1864. Herman L. Small, second lieutenant Company C; private Octo- 

140 History of Windsor County. 

ber 9, 1861 ; corporal November 20, 1861 ; sergeant; re-enlisted De- 
cember 15, 1863; first sergeant October i, 1864; second lieutenant 
April 22, 1865 ; mustered out June 26, 1865. John M. Buckley, sec- 
ond lieutenant Company E; private September 24, 1861 ; sergeant 
October 15, 1861 ; first sergeant October 31, 1861 ; wounded April 16, 
1862; second lieutenant March 3, 1863; resigned August 31, 1863. 

Seventh Regiment. — Volney S. Fullam, lieutenant-colonel ; commis- 
sioned January 19, 1862 ; captain Company I, Second Vermont Volun- 
teers, May 22, 1861 ; resigned August 6, 1862. Salmon Button, cap- 
tain Company G; commissioned January 31, 1862; mustered out of 
service May 31, 1865. Mahlon M. Young, captain Company H ; com- 
missioned February 3, 1862; killed at Marianna, Fla., September 27, 
1864. George M. R. Howard, first lieutenant Company G; commis- 
sioned January 31, 1862; resigned September 6, 1862. Leonard P. 
Bingham, first lieutenant Company G ; second lieutenant January 31, 
1862; first lieutenant September 24, 1862; resigned July 30, 1863. 
Milton L. Gilbert, first lieutenant Company G ; private November 20, 
1861 ; sergeant February 12, 1862 ; second lieutenant March i, 1863 ; 
first lieutenant October 22, 1763 ; resigned July 7, 1865. Edward L. 
Hazelton, first lieutenant Company G; private November 30, 1861 ; 
sergeant February 12, 1862; first sergeant October 26, 1863; re- 
enlisted February 17, 1864; first lieutenant July 13, 1865 ; mustered 
out March 14, 1866. Henry H. French, first lieutenant Company H; 
commissioned February 3, 1862 ; died of disease at Pensacola, Fla., 
January 20, 1863. Edwin R. Payne, first lieutenant Company H ; pri- 
vate December 2, 1861 ; sergeant February 12, 1862 ; first sergeant 
October 7, 1862; second lieutenant March i, 1863; first lieutenant 
December 21, 1863; resigned April 29, 1864. James W. Larkin, sec- 
ond lieutenant Company G; private November 30, 1861 ; corporal 
February 12, 1862; re-enlisted February 25, 1864; sergeant June 25, 
1864; first sergeant September 12, 1865 ; second lieutenant March i, 
1866; mustered out as first sergeant March 14, 1866. George H. Kel- 
ley, second lieutenant Company H; commissioned February 3, 1862; 
resigned January 27, 1863. Peter F. Riley, second lieutenant Company 
H; private November 26, 1861 ; corporal February 12, 1862; sergeant 
October 23, 1862 ; re-enlisted February 14, 1864; first sergeant Feb- 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 141 

ruary 12, 1865 ; second lieutenant March i> 1866; mustered out as first 
sergeant March 14, 1866. 

Eighth Regiment. — Henry F. Button, lieutenant-colonel ; captain 
Company H January 17, 1862; major June 12, 1863; lieutenant- colo- 
nel December 28, 1864; honorably discharged November 16, 1864, 
for wounds received in action at Winchester, Va., September 19, 1864. 
Henry M. Pollard, major; first lieutenant Company I July 12, 1863 ; 
captain November 7, 1S63 ; major April 6, 1865 ; mustered out of serv- 
ice June 28, 1865. Samuel VV. Shattuck, adjutant ; drafted July 15, 
1863; appointed adjutant October 20, 1863; wounded October 19, 
1864; mustered out of service June 28, 1865. Edward F. Gould, first 
lieutenant Company D; private January 3, 1862; sergeant February 
18, 1862; re-enlisted January 5, 1864; first sergeant April 22, 1864; 
first lieutenant July 26, 1864; mustered out of service, June 28, 1865. 
Kilburn Day, first lieutenant Company E ; commissioned January i, 
1862; resigned December 11, 1862. Newell H. Hibbard, second lieu- 
tenant Company E ; private September 30, 1861 ; corporal February 
18, 1862; re-enlisted January 5, 1864; sergeant February 23, 1864; 
first sergeant June 8, 1864; second lieutenant February 23, 1865 ; re- 
signed June 12, 1865. 

Ninth Regiment. — Charles Jarvis, major; captain Company D June 
25, 1862; major May 24, 1863; died December i, 1863, of wounds re- 
ceived while on scout near Cedar I'oint, N. C, December i , 1 863. Lucius 
C. Dickinson, chaplain; commissioned July 2, 1862; mustered out of 
service June 13, 1865 Asaph Clark, Company D; first lieutenant June 
25,1862; captain May 25, 1863 ; mustered out of service June 13, 1865. 
James T. Gorham, captain Company H ; sergeant-major July 9, 1862 ; 
first lieutenant March 13, 1863; captain June 4, 1864; mustered out 
June 13, 1865. Charles W. Haskell, first lieutenant Company D ; private 
May 27, 1862 ; first sergeant July 9, 1862 ; second lieutenant November 
17, 1862 ; first lieutenant May 25, 1863 ; mustered out June 13, 1865. 
Justus Dartt, second lieutenant Company D; commissioned June 25, 
1862; resigned November 13, 1862. Asa H. Snow, second lieutenant 
Company D; private June 17, 1862; corporal July 9, 1862; sergeant 
December 4, 1862 ; second lieutenant May 25, 1863 ; resigned Decem- 
ber 1 1, 1864. 

142 History of Windsor County. 

Tenth Regiment. — Lucius T. Hunt, major ; captain Company H Au- 
gust 8, 1862; wounded June 3, 1864; major November 2, 1864; hon- 
orably discharged as captain December i, 1864, for disability. Henry 
G. Stiles, captain Company E ; private company H August 6, 1862; 
first sergeant September i, 1862 ; sergeant major March 24, 1864; sec- 
ond lieutenant Company G June 6, 1864 ; prisoner from June i to No- 
vember I, 1864 ; first lieutenant Company E February 9, 1865 ; captain 
May II, 1865 ; mustered out of service June 29, 1865. Solomon E. Per- 
ham, captain Company H ; second lieutenant August 8, 1862 ; first lieu- 
tenant January 19, 1863 ; captain November 2, 1864; mustered out of 
service June 22, 1865. Ezekiel T. Johnson, first lieutenant Company E ; 
private company H August 6, 1862; corporal September i, 1862; ser- 
geant December 28, 1862; wounded July 9, 1864; first sergeant ; sec- 
ond lieutenant Company E December 19, 1864; first lieutenant Com- 
pany G March 22, 1865 ; transferred to Company E May 20, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out as first sergeant Company H June 22, 1865. Jerome C. Dow, 
first lieutenant Company H; commissioned August 8, 1862; resigned 
June 5, 1863. Artemas H. Wheeler, first lieutenant Company H ; private 
August 7, 1862; sergeant September i, 1862; first sergeant April 3, 
1864; second lieutenant Company D December 19, 1864; first lieuten- 
ant Company H March 22, 1865 ; mustered out of service June 29, 1865. 
Eleventh Regiment {\st Regt. Heavy Artillery). — Joseph L. Harring- 
ton, assistant-surgeon; commissioned March 4, 1865; enlisted private 
Company I Fourth Vermont Volunteers September 14, 1864; transferred 
to Company F February 25, 1865 ; mustered out August 25, 1865. Ar- 
thur Little, chaplain ; commissioned March 20, 1863 ; mustered out of 
service June 24, 1865. George A. Bailey, captain Company B ; drafted 
July 22, 1863 ; entered service as second lieutenant Company M Novem- 
ber 2, 1863 ; promoted first lieutenant September 2, 1864; brevet cap- 
tain April 2, 1865, for gallantry in the assault of Petersburg; captain 
Company K May 13, 1865; transferred to Company B June 24,1865; mus- 
tered out August 25, 1865. James D. Rich, captain Company H ; com- 
missioned August 13, 1862 ; resigned July 30, 1863. George G. Tilden, 
captain Company H ; private August 6, 1862; sergeant September i, 

1862 ; second lieutenant September 5, 1862; first lieutenant August 11, 

1863 ; captain Company K December 2, 1864 ; transferred to Company 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 143 

H February 20, 1865; brevet major April 2, 1865 ; mustered out of serv- 
ice June 24, 1865. Jabez R. Maxham, first lieutenant Company H ; pri- 
vate August 6, 1862 ; first sergeant September i, 1862; second lieuten- 
ant August II, 1863; first lieutenant December 28, 1863; wounded 
slightly June 1,1864; honorably discharged August 7, 1864, for disability. 
Edwin J. McWain, first lieutenant Company H ; private August 6, 1862 ; 
corporal September i, 1862 ; sergeant September 6, 1862 ; second lieuten- 
ant December 28, 1863 ; prisoner from June 23, 1 864, to March 12,1865; 
promoted first lieutenant December 2, 1864; honorably discharged May 
15, 1865, as second lieutenant. Eli R. Hart, first lieutenant Company 
M ; private August 7, 1862 ; sergeant September i, 1862 ; first sergeant 
October 23, 1863 ; second lieutenant Company H December 28, 1863 ; 
wounded June i, 1864; first lieutenant May 13, 1865 ; mustered out as 
second lieutenant Company H June 24, 1865. Edward Blaisdell, second 
lieutenant Company H ; private August 7, 1862 ; corporal December 12, 
1862; sergeant May 22, 1863 ; first sergeant January 22, 1864; second 
lieutenant May 13, 1865 ; mustered out as first sergeant June 24, 1865. 
Charles D. Stafford, second lieutenant Company H ; private August 8, 
1862; corporal June 15, 1864; commissioned quartermaster sergeant 
September 28, 1864; second lieutenant May 13, 1865 ; mustered out as 
quartermaster-sergeant June 24, 1865. 

Ttvelfth Regiment {Nine Months Men). — Charles L. Savage, captain 
Company A; commissioned December i, 1861 ; mustered out of serv- 
ice July 14. 1863. Ora Paul, jr., captain Company B ; commissioned 
July 19, 1862 ; mustered out of service July 14, 1863. George E. 
Dimick, captain Company I; commissioned January 23, 1863; second 
lieutenant Company B July 19, 1862; first lieutenant December 4, 
1862; mustered out of service July 14, 1863. Winslow W. Wait, first 
lieutenant Company A; commissioned July 12, 1862; mustered out of 
service July 14, 1863. George L. Raymond, first lieutenant Company 
B; commissioned July 19, 1862; resigned November 24, 1862 Ed- 
win C. Emmons, first lieutenant Company B ; private August 19, 1862; 
first sergeant October 4, 1862; second lieutenant December 4, 1862; 
first lieutenant January 24, 1863; mustered out of service July 14, 
1863. Benjamin Warren, jr., second lieutenant Company A; commis- 
sioned August 12, 1862; discharged for disability January 17, 1863. 

144 History of Windsor County. 

Stephen F. Hammond, second lieutenant Company A ; private August 
19, 1862; first sergeant October 4, 1862; second lieutenant January 

25, 1863; muNtered out of service July 14, 1863. Crayton A. Wood- 
bury, second lieutenant Company B; private August 19, 1862 ; sergeant 
October 4. 1862; first sergeant December 4, 1862; second lieutenant 
January 24, 1863 ; mustered out July 14, 1863. 

Fifteenth Regiment {Nine Months' Service). — Redfield Proctor, colo- 
nel ; commissioned September 26, 1862; mustered out of service Au- 
gust 5, 1863. 

Sixteenth Regiment {Nine Months Service). — Wheelock G. Veazey, 
colonel ; commissioned September 27, 1862 ; captain Company A Third 
Vermont Volunteers May 21, 1861 ; major August 10, 1861 ; lieutenant- 
colonel August 13, 1861 ; mustered out of service August 10, 1863. 
William Rounds, major ; comissioned September 27, 1862; mustered 
out of service August 10, 1863. Harland O. Peabody, adjutant ; private 
Company C August 29, 1862 ; first sergeant October 23, 1862 ; second 
lieutenant October 23, 1862 ; first lieutenant Company H December 31, 
1862; adjutant April i, 1863; mustered out of service August 10, 
1863. James G. Henry, quartermaster ; commissioned September 29, 
1862; mustered out August 10, 1863. Alonzo Webster, chaplain; 
commissioned October 16, 186^; mustered out of service August 10, 
1863. Henry A. Eaton, captain Company A; commissioned August 

26, 1862; wounded severely July 3, 1863. at Gettysburg, Pa; mustered 
out August 10, 1863. Asa B. Foster, captain Company C; commis- 
sioned October 23, 1862; wounded July 3, 1863 ; mustered out of service 
August 10, 1863. Alvin C. Mason, captain Company E ; commissioned 
September!, 1862; mustered out August 10, 1863. Harvey N. Bruce, 
captain Company G; commissioned September 4, 1862; mustered out 
August 10, 1862. Joseph C. Sawyer, captain Company H; commissioned 
September 18, 1862 ; resigned December 26, 1862. Elmer D. Keyes, 
captain Company H ; first lieutenant September 18, 1862 ; captain De- 
cember 31, 1862; mustered out of service August 10, 1862. Samuel 
Hutchinson, captain Company K; commissioned October i, 1862 ; re- 
signed January 3, 1863. William Danforth, captain Company K; sec- 
ond lieutenant October i, 1862; promoted captain January 16, 1863; 
mustered out of service August 10, 1863. Daniel M. Clough, first lieu- 


/"^ (/ QJ yl^-^-^Zi^ 


Roster of Commissioned Officers. 145 

tenant Company A; commissioned August 26, 1862; mustered out 
August 10, 1863. Luther F. Moore, first lieutenant Company C; com- 
missioned October 23, 1862; mustered out August 10, 1863. Joseph 
Spafiford, first Heutenant Company E ; commissioned September i, 1862; 
mustered out August 10, 1863. Benjamin C. Button, first lieutenant 
Company G ; commissioned September 4, 1862; wounded July 3, 1863; 
mustered out of service August 10, 1863. Warren E. Williams, first 
lieutenant Company H; second lieutenant Company E September i, 
1862 ; promoted first lieutenant April 2, 1863 ; mustered out August 
10, 1863. Francis G. Clark, first lieutenant Company I; second heu- 
tenant Company G September 4, 1862; first lieutenant Company I 
April I, 1863; mustered out August 10, 1863. Lewis Graham, first 
lieutenant Company K; commissioned October i, 1862; resigned 
March 12, 1863. Joseph W. Waldo, second lieutenant Company A ; 
commissioned August 26, 1862; resigned March 12, 1863. James Tar- 
bell, second lieutenant Company A ; private September 15, 1862; ser- 
geant January 16, 1863; second lieutenant March 16, 1863; wounded 
July 3, 1863; mustered out August 10, 1863. Adin H Whitmore, 
second lieutenant Company C; sergeant-major October 23, 1862; sec- 
ond lieutenant December 31, 1862; resigned March 27, 1863. Henry 
A. Fletcher, second lieutenant Company C; private August 29, 1862 ; 
first sergeant October 23, 1862 ; sergeant-major March 9, 1863 ; second 
lieutenant April 2, 1863; mustered out August 10, 1863. George M. 
Clark, second lieutenant Company D; private September i, 1862; ser- 
geant October 23, 1862; second lieutenant December 31, 1862; trans- 
ferred to Company E April 2, 1863. Gardner Cox, second lieutenant 
Company G; private September 4, 1862; first sergeant October 23. 
1862 ; second lieutenant, April 2, 1863 ; mustered out August 10, 1863. 
John C. Sanborn, second lieutenant Company H ; commissioned Sep- 
tember 18, 1862; resigned December 26, 1862. Jason E. Freeman, 
second lieutenant Company H ; private Company K September 15,1 862 ; 
second lieutenant Company H December 31, 1862; mustered out Au- 
gust 10, 1863. Hugh Henry, second lieutenant Company I; regimental 
quartermaster-sergeant October 23, 1862; second lieutenant May 12, 
1863; mustered out of service August 10, 1863. George O. Hawkins, 
second Heutenant Company K ; private September 10, 1862; first ser- 
. 19 

146 History of Windsor County. 

geant October 23, 1862; second lieutenant January 16, 1863; mustered 
out August 10, 1863. 

Seventeenth Regiment. — Henry A. Eaton, lieutenant-colonel ; captain 
Company D March 4, 1864; major August 12, 1864; lieutenant- colo- 
nel November i, 1864; killed in action before Petersburg, Va., Septem- 
ber 30, 1864. Ptolemy O'Meara Edson, surgeon ; assistant surgeon 
First Cavalry November 5, 1861 ; surgeon Seventeenth Regiment 
March 16, 1864; mustered out of service February 27. 1865. Benja- 
min F. Giddings, Company B; private Company G March 7, 1864; 
first sergeant April 12, 1864; wounded June 3, 1864; first lieutenant 
Company B August 24, 1864; captain November i, 1864; mustered 
out of service July 14, 1865. Worthington Pierce, captain Company 
D; second lieutenant March 4, 1864; first lieutenant August 22, 1864; 
prisoner from July -^o, 1864, to March 30, 1865 ; captain November i, 
1864; resigned and honorably discharged as second lieutenant June 16, 
1865. Gardner W. Gibson, first lieutenant Company D ; commissioned 
March 4, 1864; died in General Hospital, Washington, D. C, June 14, 
1864. of wounds received in action June 8, 1864. Leonard P. Bingham, 
first lieutenant Company G ; commissioned April 12, 1864; killed in 
action before Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Henry B. Needham first 
lieutenant Compan}^ H ; commissioned May 19, 1864; died August 6, 
1864, of wounds received in action July 30, 1864. Almeron C. Inman, 
first lieutenant Company K ; private Company D December 30, 1863; 
corporal March 4, 1864; sergeant July 30, 1864; first sergeant; 
wounded September 30, 1864; first lieutenant June 26, 1865; mus- 
tered out of service as first sergeant Company D July 14, 1865. George 
E. Austin, second lieutenant Company D ; private Company F Feb- 
ruary 8, 1864; transferred to Company D May i, 1864; corporal No- 
vember 5, 1864; sergeant May 9, 1865 ; second lieutenant July 10, 
1865 ; mustered out as sergeant Company D July 14, 1865. George 
W. Kingsbury, second lieutenant Company F; commissioned April 9, 
1864; wounded on picket May 15, 1864; honorably discharged Octo- 
ber 5, 1864, for wounds. 

First Regiment United States SJiarpshooters — Henry E. Kinsman, 
first lieutenant Company F; private August 20, 1861 ; first sergeant 
September 13, 1861 ; second lieutenant May 15, 1863 ; first lieutenant 
November 5, 1863 ! mustered out September 13, 1864. 

Roster of Commissioned Officers. 147 

Second Regiment United States Sharpshooters. — William F. Tilson, 
second lieutenant Company E; commissioned November 12, 1864; 
transferred to Company G Fourth Vermont Volunteers February 25, 
1865. Curtis Abbott, first lieutenant Company H ; commissioned Jan- 
uary 22, 1865 ; transferred to Company H Fourth Vermont Volunteers 
February 25, 1865. 

Second Battery Light Artillery. — Charles H. Dyer, first lieutenant ; 
private December 11, 1861 ; sergeant December 16, 1861 ; sergeant- 
major May 30. 1862; second lieutenant November I, 1862; wounded 
August 3, 1863; first lieutenant October 12, 1863; mustered out of 
service July 31, 1865. 

Third Battery LigJU Artillery. — John H. Wright, first lieutenant ; pri- 
vate Company B Sixth Vermont Volunteers September 7, 1861 ; first 
sergeant October 15, 1861 ; re-enlisted January 5, 1864; second lieuten- 
ant Third Battery January 2, 1864; first lieutenant July 26, 1864; re- 
signed and honorably discharged as second lieutenant May 29, 1865. 
John W. Marsh, second lieutenant ; private November 4, 1863 ; sergeant 
January i, 1864; wounded August 19, 1864; first sergeant May i, 1865- 
second lieutenant June 13, 1865 ; mustered out as first sergeant June 
15, 1865. 

First Regiment of Cavalry. — Andrew J. Grover, major ; first lieuten- 
ant Company E October 16, 1861 ; captain Company A February i 
1863; wounded May 5, 1864; major July 7, 1864; mustered out of 
service November 18, 1864. Ptolemy O'Meara Edson, assistant sur- 
geon; commissioned November 5, 1861 ; promoted surgeon Seventeenth 
Vermont Volunteers April i, 1864. Samuel P. Rundlett, captain Com- 
pany E; commissioned October 16, 1861 ; resigned March 17, 1863. 
Oliver T. Cushman, captain Company E ; private October 12, 1861 ; 
sergeant November 19, 1861 ; second lieutenant April 10, 1862; first 
lieutenant February i, 1863; captain March 17, 1863; wounded July 
6, 1863; killed in action at Salem Church, Va , June 3, 1864. Alexan- 
der B. Chandler, captain Company E; private September 19, 1861 ; 
first sergeant November 19, 1861 ; second lieutenant March 17, 1863 J 
first lieutenant June 4, 1864 ; mustered out June 21, 1865. Rosalvo A. 
Howard, first lieutenant Company H ; private Company F September 
17, 1861 ; re-enlisted January 28, 1864; transferred to Company Hand 

148 History of Windsor County. 

promoted first sergeant November 19, 1864; to first lieutenant April 
14, 1865 ; mustered out June 21, 1865. Richard A. Seaver, second 
lieutenant Company E; private October i, 1861 ; sergeant November 
19, 1 861 ; first sergeant; second lieutenant June 4, 1864; mustered 
out of service November 18, 1864. Charles N. Jones, second lieuten- 
ant Company E ; private September 23, 1861 ; commissioned quarter- 
master-sergeant November 19, 1861 ; re- enlisted December 28, 1863 • 
second lieutenant April 14, 1865 ; mustered out as quartermaster-ser- 
geant Company E June 21, 1865. 

Frontier Cavalry. — George B. French, captain Second Company ; 
commissioned January 10, 1865 ; mustered out June 27, 1865. Francis 
G. Clark, first lieutenant Second Company; commissioned January 10, 
1865 ; mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 

The following roll of Windsor county soldiers is taken from the reports 
of the adjutant and inspector-general of Vermont. The town arrange- 
ment adopted by the compiler of that work is used here, as is also the 
other systems of classification. The names are arranged alphabetically. 
The figure and letter following each name indicate the regiment and 
company to which the person belonged. 

Town of Andover. — Volunteers for three years credited prior to the call 
of October 17, 1863 : — George W. Baldwin, 7 G, Byron C. Butterfield, 2 I, 
Ira C. Chase, 3 A, Isaac T. Chase, 6 E, Henry A. Comstock, 2 I, Azro 
B. Diggins, 9 D, George O. Dodge, 7 G, Wesley M. Dodge, 7 G, Ebene- 
zer Farnsworth, 4 K, John French, 9 D, Ashbel K. Gould, 4 K, Homer 
D. Hesselton, 9 D, Rosalo A. Howard, Cav. F, Henry Hutchins, 4 7, 
Charles H. Larkins, 7 G, James H Larkin, 7 G, James W. Larkin, 7 G, 
Henry A. Lovejoy, 2 I, Vernon A. Marsh, 2 I, Harland O. Peabody, 
2 I, Daniel P. Perkins, 2 I, Olin A. Pettengill, 3 A, Erastus Sargent, 10 H, 
Hollis W. Sheldon, 4 K, Charles B. Taylor, 9 D. Credits under call of 
October 17, 1863, and subsequent calls; volunteers for three years: — 
Julius Cunningham, Cav. F, Philo F. Fuller, 5 E, Samuel S. Hall, 10 H, 
Justus Hesselton, Cav. F, Henry M. Marsh, 1 1 G, Warren K. Spaulding, 
Cav. F, Cyrus S. Tuttle, Cav. F, Norman E. Tuttle, Cav. F. Volunteers 
re-enlisted : — Charles W. Bishop, Cav. E, Henry C. Cleveland, 6 E, 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 149 

Henry A. Comstock, 2 I, George R. Crosby, Cav. F, George O. Dodge, 
7 G, Wesley M. Dodge, 7 G, Benjamin F. Dvvinell, 6 E, Hiram and 
Major Gould, Cav. E, George W. Haskell and William C. Joyce, Cav. 
F, Charles H. and James W. Larkin, 7 G, Simeon L. Parkhurst, 2 I, 
Orris Pier, 6 E, John A. Thwing and Theodore Witt, Cav. F. Volun- 
teers for nine months. Sixteenth Regiment, Company C : — Edward O. 
Carlton, Lorenzo G. Coolidge, Nathaniel P. Dodge, Daniel C. Gould, 
Richard C. Green, George C. Hesselton, Henry M. Marsh, Harland O. 
Peabody, Abram Rowell, Joel R. Spaulding. Drafted and paid commu- 
tation : — George P. Lincoln, Byron Stickncy. Procured substitute: — 
William W. Pettigrew. Entered service : — John S. Marsh. 

Town of Baltimore. — Volunteers for three years enlisted previous to 
call of October 17, 1863: — Sidney F. Remis, Moses C. Rumrill. Vol- 
unteers for three years under and subsequent to call of October 17, 
1863 : — George E. Bemis, Martin V. Bemis. Volunteers for one year: — 
Jerry Febbor, Newell Wolcott. Volunteers for nine months: — Lowell 
R. Bemis, William M. Holden. In United States Navy : — John A. 

Town of Barnard. — Volunteers for three years credited prior to call 
of October 17, 1 863: — Austin V. and Edgar Adams, 4 E, Joseph P. 
Aikens, 4 D, Milton J. Allen, 4 E, Franklin D. Angell, 11 H, Sylvester 
A. Angell, 7 C, Samuel A. C. Atwood, 4 E, Eleazer W. Bartholomew, 
4 E, James Brannan, 3 F, Henry F. Buckman, Cav. E, Lyman S. 
Buckman and Lucien C. Bullard, 4 E, James K. P. Carlin, Thomas Car- 
lin, 3 F, Willard S. Caswell, 9 G, Benjamin F. Chamberlain, 11 H, 
George Chase, 4 E, Leander Corbell, 6 C, Josiah C. Dickey, 7 H, Gil- 
man Dale, Adelbert F. Gates, George M. Gofif, 4 E, George W. Good- 
win, 9 I, George A. Inman, 4 E, Edward Kelly, George H. Kelly, 
7 H, Albert A. Kendall, Cav. E, Nathaniel Leavitt, Daniel Lillie, Asa- 
hel H. Merick, George H. Merick, 4 E, Joseph Merick, 3 F, Andrew H. 
Norton, 3 K, Albert C. Packard, Philander R. Packard, 2 S-S E, Harlan 
P. Page, 4 E, Charles B. Perkins, 7 H, Benjamin A. Rand, 4 E, Ed- 
ward O. and Forest E. Richmond, Cav. E, Peter F. Riley, 7 H, Mar- 
cella T. Russell, 1 1 H, Francis Stone, 9 I, Le Roy F. Stone, Edward 
Sweet, 4 E, Damon W. Townsend, 7 B, Charles Tupper, 4 E, James H. 
Turner, 1 1 H, Charles W. Walcott, 4 E, Alvin L. Walker, 2 S-S E, 

I50 History of Windsor County. 

Eldred W. Waterman, 4 E. Volunteers under call of October 17, 1863, 
and subsequent calls : — Willis C. Adams, 1 1 H, Charles C. and Milton 
J. Aikens, 3 Rat, James M. Barnes, 1 1 H, Ira Bean, Robert H. Brown, 

3 Bat, Mason P. and Oscar F. Burke, 8 E, Daniel M., James C, and 
Joseph E. Chamberlain, 3 Bat, Walter C. Clark, 9 I, Clark C. Cook, 

4 E, Simon P. Dean, 6 C, Thomas Fisher, 17 D, John Gleason, 10- 
Orwell N. Harrington, 3 Bat, William Hutchinson. 6 C, George H. 
Kelly, 3 Bat, Noah Lathrop, 17 H, Martin C. Lazelle, Azro D. Mirick, 

3 Bat, Henry B. Needham, 17 H, Alfred E. Rand, 3 Bat, John Russell, 
jr., 1 1 H, Josiah G. White, 9 D. Volunteers for one year : — George C. 
Aikens, Franklin D. Angell, Cav. -, Hammond B. and Parker I. At- 
wood, 2 F Cav., Edward H. Bowman, Cav. -, Edwin R. and Oscar F. 
Campbell, Daniel Coughlin, Alexander Crowell, Emery S. Harrison, 
James Griffin, Augustus J. Harlow, William P. Henry, John Kelley, 
Cav. -, Hiram J. Luce, 9 -, Ira McCullum, Cav. -, James K. Pangborn, 
9 -, Loren W. Pangborn, Cav. -, William L. Stevens, 9 -, Leroy F. 
Stone, Cav. -, Joseph J. Winslow, 9 -, Eben M. Wilson, Henry A. 
Wood, 2 F Cav. Volunteers re-enlisted: — James Brannan, 3 F, L3/man 
S. Buckman, 4 E, Josiah C. Dickey, 7 H, Gilman Gale, Carlton Green, 

4 E, Horace Hall, Albert A. Kendall, Cav. E, Harlan P. Page, 4 E, 
Charles B. Perkins, 7 H, William H. Pond, Cav. E, Peter F. Riley, 7 H, 
Charles B. Sisson, Cav. E. In United States Navy: — Charles H. Al- 
drich, Leopold Diedering, Patrick Hayden, Thomas Kelley. Lewis J. 
Lull, John Mahoney, Daniel Sweeney. Volunteers for nine months: — 
Austin Abbott, 16 H, Charles C. Aikens, Cyrus H. Aikens, Charles R. 
Ashley, 16 H, George A. Atwood, 12 B, Frank J. Bowman, Robert H. 
Brown, 16 G, Monroe H. Bryant, - A, Alzo Buckman, - H, Chester 
Cady, Edwin R. Campbell, Oscar F. Campbell, Henry R. and Joseph 
E. Chamberlain, Gardner Cox, William H. Crowell, William H. Dan- 
forth, Charles W. Graves, 16 G, William P. Henry, 16 H, Lucian H. 
Kieth, Munroe N. Kendall, Albert Leavitt, L. Dudley Leavitt, George 
A. and W. Leroy Lillie, Ellis N. Parkhurst, 16 G, Frank Perkins, 16 H, 
Anthony C. Ray, Loress TopHff, Lucian V. Tupper, Lorenzo Wheelock, 
Joseph J. Winslow, 16 G, Henry A. Wood, 12 B. Entered service: — 
Alfred E. Lucas, William W. Mirick, Benjamin A. Rand. 

Town of Bethel. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to call 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 151 

of October 17, 1863 : — Albert and Azro Abbott, 4 E, Calvin B. Ab- 
bott, 8 B, Curtis Abbott, 2 S-S H, Channing Axdell, 6 F, Archibald 
Baker, 4 E, Frank Bullard, 6 C, Lewis S. Bundy, 4 D, Patrick Carney, 
1 1 H, Constantine Chadwick, 1 1 H, Albert W. Chapman, 6 F, Zolva W. 
Chase, 8 E, Amariah C. Crane, 4 E, Kilburn Day, 3 E, Seymour G. 
Drury, 6 C, Franklin B. Dunton, 7 G, Azro Dustin, 3 E, George M. D. 
Dustin,2 E, Timothy Dustin, First Bat, Ezra H. Emory, 8 E, Alfred D. 
and Charles Fairbanks, 2 S-S E, John and Luke Fairbanks, 3 F, Curtis 
O. Fisher and James S. Freeland, 4 E, Levi P. French, 6 C, Daniel 
Granger, 6 F, John Granger, 6 F, William Greenleaf, 2 H, Carlton 
Green, 4 E, Newell H. Hebard, 8 E.Byrm Hoj^hton, 2 -SS H, Charles 
N. Jones and Orvis F. Kimball, Cav. E, Robert B. Lillie, 4 E, William 
Magivney and Frederick H. Marks, i i H, Orville Moore, 2 E, Henry 
E. Moshier, 2 S-S E, George W. Packard, 8 G, Charles L. Page. 4 E, 
Arthur and Granville Pearson, 2 E, Abel H. Putnam, 3 F, Alonzo D. 
Ralph, 4 E, Daniel A. Rogers, 6 F, Eugene Rogers, 8 E, James D. 
Rich, II H, Harry and Lyman P. Rowe, 4 E, Daniel H. Ryan, Cav. E, 
Collamer G. Stevens, 8 E, John Spaulding, jr., 3 F, Albert and Irwin 
Spooner, 4 E, Ernest B. Stuart, 9 I, William F. Tilson, 2 S-S E, James 
B. Tinkham, 2 E, Andrew W. Turner, 9 F, Benjamin F. Webster, 1 1 H, 
George Wedgwood, 8 E, Don C. Wilson, 3 F, Thomas R. and Wallace 

E, Williams, 2 E, William Young, 4 K. Volunteers under call of Octo- 
ber, 1863, and subsequent calls : — Church G. Ballcu, Horace Bannister, 
8 -, Lewis B. Bates, 8 E, William L. Dean, 3 Bat, William A. Dun- 
ham, 8 F, Tracey S. Durkee, 2 S-S E, Freeman Fifield, 9 F, William 
H. Fisher, 17 D, Roswell Freeman, 4 C, Levi P. French, 6 C. Almon C. 
Goodell, 8 K, John Granger, 8 G, Henry H. Grow, 8 E, Charles H. 
Hardy, 6 C, Henry C. Harlow, 17 D, William Huse, 9 H, Almeron C. 
Inman, 17 D, Nathaniel C. Lynds, 8 D, H. Marshall Merrill, 8 E, Henry 
H. Miner, 8 D, William Newell, 8 E, John Pettis, 11 B, John Rice, 10 

F, Loren M. Rice, 10 F, James D. Rich, 8 C, Nehemiah W. Rindge, 9 

G, William H. Rollins, 9 E, Horatio N. Scott. 17 D, Ferd. Wheeler, 11 
F, Don L. Willis, 17 D, Thomas Flynn, Cav. F, Joseph Lynch, 11 -, 
John Mack and Thomas O'Donald, Cav. -, George S. Thomas, Cav. F. 
Volunteers for one year: — Albert E. Abbott, Edwin E. Austin, Ed- 
ward P. Barnes, Azro B. Bowen, Alonzo E Chadwick, Dennis Coto, 


History of Windsor County. 

John H. Harrington, John Lynch, Charles W. Petty, Birney I. Pratt, 
James M. Preston, Leroy J Sargent, Edward Tatero, Edwin F. Thresher, 
Lewis W. Turner, George H. Whitney, Paschal D. Whittaker. Vet- 
erans: — Calvin B. Abbott, Curtis Abbott, Charles Blackburn, Luke B. 
Fairbanks, Levi B. Goddard, Newell H Hibbard, Charles N. Jones, 
John Morse. Henry E. Mosier, George A. Parker, Daniel H. Ryan, 
John Spaulding. Nine months' men. Sixteenth Regiment: — Daniel 
Abbott, James H. Abbott, Wesley E. Baker, Albert G. Barnes, Samuel 
Barrett, jr., John Bean, Lorenzo D. Bowen, Eugene M. Brooks, Abel 
Ryan, Lorenzo Burnham, Amos B. Chamberlain, Dexter L. Chatfield, 
Daniel M. Clough, Solomon A. Cross, Henry S. Drury, George S. Em- 
ery, Ira Emery, jr., Lyman S. Emery, Henry W. Flint, Eastman Gee, 
Wilham H. Gee, George E. Green, Ransom S. Hubbard, Henry W. 
Howard, Norman W. Lillie, Patrick Marr, John R. Martin, Nelson Mc- 
Pherson, Marcus A. Moody, Charles A. Nefif, Nathan Noyes, William 
H. H. Perkins, Jonathan M. Rich, Rufus S. Rogers, William J. Rogers, 
Charles Russell, Stillman B. Smith, Alonzo H. Spooner, David Torrey, 
Andrew J. Washburn, James L. Washburn, Samuel B. Young. En- 
tered service : — William N. Abbott. Merick G. Page, James G. Tink- 
ham. Entered United States Navy : — Nathan Allen, Joseph H. Gary, 
Francis Donnelly, James P'ord, William Garvin, Thomas Miller, Will- 
iam Pye, Edward Ouinn,jr. 

Town of Bridgezvater. — Volunteers for three years credited previous 
to call of October 17, 1863; Second Sharpshooters, Company E: — 
Edward Atwood, Henry K. Blanchard, George A. Clay, Tilton Cutts, 
James C. Daggett, Horace L. Hathorn, William A. Hathorn, Wallace 
E. Robinson, David B. Sawyer, Edwin A. Sawyer, Addison V. Spicer. 
Third Sharpshooters : — Albert S. Healy, Wilmoth Ayers, 1 1 H, George 
S. Bridge, 5 I, Edwin Briggs, Sylvester F. Briggs, Stephen A. Capron, 
4 A, Charles S. Cilley, 9 D, John Dickey, 4 K, John Dugueze, 9 D, 
Samuel F. Dunbar, 4 A, Daniel Harrington, 9 D, Don A. Howard, 4 
A, Frank P. Ivers, 4 D, David Jessmer, 6 I, Jacob D. Johnson, 3 A, 
Truman R. Lewis, 6 C, William Luce, 7 H, Isaiah T. Maxham, 6 C, 
Seth O. Perkins, 4 D, John Y. Raistrick, 6 C, Joseph Robinson, 6 C, 
Charles B. Sisson, Cav. E, Charles A. Smith, 7 H, Anson Snow, 4 H, 
Harvey J. Sprague, 10 G, Jesse D. Stevens, 2 recruited, Asa W. Stowell 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 153 

and Justin A. Taylor, 4 D, Robert Thompson, 6 C, Rufus B. Tucker, 9 
D, Elihu E. Wilder, 7 H, Levi F. Wilder, 11 H, Josiah P. Willard, 6 C, 
Luther W. Wilson, 1 1 H, William Woodward, 6 C, Bezaleel Wood. 3 A. 
Volunteers under call of October 17, 1863, and subsequent calls, for 
three years: — Jerry Barry, Cav., Herman Belding, 9 E, Francis Boyle, 
Cav., Daniel Brackett, Cav., Charles F. and Lorenzo F. Brainard, 9 E, 
Charles L. Brown, 11 G, George Brown, 10- George T. Clark, 9 E, 
John Clark, Cav. -, Marvin T. Clark, 9 E, George W. Davis, 10-, John 
Dugueze, 11 H, Henry Ettinger, Bat, James Finn, Cav. -, John C. 
Fuller, 54 Mass., William Gillin, Cav. -, Hollis K. Hoyt,9 E, George M. 
Hubbard, 1 1 G, Daniel Huse, 3 F, William D. Huse, 3 F, Richard Mc- 
Crea, 3 -, Nathaniel B. Pettengill, 9 E, Michael Reynolds, 3 -, Daniel O. 
Robinson, 1 1 H, Charles F. Rowell, 1 1 H, James E. Sawyer, 1 1 H, 
Joseph Smith, 10 -, Edward Williams, Cav., Newell E. Woods, ii H. 
Veterans: — Samuel N. Hastings, John McGowan. Volunteers for one 
year : — Franz Buckhardt, Marshall A. Dimmick, George W. Robbins, 
Alden A. Spaulding. Carl Therin, Vilroy Wilson. Volunteers for nine 
months, Twelfth and Sixteenth Regiments: — Erasto F. Atwood, Orison 
A. Bartlett, George A. Chedel, Joseph C. Cilley, Charles F. Clark, Francis 
G. Clark, Harrison Conger, Seymour Conger, Andrew J. Ellis, Benj. F. 
French, Abel Gates, Lunus Hathorn, Herman Howes, Forest H. Ken- 
nedy, Charles A. Jasper H. and Oren Perkins, George G. Pratt, Daniel, 
Ezra J., and Wallace E. Robinson, Elisha F. Sanderson, Cornelius Scott, 
George Tuttle, Pliney F. Vorse, John C. Weatherby, Charles M. Wood. 
In United States Navy : — James M. Donald, Charles Lynch, Thomas 
McGrath, John O'Brien, Owen A. Riley, Charles Shumway, Charles F. 
Sinclair, Michael Sweeney. 

Tozvn of Cavendish. — Second Regiment: — Amos C. Spaulding, C, 
Charles M. Walker, I, Daniel S. White, I. Third Regiment :— Jesse 
Adams, F, Abram J. Locke, F, Redfield Proctor, quartermaster, John 
R. Seaver, F, Chas. A. Frost, F, Ozias King, E. Fourth Regiment: — 
Henry B. Atherton. C, David Bruin, C, Freeman C. Conant, C, Henry 
G. Fillebrown, C, George B. French, C, Hiram E. Hardy, C, Joseph 
Hickory, H, Collins L. Piper, C, Michael Shannon, K, Ceylon P. Smith, 
C, Horace S. Smith, C, George P. Spaulding, C, Charles Stockdale, C> 
Samuel Thompson (P. M.), Henry Tulliper, C, Nelson Tulliper, C, 

154 History of Windsor County. 

Daniel D. Wheeler, Henry P. White, C, WiUiam Whitlow, C, Zacheus 
Blood, C. Henry Rock, C, James Drury, C, Michael Eagan, C, John B. 
Kenny, C Sixth Regiment: — William W. Gary, E, Luther and Nathan 
Graves, G, Edward Kingston, C, Orrin J. Lockwood, G, Gharles Luther, 
G, Nicholas Smith, C, Jesse G. Spaulding, G, Joseph W. Sperry, E, 
George D. Taylor, E, Oscar S. Tuttle, major, Hiram J. Wallace, G, 
William H. Ingleston, E Seventh Regiment: — Sylvanus S. Barnard, 
G, John H. Garlton, G, James Dumpy, G, Solomon Dutton, G, Milton 
L. Gilbert, G, Edward L. Hazelton, G, George M. R. Howard, G, Peter 
O'Gonnor, G, Sherman Parkhurst, I, Otto Rimely, G, Gharles H. Spaul- 
ding, G, Gharles A. Sperry, G, Lucian A. Wilson, G, Nahum Bemis, G, 
William P. Brown, G, George W. and William H. Ellis, G, John S. 
Fitch, G, Ransom G. Fuller, G, Hial W. Holden, G. Lowell B. Payne, 
G, Joseph Richards, G, Levi Rock, G, Austin J. Wilson, G, Seneca A. 
Wilson, B, Ward D. Wilson, G, Gharles L. Adams, G, Newell J. Ellis, 
G, Henry G. Fletcher, E, Horace J. Fuller, G, Lucius A. Hesselton, G, 
Myron D. Hicks, A, Chancellor Page, G, Henry D. Pierce, G, Elbridge 
Reed, G, George Smith, A, Joseph P. Tarbell, G, Henry M. H. Thomas, 
A, Frederick F. Walker, G, George J. Wallace, G. Ninth Regiment: — 
Asaph Glark, D, Lucius G. Dickenson. Chap., William H. Snell, D, 
William W. Spaulding, D, George Strong, D. Tenth Regiment: — John 
Smith, H, James H. Webster, H. Eleventh Regiment: — John McNulty, 
G, William H. Webster, F, Wesley G. Sheldon, L, Wellington Yates, L. 
Sixteenth Regiment, Companies G, I, and K: — Joseph Ashley, Horace 
G. Atwood, Warren Bailey, Isaac E. Barnard, Henry H. Bemis, James 
Bemis, Marlow Bingham, Zacheus Blood, John Gary, Henry H. Gar- 
lisle, Melvin O. Chapman, Amos F. Grain, William R. Davis, Thomas 
W. Demary, Edward B. Ellis, William H. Ellis, Henry A. Fletcher, 
Lyman D. Foster, Jason E. Freeman, Orlow W. Fulham, Ramson R. 
Fuller, Samuel A. Fuller, Hial W. Holden, Gharles H. Elbridge, G., 
George C. and Walter W. Kingston, Chester and John Langvvorthy, Ed- 
ward F. Morgan, Gharles Rice, Charles C. Spaulding, Matthew Stewart. 
Owen B Tufts, Frederick A. Wait, Jonathan B. Witherill, Lucian Wol- 
cott. Seventeenth Regiment : — John P. W. Barnard, G, William Clu- 
cas, G, Chester Langworthy, G, Edward McGormick, G, Alexander, 
Samuel and Matthew Stewart, G, Merritt D. White, G, Henry M., Isaac 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 155 

M. and Martin M. Windsor, G. Sharpshooters: — Merrill Bailey, Charles 
S. Bond, Alfonzo L. Field, Benjamin F. Giddings, Allen P. Miller, 
George S. Miller, Samuel J. Williams, Lyman D. Foster, Sanford Lang- 
worthy, Allen P. Miller. Cavalrymen : — Edmund Stone, Nathan G. B. 
Witherell, John Q. French, George C. Kingston, Josiah T. Lyon^ 
Charles C. Spaulding, James A. White, Patrick Cronan, John Lang- 
worthy. Artillerymen : — Freeman C. Conant, James L. Harrington, 
Albert B. Adams. Volunteers found on later roll : — George L. Bur- 
bank, Albert S. Earl, George B. French, Henry Hardy, John L. Hem- 
enway, Horace E. Needham, Abel Ray, jr., Charles Sperry, Josiah D. 
Thompson, Joshua Upham, William H. Upton, William Whitlow. 

Town of Chester. — A roll of the volunteers of Chester under the "calls." 
without regard to regiment or company. Volunteers for three years 
previous to call of October 17, 1863 : — Nathaniel O. Abbott, Elmer L. 
Adams, John S. Adams, Lorenzo Atwood, John C. Balch, Ethan A. 
Bailey, Sewell Barker, John L. Bemis, James E. BoUes, Charles W. 
Bridges, Perry S. Bridges, Ambrose O. Bryant, Lewis A. Bryant, 
Ara M. Carlisle, Edwin M. Carlisle, Martin V. Chapman, Warren H. 
Chapman, Ira E. Chase, Martin Church, Warner Church, Harvey O. 
Clark, Thomas R. Clark, James F. Collis, Amos G. Cook, Henry S. 
Cook, Jesse Cook, Joseph Cook, Stephen F. Cook, P2zra S. Dean, 
Ezra M. De Camp, Augustus A. Deming, Riley Deming, James Drury, 
Frederick E. Duncan, Albert S. Earl. Alfred S. Earl, Ptolemy O. Ed- 
son, Abner W. Field, John P. Field, Joseph W. Fletcher, Lucius C. 
Fletcher, Otis F. Fletcher, Martin W. French, Albert W. Gibson, Will- 
iam O. Gibson, Willard Gilson, Horace J. Glynn, Justinian C. Glynn, 
Norman L. Gowing, Edmund Grady, Hiland H. Hadley, George W. 
Harris, George E. Hazelton, James B. Herron, William J. Hulett, Al- 
bert Jefts, Byron J efts, Daniel S. Johnson, Xenophon E. Lockwood, 
Gerald D. Marsdale, Charles A. Marshall, John L. Marshall, Myron E. 
Marshall, George C. Maxfield, Fletcher W. Miller, James Miller, Will- 
iam A. Miller, Norman A. Morris, Annis C, Noyes, Lewis O. Pierce, 
Gardner H. Porter, Ransom W. Rand, Alonzo H. Rice, Warren Rich- 
ardson, Dexter S. Roberts, Rawson Sherwin, Crean A. Smith, Ambrose 
A. Stiles, Augustus B. Strong, Walter S. Tarbell, Wyman S. Walker, 
Benjamin M. Ware, Wilber F. Ware, Dana R. Ward, B. Frank Weedon, 

156 History of Windsor County. 

William O. Wilbur, James D. Witherell. Under and subsequent to call of 
October 17, 1863 : — Horace G. Atwood, John Bajoin, William F. Barnes, 
John P. Bliss, Robert Boyd, Jeff. L. Brimmer, John M. Buckley, Elisha 
Collins, Robert Cowan, Homer A. Dudley, Myron S. Dudley, Ptolemy 
O. Edson, George W. Field, Jonas Garlack, Hiland H. Hadley, David E- 
Howard, James W. Johnson, Orlando D. Johnson, Luke Kelley, George 
W. Kingsbury, Walter W. Kingston, John Kingsley, Preston S. Knapp, 
Frank Ladam, John H. Lord, Michael Lynch, Edward A. Marsh, Nathan 
Parker, William Powers, Silas J. Smith, Alexis Snow, Cassius M. Stick- 
ney, Nelson Stone, Michael Sullivan, Eugene A. Thompson, George E. 
Watkins, Bradley L. Wheeler, Edward C. Whitney, John E. Willey, Davis 
Williams, William Woodworth, Edward Young. Volunteers for one 
year: — Edward C. Adams, Lorenzo Atwood, Orrin Beard, Rodney L. 
Benson, Laurin A. Bolles, Azro D. Bradish, Adoniran J. Chandler, Daniel 
B. Chandler, Harlan W. Chandler, Francis G. Clark, William J. Clark, 
M. Johnson Conant, Palmetus F. Cook, William H. H. Crane, Henry A. 
Currier, Norman W. Earl, Francis G. Fassett, Charles H. Hewitt, Frank 
J. Kelley, William W. Marsh, Patrick Murphy. Clarence L. Ranville, Al- 
bert E. Reed, Warren W. Richardson, Putnam J. Thompson, Charles J. 
Tarbell, Webster W. Ward, Sidney E. Weston. Volunteers for nine 
months: — Albertus Archer, Irving B. Baldwin, Orrin Beard, Warren 
Beard, Artemas A. Blood, Harlan W. Chandler, Joel B. Clark, P21isha 
Collins, Palamedus F. Cook, William H. H. Crane, Charles C, Darby, El- 
mer H. Dudley, Norman W. Earl, Theodore A. Edwards, Oliver Ellis, 
Andrew J. Farrar, Francis G. Fassett, Frederick J. F'itch, James A. Gould* 
William O. Gould, Almon M. Gould, Hiland H. Hadley, Hiram F. Hall, 
Henry Hardy, Thomas W. Heald, Hugh Henry, Albert S. Holbrook, 
Daniel P. Kingsbury, George W. Kingsbury, Henry W. Knight, Gideon 
E. Lee, John J. Miner, Henry A. A. Muzzy, Joseph S. Olney, George W. 
Paine, Joseph Piper, 2d, Arvin E. Pond, Edwin S. Reed, William Rounds, 
James O. Smith, George L. Spring, Charles J. Tarbell, Renselaer Tar- 
bell, Foster E. Taylor, Alvin L. Thompson, Putnam J. Thompson, Will- 
iam M. Tyrrell, Wesley L. Ware, Warren C. Williams, William Williams, 
Lyman G. Wood. In United States Navy : — Timothy Driscoll, Robert 
Emerson, Patrick J. Hasson, Michael O'Brien, John N. Young. 

Toivn of Hartford. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 157 

call of October 17, 1863: — Nathan A. Abbott, Cyrus A. Adams, Will- 
iam W. Bailey, Albert and Harvey Bartholomew, George F. Bemis, Ed- 
ward Blaisdell, Oliver Buell, Joseph Caraway, Charles Carlin, Benjamin 
R. Clark, Oliver Clement. Robert Courser, George A. and Timothy C. 
Curtis, John Cuthbert, Henry H. Daniels, Henry Davidson, Levi Dem- 
mon, jr., William H. Downer, Henry S. Drake, Horace S. Dutton, Will- 
iam A. Field, Arthur M. and Horace French, Francis Gallagher, James 
Gallup, James R. Oilman, Isaac Gorman, John F. Greenwood, George 
W. Hardy, Eli R. Hart, John S. Harvey, Charles H. Hill, Lyman Hunt, 
Charles, Edward W. and George Kibbee, Crowell M. Knowles, Sumner 
H. Lincoln, Edward Lyman, Thomas McHugh, Moses Messier, Alvin N. 
Niles, Joseph C. Miner, French Morrill, Andrew H. Norton, Joseph W. 
Norton, Robert Orr, Samuel F. Parker, James H. Piatt, jr., Oscar and 
Sidney E. Pierce, Samuel E. Pingree, Charles C. Powers, Edward C. 
Richards, Lucian A. Rider, Daniel M. Robinson, Samuel Robinson, Will- 
iam H. Rock, Leonard P. Rowland, Delancy Sharp, James M. Sleeper, 
Martin V. Sleeper, Portus B. and Stillman N. Smith, Leander Spaul- 
ding, William Stafford, Henry B. Strong, Peter Terrill, Philip V. Thomas, 
Valorus Thurston, Edward Trask, Engedi B. LJdall, Henry M. Washburn, 
Charles H. Webb, Bartholomew and James Welch, Edwin W. Weston, 
Nelson W. Whitcomb, Willis A. Whitcomb, Henry K. White, William 
E. Willard, Alexis Wright, Mahlon M. Young. Volunteers under and 
subsequent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Abraham Austin, David C. and 
James M. Babcock, William Baker, Charles H. Beach, Franklin H. and 
Kingsbury Boyd, William Brown, James Burdett, Oscar F. Burdick, Ben- 
jamin Chauvain, Chester Z. Cook, Francis Dew, Lewis Douse, Eli Faneuf, 
George E. Fogg, Joseph Foisia, Solomon B. Franklin, George B. Frost. 
Joseph Granger, Abram Hagar, Joseph Ham, Jeno C. Hammer, Leslie 
Hammond, Hial Hill, Thomas S. Hodsdon, William B. Hoyt, John Hunt, 
Mackson B. Lawrence, George W. Loud, George N. Mitchell, Alonzo D. 
Moses, Felix Rice, John Robinson, John O'Shea, Patrick Sheehe, Jason 
Smith, Obed Stanhope, Dexter P. Waterman, Franklin O. Willard, Lewis 
T. Wills, Warren W. Wrisley. Volunteers for one year: — Lyman Ar- 
nold, Horace Badger, Thomas Brackett, Nathan Brown, Patrick Burns, 
Robert Cuthbert, jr., Charles Dean, Lawrence Edwards, Dostie Fan- 
euf, jr., Milo H. Glidden, Franklin Holt, Albert N. Kibbie, Albert J. 

158 History of Windsor Countv. 

Kimball, William H. McKinlay, Donald McLeod, Francis Monroe, Levi 
C. and William O. Pitkin, Malcolm H. Pollard, Carlos S. and William B. 
Porter, Henry J. Startwell, Warren Streeter, George Swineburn. George 
H. Tamblin, John Thomas, Wallace B. Warren, John Williams. Veter- 
ans : — George F. Bemis, Edward R. Caswell, Timothy C. Curtis, CaK^n 
Dyke, Marshall P. Felch, Edward F. Gould, Thomas McHugh, Lucian 
A. Rider, Stillman N. Smith, William Stafford, Peter Terrell. Volun- 
teers for nine months : — Isaac W. Abbott, Alamander L. Ball, Reuben 
N. Barron, Frank Blaisdell, George B. Brockway, Charles Brooks, Will- 
iam Brothers, Nathan Brown, Charles G. Cargill, John Carlisle, Charles 
E. Case, Cyrenius W. Dana, Joseph R. Davis, William H. Downing, Ben- 
jamin C. Dutton, Richard Fisher, Charles S. Gardener, James M. Gil- 
bert, Loren D. Goss, Lyman O. Gunn, John Hall, Albert E., Harper, 
and William Hazen, Henry F. Hathaway, Orange T. Hoisington, Alan- 
son H. Johnson, Albert N. Kibbee, Cyrus W. Morse. James Newton, 
P'rancis A. R. Packard, Chris. C Pease, Charles Pierce, Amasa H. Pills- 
bury, Calvin Porter, Daniel W. Roberts, George Russ, Jasper H. Savage, 
Joseph C. Sawyer, Frank Saxey, Charles J. Sleeper, Lorenzo C. Thurs- 
ton, David N. Winslow, John O. Woods. (Entered service : — Joseph 
Bean, Byron Hunt.) In United States Navy : — John Cane, Peter Cole, 
Alonzo B. Davis, James Davis, Dennis W. Downing. Joseph Hippolite, 
Jerry Lee, Alex. McDonald, James McGinniss, John O'Donnell, John 
J. H. Schmalfeldt, Samuel H. Smith, Theodore H. Smith, John White, 
Henry Williams. 

Town of Hartland. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863 : — Charles N. Allen, Roderick Bagley, Frederick 
Blaisdell, George H. Burrows, Charles C. Cleveland, George Colby, 
Charles E. Colston, 2d, Clarence E. and Oliver T. Cushman, Judah W. 
Dana, Hiram N. Davis, Alonzo Douglas, James Fallon, James French, 
Peter Green, Henry Holt, Charles Humphrey, Ira E. and James P. 
Hutchinson, Samuel H. Jones, Edgar H. Leonard, Thomas F. Leonard, 
Allen P. Messer, Charles W. and Daniel Patch, Perry Lamphire, William 
H. Petrie, Frederick Remington, Austin O. Rickard, Benjamin R. Rick- 
ard, Benjamin Rogers, George C. Rumrill, John Sabine, Elbridge G. 
Thompson, Louis O. Vaughn, Zina Walker, Charles C. Warren. John H. 
Willard, Seneca Young. Volunteers under and subsequent to call of Oc- 


Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 159 

tober 17, 1863 : — David Barber, Dana Boyd, Almeron Burnham, Henry 
Clark, Daniel M. Clough, John Cook, John A. Cutler, Harry Durphey, 
William H. Durphey, David A. Elkins, Josiah Elkins, jr., William R. 
Elkins, Charles D. Fairbanks, John Flynn, Robert Gannon, Ira A. Had- 
dock, Francis D. Hale, Austin Hazzard, Benjamin C. Hill, Stephen S. 
Huntley, George J. Hurley. Joseph Jones, Moses M. La Fayette, James 
Mack, George Martin, Henry May, Joseph Mayo, John McCarthy, Syl- 
vester O. Mero, James Murphy, Andrew Nichols, Henry Park, Benjamin 
F. Rickard, Horace and Roger Sargent, George E. Startwell, Heaton B. 
Skinner, John E. and Richard Smith, Elisha S. Spaulding, John J. Tem- 
ple, Henry Tilden, Patrick Tobin, Ransom C. White, David Wright. 
Volunteers for one year : — Corneliu'^, Cyrus R. and Dwight Bagley, Asa 
M. Benvvay, Frederick E. Blaisdell, John D. Blanchard, John W. Doug- 
lass, Thomas L. Gear, Allen Gilson, Hiram K. King, Heman C. Orcutt* 
Franklin Parker, William H. Petrie, James M. Sleeper, Gaius S. Thomp- 
son, Andrew J. and Zina Walker, Richard Wheeler, Albert Willard, 
Thomas A. Willard, Hosea B. Young. Volunteers re- enlisted, veterans: — 
Allen W. Berry, Henry R. Brannock, Thomas H. Fargo, Henry H. Hast- 
ings, John Jerlisan, John King, Thomas F. Leonard, William Munger. 
Martin V. Sleeper, John H. Willard. Volunteers for nine months : — 
Charles O. Alexander, William J. Allen, Cyrus R. and William W. Bag- 
ley, Thomas J. Benjamin, John W. Bramble, Sidney W. Brown, John F- 
Colston, Oscar P. and Ozro P. Davis, William W. Dodge, Ferdinand 
Fallon, Carlos Fulton, Ethan A. Giles, John S. Hardy, Benjamin F'- 
Hatch, Benjamin D. Hathaway, Lorenzo D. Kidder, Reuben N. Lam- 
phear, Thomas Lenahan, Andrew C. and Lewis J. M. Marcy, Joseph 
Mayo, James P. Nash, Lucian W. Rice, Andrew T. Richmond, Augus- 
tine W., Charles C, Daniel W. and William W. Rogers, James W. 
Rogers, Daniel Short, James M. Sleeper, George W. Spear, John J. Tem- 
ple, Thomas Tracey, John B. and Sanford M.Whitney, Clinton J. Willard. 
In United States Navy: — Nehemiah L. Angell, Thomas Callahan, James 
Conway, Frank Crises, David Dixon, John Dooley, John Gallaghar. 
John W. Griffith, Andrew Hanson, Peter Hanson, Jeremiah Harrigan' 
Thomas F. Henway, Erva Johnson, Thomas Kelley, Antonio Lopez. 
Ned McDonald, Elbert O. Rhodes, Thomas Table, John Tower, Horace 
Watkins, Robert Welch. 

i6o History of Windsor County. 

Town of Ludlow. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to call 
of October 17, 1863 : — Daniel O., John W. and Wayland Adams, Ed- 
ward E. Balch, James F. Baldwin, John and William J. Barrett, Dorman 
and Rufus F. Barton, Leonard P. Bingham, Charles W. Bishop, Hiram 
P. Bixby, John M. Buckley, George B. Burbank, William A. Chapin, jr., 
Jasper N. Clark, Henry C. Cleveland, William A. Clement, Henry F. 
Colby, Daniel F. and John T. Coolidge, Thomas R. Cummings, Leander 
D. Davis, Lorenzo A. Dodge, Charles W. Dow, Erwin M. and Jesse B. 
Dunbar, Henry F. Dutton, Addison Y. Eaton, Sewall Ellison, Patrick 
Finnigan, Benoni B. and Volney S. Fullam, Freeman H. Fuller, Albert 
and Oscar Gassett. Michael Gilligan, James T. Gorhani, Elbert INJ. and 
Enos M. Gould, Hiram Greeley, Josiah M. Green, Martin E. Grover, 
Artemas W. Hall, Joseph L. Hastings, Lowell W. and Prescott R. Haven, 
Daniel D. and Henry G. Hemenway, Abner C. and Moses P. Hesselton, 
Oramel G. Howe, Daniel Keating, Francis Kelley, Patrick C. Kennedy, 
Henry PI. Lawrence, Arthur Little, Henry H. Mandigo. Albert A. May, 
Alon/.o E., Armin E.and Charles W. Moore, Sylvester H. Parker, Sim- 
eon L. Parkhurst. Salmon E Perham, Orris Pier, Henry L. and John 
B. Pollard, Augustus H. Pratt, Charles A., Joseph U., and Sullivan E. 
Reed, Henry H. Riggs, Augustus L. Roberts, Levi Rock, Duane O. and 
Ulric T. Ross, Frank B. and Henry H. Sargent, Alphonzo and George 
M. Sawyer, Erastus M. Simmonds, Hiram Snell, Fred B. Stickney, Syl- 
vester C. Strong, Isaac N. Wadleigh, Freeman Wakefield, Asahel S. 
Whitcomb, R. Elmore Whitney, Charles H. Wyman. Volunteers under 
and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863: — Marlow and Leonard P. 
Bingham, William H. H. Chapman, Lucius Ingalls, Samuel Langdon, 
Horatio S. Lockwood, James Pollard, Charles Snow, George F. Spafford, 
Freeman Wakefield, Edwin H. Wheeler. Volunteers for one year: — Al- 
bert N. and Albertus J. Archer, Fred H. Barlow, Fred G. Barnard, Sam- 
uel Bell, Timothy Daily, jr., Hazen F. Fletcher, James Frazier, Benoni B. 
Fullam, Edward H. Green, James M. Hastings, jr., John Hayes, Charles 
H. Horwill, Patrick C. Kennedy, Edgar May, Peter McMorton, Francis 
A. Moore, Jonathan H. and Joseph U. Reed, Thomas Riley, Asahel J. 
Root, Lyman K. Sartwell, Byron and Milo Smith, John Snell, Alex, and 
Moses Snow, Samuel R. Taylor, John Wilhington, John P. Woodis. 
Volunteers re-enlisted, veterans: — Daniel O. Adams, Norman Archer, 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 161 

Freeman H. Fuller, Enos M. Gould, Martin E. Grover, Lowell W. Haven, 
Albert A. May. Volunteers for nine months: — Frederick G. Barnard. 
Marquis J. Bixby, Martin V. B. Clark, Hazen Fletcher, Charles Horwill, 
James M. Hastings, jr., Daniel Johnson, Zcnal C. Lamb, Orlando S. Os- 
born, Benjamin F. Pettigrew, Surry M. Ross, Darwin R. Sargent, Milo 
Smith. John Snell, Michael Sullivan, Leonard R. Warren, Lysander 
Whitney, John E. Willey. Entered service : — Albert and Alvin Chap- 
man, James H. Porter, Martin Wyman. 

Town of Norwich. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1861 : — William Bicknell, George Bills, Horace and 
William H. Blood, Franklin Chamberlain, William H. Colburn, William 
H. H. Covey, Lewis and Simeon Currier, Lewis H. Dutton, John G. 
Fowler, Myron D. Gibbs, Charles A Goddard, James B. and Leonard 
H. Goodrich, Daniel and George W. Hall, Henry H. Hatch, James C. 
Hebard, Joseph L. Hilton, Allen H. and William H. Hopson, Alonzo B. 
Hutchinson, Augustus H. Johnson, Henry H. and William A. Kimball, 
Charles A. and Henry W. Knapp, George Lamphere. Albert, Charles 
M. and George Messenger, Edwin M. Noyes, Frederick Pennock, Charles 

A. and James M. Sargent, George W. and Henry Silver, Ransom A. 
Slack, John G. Smalley, Edward M. Sprout, George W. Taylor, William 
Tillerson, Silas N. Turner, Martin L. Wallace, Danforth Willey, John H. 
and Thomas K. G. Wright, Horace and Henry I. Yarrington. Volun- 
teers for three years under and subsequent to October 17, 1863 : — Cal- 
vin S. Adams, John Andrews, George E. Austin, Elisha T. Bedle, John 
Bowker, Albert Buswell, William E. Carpenter, Alonzo D. Clapp, Bur- 
chard Clough, Almon G. and William H. Coon, Bradford M. Crawford, 
George Currier, Oscar F. Davis, Joseph Doucette, George M. Eastman, 
William T. Gammell, I'reeman and George W. Gee, Marshall C. Goff, 
Charles W. Hartwell, Abel C. and George B. Hebard. Peter Hemery, 
Justin G. Hinds, Charles Holt, William H. Hopson, Seaver Howard, Ben- 
jamin F. Kimball, Daniel Kimball, Willard Low, Alexis Marcotte, Will- 
iam McDonald, Seth McNorton, Clifford Menier, George and Robert R. 
Morey, James R. Neal, George W. Nye, Merrill J. Piper, Edwin R. Ray, 
George W. Reynolds, Peter Riley, Isaac Shaddick, Henry W. Slate, 
Henry Taylor, Bernard Thompson, Fred Tracy, Patrick Welch, Charles 

B. Whitcomb, James H. Wilkey, Alexis B. and John H. Wright, Merrill 


i62 History of Windsor County, 

E. and William P. Yarrington. Volunteers for one year : — Charles H. 
Bartlett, John E. Jenks, James Johnson, Julius Terry. Volunteers re- 
enlisted, veterans : — George A. Curtis, Erastus Doyle, Joseph Gadbois, 
Reuben W. Holland, Alpha Kimball, Oscar M. Parkhurst. Volunteers 
for nine months : — Aaron P. Alger, Edwin L. Ballard, Levi Benson, John 
B. and William L. Brown, Charles Caswell, Richard A. Colburn, Charles 
B. Converse, Daniel Currier, Orange P. Outing, William A. Danforth, 
Lewis H. Fowler, Henry G. Hawkins, Franklin Holt, David H. Huggett, 
Edson, Samuel and William H. Hutchinson, Lemuel R. Jenney, Michael 
Kelly, Thomas Marcotte, Benjamin F, Messenger, George S. Morris, Her- 
bert B. Slacks Charles L. Swazey, George R. and Harrison H. Thurstin, 
James B. Tracey, Charles H. Waterman, Charles P. and Rudolph us W- 
Wood (entered service), Samuel W. Shattuck. 

Tow7i of PlynioiitJi. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863 : — Alfred, Foster E. and Norman Archer, Mi- 
chael W. , Seth W. and Thomas O. Barker, Moses P. Bates, Eugene F. Bel- 
lows, Daniel F. Bennett, Henry R. Blanchard, Ormer D. Butler, Henry 
D. Carpenter, Ira D. Chamberlain, William Coffin, Winslow A. Colby, 
Philip W. Crosby, Andrew A. Edgerton, Willard T. Emery, Henry S. 
Foster, Daniel H. Gilson, Pembrook S. Grover, Eleazer A. Hall, Al- 
phonso E., Edwin A. and Joseph F. Headle, Andrew J. Holt, David S. 
and Luther Johnson, jr., James Kavanaugh, Simon Lesage, Warren S. 
Leslie, Daniel McKane, Timothy Messer, William H. Munroe, Charles 
H. Morse, Joseph F. Newton, George W. and Henry M. Parker, Edson 
and Samuel L. Pinney, Elbridge W. Prior, Eben Rand, Frank Roys, 
Joseph S. Sawyer, Seneca W. Taylor, Triffley Vansalette, Orick R. Ward, 
Alonzo and Eben Whitney, Solomon D. Wilder. Volunteers for three 
years under and subsequent to call of October 1 7, 1 863 : — Charles Archer, 
Stephen M. Butler, Smith M. Clay, Nathan Cummings, jr., Joseph A. 
and Sylvanus Davis, Joseph H. Eaton, Jason Ellis, Abel T. Gates, Alfred 
Gilbert, Thaddeus S Grover, Philip Hawkins, Nelson D. Knight, Andrew 
A. Miner, Erwin N. and Marvin Pinney, John Y. Raistrick, Charles C. 
Sawyer, Amos A. Smith, George D. Stowell, Benjamin Wilder,jr., Charles 
Williams. Volunteers for one year : — Lewis E. Ackley, Joseph C. Brad- 
ley, Charles H. Cilley, Lyman H. Cummings, Patrick Fagan, James 
Hubbard, Henry C. Leslie, Edward S. Morgan, Leroy W. Sawyer, Edwin 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 163 

P. and Peyton Tarble. Volunteers re-enlisted, veterans: — Michael H. 
and Thomas O. Barker, Ira T. Chamberlain, Winslow A. Colby, Daniel 
H. Gilson, William Hanley, Nathaniel Hazelton, Joseph F. Headle, An- 
drew J. Holt, Daniel Macaine. In the United States Navy: — Daniel 
Barry, Evelyn R. Carpenter, Christopher C. Hall, James Hubbard, Pat- 
rick Vaughn. Volunteers for nine months : — Abner P. and Franklin L. 
Archer, Leonard H. Bailey, Moses P. Baldwin, Amos H. CooHdge, 
Henry O. Cummings, Hezron Day, Volney L. Earl, Thomas Grove, 
Chris. C. Hall, Orville M. Hudson, James C. Johnson, William E. Knight, 
Lorenzo D. and Henry J. Miner, Alfred T., Levi B. and Luther F. 
Moore, John W, Pierce, Leroy W. Sawyer, Norman Taylor, Eli M. 
Ward, Ezra M. Weston. 

Town of Pomfret. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863 : — Milo P. Adams, HolHs F. and Joshua Allard, 
Levi F. Barnably, Allen W. Berry, Austin, Dustin J. and William Boyn- 
ton, John A. Buibank, Calvin C. Cabot, Alex. B. and Edward Chandler, 
George Clapp, Charles E. Cowen, John W. Currier, Daniel C. Dana, 
Antoine Duphany, Joseph Duphiney, Aaron H. Gaige, Edward P. Ha- 
zen, Joseph Luce, John and Oramell Morse, Edgar Ordway, John W. 
Perkins, Alonzo C. Reed, Owen C. Riley, Harrison Rodgers, Richard A. 
and Thomas O. Seaver, Charles W. and Henry O. Smith, Asa H. Snow, 
Charles D. Stafford, Melvin A. Stevens, William J. Strong, Lucius B. 
Thomas, John H. Vaughn, Franklin W. Wallace, Francis R. Wallace. 
Volunteers for three years under and subsequent to call of October 17, 
1863: — Tufifield Amlaw, Charles Baraw, Erastus H. Buck, Henry Car- 
penter, George E. Clough, Chauncey Cronk, Nelson Drown, Henry L. 
Dike, Thomas W. Elkins, Robert Erwin, Daniel B. French, Dana F'uller, 
Mark Harrington, Eber H. Jenkins, Ellis T. Lamberton, John LaMarsh, 
James N. Leach, Warren B. Layton, William Martin, Edgar Ordway, 
Edgar Petit, Joseph A. Pilkin, Horace Rollins, Joseph Ward, Chester C. 
Wheeler. Volunteers for one year: — Collamer P. and Ira A. Abbott, 
John M. Barron, Lewis Blair, John H. Chandler, Lauriston F. Danforth, 
Rufus Gay, Charles W. Harlon, Alba L. Jillson, John C. Keith, Frank 
Martin, Edward B. Maxham, John and William R. McCue, Thomas 
Mee, Charles E. Pilkin, William Pluden, Harrison Rogers, James Scott, 
Theron A. Thatcher, Harry B. Thomas, Charles H. Wood. Volunteers 

1 64 History of Windsor County. 

re-enlisted, veterans: — Albert W. Allen, HolHs F. Allard, Franklin P. 
Flynn, Reuben W. Hayward, John Morse, Sylvester M. Snow. Vol- 
unteers for nine months: — William H. Adams, William P. Atwood, Ira 
Bean, Lewis Blair, James C. Blanchard, Harvey N. Bruce, John H. 
Chandler, Charles L. Clifford, Humphrey W. Colburn, John S. Currier, 
Henry M. Harding, Edgar and George W. Harrington, Stephen Hewitt, 
John E. Howland, Seneca B. Howland, John C. Keith, Henry E. King, 
Ellis T. Lamberton, Henry O. and Orvis F. Leonard, Edwin B. Max- 
ham, Crosby P. Miller, Ora Paul, jr., Charles H. Seaver, Hial P. Leavy, 
Nelson Snow, Greenbush Strong. In United States Navy: — George 
Baker. Michael Dewey, Dennis Grady, Peter Mellen, John McKenna, 
Timothy Murphy, Benjamin Robinson, John D. Sullivan. 

Town of Reading. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to call 
of October 17, 1863: — William E. Amsden, Martin J. Bixby, Alphonzo 
Powers, Oscar B. Bryant. Andrew J. Butler, Anson O. and Frank J. Co- 
burn, John Crosby, Elmer A., Nelson W. and Norman E. Emery, Henry 
E. Giddings, Collamer E., Forest D. and Henry H. Giddings, Charles C. 
Grant, Philip Halpin, George O. Hawkins, Henry C. Hoadley, Philemon 
Holden, Elmer G. Holmes, Orro A. Jenness, Napoleon B. Johnson, 
Gould D. Keyes, Edmund F. Mahoney, Henry T. Marsh, William O. 
Messenger, James H. Noyes, George W. Pierce, Simon H. Spalding, 
Edwin S. Spear, Samuel B. Twiss, Henry O. Wait, Kosciusko Whitte- 
more, Lucius O. Wilkins, Wallace W. Wilkins, Charles M. Williams. 
Volunteers under and subsequent to call of October 17, i86j: — Alza- 
man D. Amsden, George E., George S. and James A. Brown, George 
J. Bundy, Andrew J. and Oliver B. Butler, Joseph Casavant, James F. 
Collins, John Corcoran, Levi A. Cross, Edward W, Demary, Andrew J. 
Drownie, Herbert A. Drown, Daniel Dunn, Philip D. Duphinney, Still- 
man O. Gay, Benjamin F. and Hiram A. Giddings, Noah W. Gray, 
H enry D. Hagar, John W. Holmes, Henry E. Kellogg, Albert W.Lang, Al- 
fred G. Lawrence, Hobart J. Marr, John Mason, Lewis W. Merrill, Henry 
A. Miner, George Pappineau, Peter Pifer, Nathaniel Pifer, Andrew Rich- 
ards, John Sharmen, Bryan Shay, FelixValley, Edwin L.Wells, Harry P. 
Willey. Volunteers re- enlisted, veterans: — Charles C. Grant, James H. 
Hays, Henry C. Marsh, Edwin S. Spear, Henry O. Wait, Herman J.White. 
Volunteers for nine months: — Alzaman D. Amsden, Henry N. Bryant, 


Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 165 

Ambrose D. and Elton F. Buck, George M. Clark, Cornelius J. Cush- 
man, Edmund P. Davis, Edward W. Demary, Floyd W. and George 
O. Hawkins. Uavid Hoisington, Elmer D. and William W. Keyes, Moses 
Nichols, Edward M. North, Edwin M. Paige, Dennison Parker, Lucien 
Philips, Edgar C. Price, William A. and William D. Wait, Joseph D. 
Weston, Azro White. In United States Navy: — Declan O'Brien. 

Tozvn of Rochester. — Volunteers for three }ears credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863 : — Erastus S. Austin, Daniel Barkman, Alfred 
Barkman, Charles C. Beckwith, Horace A. and Truman L. Brink, Henry 
H. Chaffee, Royal M. Churchill, Daniel N. Coolidge. Edward S. Cooper, 
John and Lucius M. Dutton, Charles H. Dyer, George W. Eaton, Charles 
B Fiske, Volney R. Flanders, Henry and Roswcll Freeman, Austin F. 
Gillett, Lucius W. Griswold, William C. Henry, Thomas P. Humphrey, 
Moses C. Hunt, James D. Huntington, John Ingleston, Daniel L., Jared 
L and William H. Jones, Charles E. and George C. Keith, Albert and 
Malcom G. Kinsman, Elbridge J. and Herman L. Knowlton, George E. 
Marsh, Burnap A., Charles S. and George H. Mastin, Edgar W. and Ed- 
win J. McWain, Jacob Messer, Delos Permeter, James M. Pixley, La Fay- 
ette Richardson, Fred Richmond, David Root, Edward M. Savage, Hi- 
land H. Shipman, Henry Simmons, Harman C. and Thomas A. Smith, 
Ira A. Stevens, Henry C. Swan, Henry L. Terry, Hiram E. Thatcher, 
Fred C. and George D. Tilden, Clarence G. Tinkham, Ransom W. Towle, 
Erastus W.Ward, Andre M., Harry A. and Henry C.Washburn, John O., 
Robert B.. Martin D., Varnum B. and William P. Whitney, David L. 
Willey, Elbridge S. Williams, Benjamin M. Wood. Volunteers for three 
years under and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Ransom 
Badger, Darwin A. and Truman L. Brink, Charles W. Brooks, Ira P. 
Buck, Hiram W. Campbell, Solomon C. Comstock, James M. Crossman. 
Alfred and Henry A. Eaton, Henry T. Goodyear, Theodore H. Hall, 
John H. Holton, Joseph Huntington, Huntington M. Lamb, Elmer J. 
Leonard, Patrick Nally, Henry D. Newton, Luther I. Palmer, John F. 
Pearson, John F. PiUsbury, Alfred M. Richardson, Thomas J. Ryan, Ed- 
ward M. Savage, Luther Spencer, jr., Charles F. Van Gilder, Andrew J. 
Washburn, Joshua Whitne3^ Volunteers for one year: — George Allen, 
Charles J. and Willard J. Bisbee, Ira M. Brown, Sylvester Clark, Royal 
E. Durkee, David and Francis A. Eaton, Dean B. and Julius G. Fas- 

1 66 History of Windsor County. 

sett, Joseph Flanders, Sherman Harrington, Ira V. Keith, Harry J. Kid- 
der, Joseph H. Newton, Lyman D. Rhodes, David Root, Nelson J. 
Thresher, Andre M. Washburn, Orville A. Wiggins. Volunteers re- ■ 
enlisted, veterans : — Erastus S. and Truman M. Austin, Horace A. " 
Brink, Henry H. Chaffee, John Button, William H. Jones, La Fayette 
Richardson, Irvin Spooner, Ira A. Stevens, Ransom W. Towle, Cyrus 
O. Whitney, David L. Willey. Alfred Tensmyer, recruit. Volunteers 
for nine months :— Edwin E. and George E. Austin, Merrill Bean, Syl- 
vester Clark, Henry H. Clough, Milton Crossman, Eugene E. and Henry 
A. Eaton, Julius G. Fassett, William Gifford, George R. Miner, Charles 
Morse, jr., Stillman J. Perkins, Joel B. Smith, Wallace W. Towle, Will- 
iam J. Walker. In Navy : — Daniel B. Ball. Entered service : — Henry 
Freeman, Edward Morse, Lucius H. Taylor. 

Town of Royalton. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863: — Cyrus and George S. Adams, Joseph W. 
Bailey, Henry L. and Nahum C. Baker, Mason Barney, Joseph D. Beck- 
with, Elisha T. and Thomas Beadle, Orville Bixby, Horatio C. and 
Lancelot K. Blake, James F. Bourne, Benjamin F. Bowman, Edwin H. 
Chadwick, Fred W. Chamberlain, Charles B. Cleveland, Oscar Coburn, 
Horace B. Cole, Harrison Dewey, Calvin Dike, George A. Dodge, 
Francis P. Ellsworth, William Fallon, George Farmer, William H, Fay, 
John M. Fish, William S. Foster, Amos Gee. Collins F. Gifford, George N. 
Harper, Caleb Haynes, Charles E. Holmes, William Hopkins, James 
Hovendon, Silas W. and Thomas B. Howard, Jesse W. Johnson, Tim- 
othy Kiley, Henry E. Kinsman, Anzin, Charles A. and George F. Luce, 
Harvey J., Horace H. and Joel F. Lyman, Daniel A. Mack, Charles C. 
Morey, Henry H. Osgood, Charles A. Paige, George W. Pierce, Pres- 
ton A. Rand, Joseph Rollinson, Benjamin A. Root, Samuel P. Rundlett, 
William H. Sanborn, John F. Shepard, George F. Shettleworth, Henry A. 
and Henry C. Smith, Alonzo D., Nathan D., Reuben and Richard G. 
Spalding, Cornelius Stevens, Elbridge A. Stockwell, Luman C. Tenney, 
Joseph A. Trask, Oramel H. and Owen R. Vesper, Albigence and Dill- 
ingham Waldo, Alonzo L. Waterman, Wesley Watts, Henry H. Wheeler, 
Bliss P. and Edward S. Wills, James A. Wolcott. Volunteers under 
and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Oliver E. Adams, Prosper 
Allard, Irving H. Atwood, Charles C. and Eugene T. Beedle, Will- 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 167 

iam B. Bement, John A. Cilley, Henry C. Cleveland, John W. Conant, 
Charles C. and George E. Coy, Seymour Culver, Henry H. Dennison, 
Carlos E. Farnham, Amon S. Haney, George S. Harper, John Hatch, 
Carter Houston, George Kilburn, Julius M. Lathrop, Daniel W. Love- 
joy, Aurin F. Luce, Joel F. Lyman, Marshall Morey, Marquis L. Met- 
calf. Lorenzo D. Miller, George W. Smith, George A. Wales, Edward S. 
Wills. Volunteers for one year: — Harnden W. Benson, George A. 
Bingham, Frank Blanchard, Abraham C. Bowen, Albert H. Bowman, 
George S. Bridge, Alonzo Clark, Albert R. Cowdry, Carlos B. and Milo 
H. Cushman, Charles P. Coy, Pliney E. Davis, jr., George T. Driggs, 
George W. Ensworth, Lavgas Gee, Gilbert Granger, Harry W. Hastings, 
Charles H. Johnson, John G. Lasure, Daniel W. Lovejoy, Edward F. 
Lyman, David Martin, Henry E. Morse, Alfred Paige, George H. Pierce, 
Frank F. Reynolds, Joseph A. Robinson, Eugene W. Rolfe, Jason S. 
Royce, Oliver H. Stevens, Myron Fuller. Albert M., Henry R. and 
Willard G. Waldo, Hastings A. Willey. Volunteers re-enlisted : — 
George S. Adams, Lancelot K. Blake, Benjamin F. Bowman. William H. 
Fay, William S. Foster. Daniel B. George, Orville E. Mo(jre, Charles C. 
Morey, Alonzo D. Spalding. Orrin R Vesper. James A. Wolcott. In 
United States Navy : — Benjamin F. and George W. Waldo. Volunteers 
for nine months : — Oliver A. Atwood, Royal F. Baker, Warren F. Ben 
nett, Henry Clark, William D. Conant, Carlos C. and Charles P. Coy 
Franklin Dennison, George W. Dewey, Alba M. Fay, John H. Fowler 
Frank Hall, Philip Howard, Charles H. Johnson, Kendrick J. Kinney 
Amos Leavitt, jr., Dwight P. Lesure, Daniel W. Lovejoy, Edgar B 
Metcalf, William D. Paige, Perry F. Pierce, James E. Riddle, Henry J 
and Thomas S. Russ, John C. Sanborn, Charles P. and Oliver H. Stevens 
Benjamin F.. George W., Joseph W., William and Willard L. Waldo 
Marvin H. Wheeler. 

Town of Sharon. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863: — Augustus A. Atwood, Stillman S. Avery, 
William H. Barron, Hiram K. Blanchard, John H and Samuel B. O. 
Bruce, Edward W. Dam, George Day, George F. and James A. Dock- 
ham, George W. Flanders, James Fox, George E. Gardner, Joel Gile, 
Charles W. Howe, George W. Hubbard, Langdon Kemp, William A. 
Kneeland, Jefferson M. Ladd, Chester B., George L. and Rufus R. 

i68 History of Windsor County. 

Morse, John Munsell, James N. Preston, John C. Quimby, Riley C. 
Rogers, David W. Sanborn, Charles H. Sawyer, Francis Y., George P. 
and Sylvester M. Snow, Elbridge G. Spalding, Albert V. Trowbridge, 
George J. Walker, Silas H. White, Hiram A., Hollis L. and Joel Willey. 
Volunteers for three years under and subsequent to call of October 17, 
1863 : — Harry, jr., and Joseph D, Bruce, John Davelin, William DeWitt, 
Luther C. Fay, Gardner W. Gibson, Edward H. Joyce, George H. and 
Oramel Kendall, Michael Murphy, John D. Nelson, Franklin B. and 
Nelson C. Roberts, Alvora M. Sargent, Henry M. Simmonds, Daniel A- 
Walbridge, George W. Willey. Volunteers for one year: — Alphonzo 
A. and William Badger, Charles E. Bent, William H. Eaton, WilberW. 
flowe, James N. Hunt, Joseph Jordon, George Knapp, Patrick Mona- 
han, Nathaniel B. Nickerson, Riley G Rogers. Volunteers re-enlisted: — 
James A. Dockham, Joel Gile, Hiram A. Willey. In United States 
Navy : — Royal F. Baker, George W. Flanders, Thomas Horn, John 
Kelley, John Kelley, 2d, Andrew W. and Andrew Lovejoy, Ralph B. 
Snow, Henry Spalding, Oscar W. Stoughton. Volunteers for nine 
months: — Alphonzo and George W. Badger, Alonzo Clark, Luther C. 
Fay, Oscar F. Fowler, George Knapp, William Martin, Charles B. Nor- 
ton, Daniel L. Parkhurst, Albert Preston, Nelson C. Roberts, Don C. 
Slack, William W. Smith, William W. Stevens, Charles E., George A., 
George W. and Henry S. Willey. Entered service: — Hiram K. Blanch- 
ard, James M. Preston. 

Toivn of Springfield — Volunteers for three years credited previous 
to call of October 17, 1863: — Harrison J. Adams, Albert W. Allen, 
Andrew A. Bailey, Alonzo Baker, Thomas C. Ball, Lewis J. Barnes, 
Charles L. and Geori^e F Bates, James E. Bisber, Charles A. Bixby, 
William H. Blodgett, Harrison H. Brewer, Emerson A. Boynton, John 
Carmody, King A. Chilson, Linus O. Chittenden, Albert S. Clapp, 
James H Clark, William N. Cobb, William and James B. Coffin, Henry 
M., Marvin J. and Seymour O. Cook, Frederick Crane, Charles E. Cut- 
ler, George M., Hiram, John G. and Olcutt Damon, Frank B. and Seth 
F. Davis, William L. Dodge, Henry Dunbar, Jasper W. Dutton, Norris 
Edwards, Samuel H. R. Emery, Jasper L. Esterbrook, George E. Farns- 
worth, George E. Farrington, Allen P. and Edwin J. Flanders, Horace 
W. Floyd, David N. Follis, William Frost, Franklin, Hiram, Major and 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 169 

Norman Gould, Francis and Leighton W. Griswold, Abner B. Hale, 
William D. Hall, Austin Harlow, Edwin D. Hatch, Edward Hayes, 
Charles F. Haywood, Elijah J. Herrick, James and Michael Hogan, 
John C. Holmes, Fry B. Hopkins, George B. Hopkins, Jonathan C. 
Howe, Lucius T. Hunt, Frank Johnson, George P. Knight, Levi P. 
Leland, Henry L. Leonard, Ira and Roswell Lockwood, John A. Lyons, 
Thomas Madigan, Patrick Mallon, Henry E. Marsh, Florace and James 
M. Martin, Oscar F. Mason, Horace E. Meacham, Theodore Merrill, 
John E. Miller, Charles Morse, John Murphy, Madison M. Myrick, 
Julius C. Newton, Wilson L. Nourse, Charles Oliver, Moses Olney, Will- 
iam N. Parker, Lemister M. Parks, Edwin A. Pease, Marcus L. Perham, 
William H. Perkins, Hubbard H. Phillips, Loomis A. Pierce, Charles F. 
Piper, William H. Pond, Benjamin F. Putnam, George H. and Joseph S. 
Randall, Allen Reed, Benjamin Rice, John Robinson, 2d, Charles F.,- 
Emerson M., Henry A., John W. and Joseph P. Rumrill, Daniel L. 
Shaw, Charles T. Sleeper, Elliott W. and Nathan Smith, Wesley H. 
Spafford, George P. Spring, George M, Stanley, John Stevens, John F. 
Scott, Martin A. Stowell, Oscar E. Taylor, Ransom T. Thompson, 
Wheelock G. Veazey, Charles Waiteman, Abram J., Benjamin F., Pliny 
P. and William Walker, Charles Wheeler, Fred D. Whipple, Emerson E., 
Franklin B. and George H. Whitcomb, John M. White, Edward T. Wil- 
cox, Henry C. and William F. Williams, Salmon Winchester, George D. 
Woods, Francis Z. Zuille. Volunteers under and subsequent to call of 
October 17, 1863 : — Harrison S. Adams, Silas Albee, Rolla and Sam- 
uel Barker, Aram Bingham, John Butler, Robert Carlton, Leighton M. 
Cass, Abram S. and Charles A. Cook, Chauncey L. Corbin, Emerson E, 
Davis, Jerry B. Emery, Hiram C. Fairbanks, James Fay, George A. 
French, William Gard, Abel H. Grennell, Thomas Griswold, Charles and 
Horace Hamilton, Charles Henry, Horatio M. Holmes, Charles P. John- 
son, Benjamin S. Kendricks, Owen Kenney, Reuben S. Kirk, William 
A. Kneeland, John O. Knowlton, Corin Ladd, John La France, William 
Manning, Richard McDonald, Charles Morse, Mark Nugent, Myron E. 
Parker, Henry Perham, Frank Perry, Samuel C. Powers, Jeremiah Quirk, 
Michael F. Randall, Robert Robinson, Roswell W. Royce, Luman C. 
Rumrill, Thomas Shaw, La Forest M. Smith, Almon J. Spaulding, Wesley 
H. Spafford, Daniel W. Staples, David Stokes, Timothy Sullivan, George 

I/O History of Windsor County. 

Turner, Thomas Walwick, William L. Whitcomb, John With. Volun- 
teers for one year: — Albert R. Ayers, James B. Cofifin, Aaron D. Da- 
mon, Herbert W. Davis, George Demary, George H. Farnsvvorth, Mar- 
shall P. Frost, Orwell Fullam, Noah T. Gile. WilHam A. Lee, John T. 
and William A. Lewis, Leander C. Lockwood, James A. Partridge, James 
F. Roby, Richard K. Russell, Harley C. Seaver, Thomas Sexton, John 
C. and William E. Slason, Abner E. T. Smith, John O. and Osmon A. 
Spring, George A. Walker, Edward P. White, Charles A. Williams. 
Volunteers for nine months: — John H. Albee, James H. Allen, Albert 
Ayers, Henry E. Benson, William B. Blanchard, Simon N. Brownson, 
Horace H. Burbank, Thomas Carmody, Abram S., George S. and Wal- 
ter Cook, John D. Cutler, Henry C. Davis, Granville S. Derby, Isaac 
and Londas G. Ellis, David Fairbanks, Lewis Graham, George G, Gregg, 
Thomas Griswold, Henry Harlow, Walter S. Heminway, Albert D. L., 
Charles G. and Russell S. Herrick, David A. and Leonard E. Henry, 
Hannibal L. Holden, Elbridge W. Hewey, Orlando Hutchins, Hilliard P. 
Jones, Francis F. Kenney, George S. Kingsbury, Dexter B., Frederick 
A. and Hoyt B. Lockwood, Francis Long, George J. Martin, Alvin H. 
Mason, Horace E. Meacham, Horace, John W. and Zimri Messenger, 
Rossendel J. Messer, Lucian R Nourse, Barney W. and Myron E. Par- 
ker, David W. Parkhurst, Nathan Perry, Orrin Putnam, Luther W. Ran- 
dall, Frank F. Rice, Orrin Rice, 2d, William H. Rogers, Levi Rumrill, 
Charles H. Russell, David F. Safiford, Thomas Saxton, William H. H. 
Slack, Samuel F. Slade, Hiram D. Spafford, Almon J. Spaulding, Nor- 
man B. Stone, James Tarbell, Pliny E. Washburn, James P. Way, Bart- 
lett E. and Marshall B. White, Samuel Whiting, Adin H. Whitmore, 
Robert Whitsitt, Henry P. Wilson, Henry A. Wood, John P. Woodis. 
Entered service: — Ryland N. Bullard, Darius and Nelson Parker, 
Hamblin and Haskell B. Rumrill. Volunteers re-enlisted: — William H. 
Blodgett, Emerson A. Boynton, Warren H. Chapman, Harvey O. Clark, 
Edwin J. Flanders, Henry S. Foster, Norman Gould, Abner B. Hale, 
Joshua N. Holbrook, Levi P. Leland, Ira Lockwood, George H. Mellish, 
Lemister M. Parks, Adam B. and William H. Perkins, Oscar Pierce, 
Charles F., Henry A., John W. and Moses C. Rumrill, Edmund Stone, 
Willis W. Wood. 

Town of Stockbridge. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 


Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 171 

call of October 17, 1863 : — Amasa and Cyrus Adams, Lyman C. Aldrich, 
Selden Barnes, Charles and William H. Blackburn, Norman H. Blanch- 
ard, Francis A. Boutwell, Edward C. and George A. Brown, John Burn- 
ham, Bingham H. Caswell, Elias B. Claflin, Henry W. Collins, Thomas R. 
Cunningham, Edward J, Curtis, Benjamin F. Gearing, Edgar J. Gafifield, 
Levi B. Goddard, William B. Hepworth, George H. and Hiram A. Kim- 
ball, Renselaer Longly, Jabez R. Maxham, John E. Morse, Stephen M. 
Pingree, Benjamin M. and Fernando L. Rumrill, Myron E. Savage, 
Franklin S. Sawyer, John A. Scabie, James M. and Lyman J. Smith, 
Rodney R. Thayer, Charles C. and Joel D. Waller, Edward Wheeler, 
Jeremiah E. Wilson, Charles Woodbury. Volunteers under and subse- 
quent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Henry Adams, Tim )thy C. and Ross 
Aldrich, Wesley F. Baker, William R. Blanchard, Erasmus C. Butterfield, 
Ezra S. Burnham, Charles W. and William A. Chamberlain, Alfred Cur- 
tis, William A. Dow, Joseph Flawthrop, Volney R. Flanders, Samuel N. 
Goldthwait, Walter Green, George Hale, Joseph Hale, David Johnson^ 
Franklin Kimball, William H. Lucas, Rufus S. Mack, Andrew McNuff, 
Alanson E. Packard, Oscar W. Pain, Timothy Pendergast, Amasa Phil- 
lips, Perry F. Pierce, Sumner W. Rich, Benjamin, jr., and Hiram A. Rog- 
ers, Charles B. Rumrill, Allen A. Savage, Ira N. Smith, Michael Tear- 
ney, Walter Thompson. Volunteers for one year : — Loren Adams, Dustin 
Bowen, jr., Oliver E. Brewster, Peter H. Brooker, Austin H Dickerman, 
Joseph E. Goddard, George D. Hale, George O. Hassam, John T. Knowl- 
ton, Patrick Marr, jr., Isaac and Warren Morse, Warren L. Pierce, Arnos 
L. Stratton. Isaac N. Taggart, James S. Williamson. Volunteers for nine 
months : — Chauncey L. Angell, Levi H. Blanchard, Elisha P. Boutwell 
William A. Chamberlain, Waldo S. Fisher, James H. Furber, Charles A, 
Goldthwait, Royal H. Goodell, Sumner A. Hodgkins, Francis E. R. Kid- 
der, Chester F. Earned, Rufus S. Mack, Oscar W. Paine, Franklin Pills- 
bury, Ira P. Rathburn, Arzo A. Rice, Orlando J. Richardson, Charles B. 
Rumrill, Joseph J. Smith, jr., Joseph M. Taggart, John White. In United 
States Navy: — James E. Bailey, George Baker, Henry W. Bugbee, An- 
drew Cuthbert, John Gibbons, William Jackson, George Sinclair, James 
Smith, Henry Stackpole, Lyman Williams. 

Tozvn of Weathersfield. — Volunteers for three years credited previous 
to call of October 17, 1863 : — Michael Agan, Thomas Agan, Henry Al- 

1/2 History of Windsor County. 

len, C. Volton Bailey, Owen Bartley, Fred A. Bates, Calvin H. Bemis^ 
Francis J., John W. and Leonard E. Bennett, Carlos and Thomas Bry- 
ant, Eben M. Cook, John Coyn, Arzo Craigne, John Daily, George and 
Justus Dartt, Isaac N. Davidson, John Deady, Henry E. De Camp, Morti- 
mer Demary, Levi W. Field, Byron Fleming, Thomas B. Garry, James 
H. Goldsmith, Franklin N. Grimes, Thomas Hadley, Charles W. Haskill, 
Carlos and James N. Hatch, William L. Hobson, Austin S., Henry O. 
and Theodore L. Hutchinson, Charles Jarvis, Thomas W. Kendall, John 
B. Kenney, Lysander J. Keys, John A. Kimball, Chris. C. Lee, George 
L. and Oliver H. Marcy, George W. and Selden A. Nichols, Adam Per- 
kins, Seymour G. Phillips, William Piper, Orsamus B. Robinson, David 
W, Sanderson, David B. and Hiland Smith, Joseph Spafford, Orlando C. 
Spaulding, Leonidas, Lycurgus and Paschal P. E. Strong, Algernon M. 
Squire, Stephen L.Taylor, Joseph and Joshua Upham, James Weston, Ar- 
temas H. Wheeler, Willis W. Wood. Volunteers for three years under 
and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Fred A. Bates, Edward G. 
Bloxson, James C. Bowen, Rosalro Bradish, John and William H. Brinn, 
Chas. F, Carlton, James S. and William J. Davis, John R. Dean, Fred H. 
Hobson, George C. and Richard M. Howell, Dalphus Pelkey, Eugene P. 
Robinson, Daniel Smith, Arzo B. Stiles, Simon P. and William H. Todd, 
Horace M. Walker. Volunteers for one year : — Carlos and Thomas D. 
Bryant, Eben M. Cook, Alba Dart, Robert H. Delano, Silas M. Demary, 
Jerome B. Douglas, Charles L. Ellsworth, Lewis Greenwood, Eben S. 
Haskill, Thomas Hobson, jr., Henry Hutchinson, Aaron P. Knight, Jo- 
seph Leroy, William D. Livingston, Charles W. Mitchell, Joseph Rollin- 
son, William M. Smith, Henry W. Spafiford, John S. Spaulding. Vol- 
unteers for nine months : — George P. Bennett, George W. Billings, Otis 
M. Bowen, Charles H. Boyd, Elliott and Rosalvo Bradish, Charles D. 
Brink, Austin S. Bronson, Servitus E. Connor, William Danforth, Alba 
Dart, George H. Dean, Henry E. De Camp, George and Shepard A. Dick- 
inson, Martin H. Graves, Edward H. Hammond, Piam O. Harris, Eben 
S. Haskill, Clark Hill, Benjamin F. Johnson, John P. Knight, Bryant N. 
Lockwood, Lisime Marcotte, Martin H. Newhall, Martin O'Grady, Syl- 
vester Putnam, Olney F. Qnimby, Carlos C. Roys, Charles F. Sheldon, 
Joseph Spafiford, Harland R., Luzerne R. and Paschal P. E. Strong, Will- 
iam F. Swift, Arthur C. Taylor, James B. Taylor, William E. Thompson, 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 173 

Barton A. and Wesley W. Walker, Henry C. West, Henry C. White, 
John M. Wright. In United States Navy : — William H. Strovv. 

Toivn of Weston. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to call 
of October 17. 1863 : — Alexander Abbott, David Allen, Harvey K. Aus- 
tin, Albert D. Beckwith, Leroy A. Britton, Joseph Butterfield, Peter S. 
Chase, Sumner W. Coburn, John H. Colby, Nelson O. Cook, Austin Fenn, 
George W. Fuller, James Hale, William W. Hesselton, Adelbert R. Hill, 
Rosalvo S.Jefts, Willard R. F.Johnson, Frank Larbush, Ransom M. Patchy 
Ambrose, Loren C, Silas H. and William \\. Pease, Henry H. Peck, Bur- 
ton Roberts, Marshall W. Rogers, Henry and James M. Stevens, Joseph 
Stone, Luther Stuart, Warren P. Tenney, Sidney A. Way. Volunteers 
for three years under and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863 : — Will- 
iam Barry, John P. Bryant, Samuel Draggon, Stephen Y . Farr, Almon H. 
and Freeman J. Hale, Nathan and Sidney L. Holt, William B. Nutting^ 
James S. Pease, Rollin Perry, Martin V. Robbins, Cileston Sylvester, 
John J. Tracey, Henry F. West, Jay Wilkinson. Volunteers for one 
year: — Charles Allen, Milon N. Beckwith, Henry N. Bliss, David W. 
Bolster, Joseph L. Harrington, David M. Kirk, Rufus B. Kirk, Vernon A. 
Marsh, Levi Moore, John McAulifif, David Mossey, Jesse Parkhurst, 
Henry H. Phillips, Frank B. Shattuck, Loren Shippey, Albra H. Wood- 
cock. Volunteers for nine months : — Adelbert Allen, William D. Ball, 
James H. Bryant, Peter Fagan, Alonzo Farley, Asa G. Foster, Hiland 
H. Hesselton, Sidney L. Holt, Nathan W. Johnson, Thomas O. Moore, 
Henry J. Parker, Samuel A. Patterson, Clark W. Pease, Harrison C. 
Shattuck, Judah H. West, Sylvanus Winship. In United States Navy : — 
Charles Brown, Almon H. Hall, Eldridge Mansfield, Leland H. Perry. 
Toivii of West Windsor. — Volunteers for three years credited to call 
of October 17, 1863: — George Anderson, John Brown, James Burns, 
Henry R. Brannock, Thomas F. Burnham, Wilbur F. Cady, Edmund E. 
Cushman, Benjamin D. Gates, Theodore Harrison, Albert S. Lamson, 
James Livingston, Norman W. Lumbard, William H. H. Ralph, Joseph 
Robinson, Henry H. and Stillman H. Walker, Herman White, Thomas 
E. Woods. Volunteers for three years under and subsequent to call to 
of October 17, 1863 : — Thomas Adams, Joseph Aldrich, Henry C. Alex- 
ander, Isaac W. Batchelder, Seth Blanchard, James Boyle, John D. Brooks, 
Charles H. Brown, Reuben Chase, Charles J. F. Cushman, Michael 

174 History of Windsor County. 

Feeley, John Freeman, Thomas Jones, Edward H. and George H. Lane, 
Henry E. Marsh, James F. Nason, Rufus Noyes, John Railey, John 
Rogers, John H. Rowe, Selim R. Sands, George M. and Joseph F. 
Savage, John Sowles, OHver F. Silhngs, Edwin S. Taylor, Andrew G. 
Tolman, Ward C. Walker, William Weaver, Herbert O. White. Vol- 
unteers for nine months : — Melvin Bannister, Aretus B. Blood, Dennis 
A. Borne, Charles B. and James H. Bowers, John W. Cady, Benjamin 
F. Carpenter, George W. Cook, Eugene Delano, Morris L. Dimick, 
Henry H., Ira M., Jabez H., Stephen F. and Ulysses H. Hammond, 
Martin A. and Wilbur A. Herrick, James W. Mansfield, George H. Par- 
ker, Edgar F., John W. and Norman E. E. Perkins, Gilman S. Parsons, 
Abel Prince, P^rastus and Hosea W. Read, Fred G. Rice, Fred. Robin- 
son, Edgar M. Kuggles, Charles L. and John A. Savage, Farwell G. 
Shedd, Ira C. Small, Charles Spaulding, Edwin S. and James W. Taylor, 
Rosto E. Turner, Winslow W. Wait, George and Henry Walker, Ben- 
jamin Warren, jr., Ira V. White, Daniel W. Woods. 

Town of Windsor. — Volunteers for three years credited previous to 
call of October 17, 1863: — George L. and Henry D. Bates, Wilmer C. 
Barnard, Joseph S. Bickford, Levi F. Blake, Thomas C. Bond, Zenas C. 
Bowen, Charles H. Boyd, Brigham Buswell, Samuel A. Cady, Peter 
Caldwell, Thomas Cass, Dwight E. Clement, George L. Colpoyes, 
Joseph H. Culligan, Jerome C. Dow, Thomas Ensworth, jr , William 
Evans, George and Samuel N. Fitch, John Gauthier, William Green- 
wood, James Hadle'y, Byron O. Hoisington, Chester Holcomb, Horace 
A. Houghton, Hendrick R. Howard, Ezekiel T. Johnson, William M. 
Jones, John B. Kellogg, Henry M. Lull, Frank Menard, Charles E. 
Moore, Samuel E. Mower, Franklin W., John F. Noyes, Lo- 
renzo D. Partlow, William D. Paul, Francis E. Porter, Richard F. Rich, 
Truman Rose, Henry T. Seaver, William A. Sloane, Herman L. Small, 
Joseph A. Smith, Homer \V. Stevens, Henry G. Stiles, Dan. E. and 
Henry J. Stone, William J. Towne, William C. Tracey, Arthur T. and 
Daniel Ware, Stillman C. Wheeler, Henry P. Whitcomb, Edward Wil- 
son, Alvin Woodrufif. Volunteers for three years under and subsequent 
to call of October 17, 1863: — Charles E. Ballou, James Brady, James 
Brown, George H. Bullson, Benjamin F. Carpenter, Michael Carrigan, 
Philip Darcius, Charles Day, Robert L. Delea, Charles C. Dinsmore, 

Roll of Windsor County Soldiers. — 1861-65. 175 

William Ditmur, Edgar W. Gage, Charles W. Gleason, Alonzo Hall, 
Prentiss Hibbard, Ballister Horton, Carroll V. Kenyon, Franklin S. Lam- 
son, Edward Moran, Charles Morey, Edward Newman, HoUis, Horace 
and J. Henry Norris, William H. Noyes, Orice Oakes, Norman B. Reed, 
Charles H. Stuart, Charles T. and James A. Stone, Charles D. and 
Samuel F. Sturtevant, Michael Sullivan, Ephraim Toothaker, Sullivan M. 
Waldron, John White, George B. and Sias T. Worthing. Volunteers 
for one year: — George L. Bates, Edward Blanchard, Elbridge M. Don- 
ahue, William Evans, Charles H Hill, Felix Micott, Julius C. Peck, 
Alfred Pierce, Simeon W. Pomeroy, Frederick L. and John B. Small, 
Charles H. and George S. Thompson. Volunteers for nine months: — 
Francis Barron, Elmer F. Benjamin, Henry S. Blanchard, H. Harrison 
Brewer, William Brown, Charles F. Butman, Charles H. and William P. 
Cady, William H. Clayton, Albert and James G. Coates, Charles H. 
Dake, Urias E. Damon, George R. Dinsmore, John W. Fleming, Will- 
iam H. Foster, John Gay, Almond Hall, Eleazer B. Haywood, Edward 
R. Hopkins, Allen E. Houghton, Robert H. Johnson, Harrison L. Marcy, 
Frederick P. Mather, Edward and Edward D. Moran, Michael Murphy, 
Augustus Newman, Ezra T. and Lucian Parker, Frederick L. Small, 
Charles, Charles T., and Guy A. Stone, Otis Thomas, Charles H and 
Henry B. Thompson, Sullivan Waldron, Roderick R. Williams. En- 
tered service: — Edwin N. Brown, Owen Raymond, Austin Sloan. In 
United States Navy: — Samuel Cross, Albert A. Green, John Lawler, 
John Whipple. 

Towji of Woodstock. — Volunteers for three years credited prior to call 
of October 17, 1863: — William D. Allard, Henry G. Anthony, Austin 
G. Barber, Lucian Barnes, Andrew J. Beal, William W. .Benson, Stephen 
Bisliop, George E. Bridge, Lewis Bumblebee, Morris Burnham, Peter 
Caldwell, Rush B. Carlton, Thomas Cass, Lorenzo H. Cox, Royal Darby, 
Edw. W., John and William Davis, Charles, Charles A. and Theo. L. 
Dean, Hiram S. English, Peter H. Farrell, Irving J. Faunce, George 
Fletcher, Henry H. French, Francis A., Hartwell, and Hartwell L. Frink, 
Moses George, George P. Gilbert, Orlando B. Gillingham, George W. 
Grow, Samuel N. Hastings, William K. Heath, Rufus A. Holmes, Henry 
A. Houghton, Charles E. and Leonard L. Hubbard, James H. Hurlburt, 
Charles H. Jillson, Charles D., Henry L. and William Jones, John B. 

176 History of Windsor County. 

Kellogg, Jacob Keyes, Elias H. Kidder, Orrin T. Leach, Martin J. Lucas, 
Mitchell Maney, Alonzo A. Martin, George H. Mellish, Frank and Henry 
H Metcalf, Michael McGill, John McGowan, Andrew McKain, Jno. A. 
McKenzie, William Oberly, Ed. N. Ordway, Edwin R. Paine, Edwin H. 
Perkins, Edward, Jacob and Charles Perry, Charles Pierce, Charles P. 
and George S. Pratt, Thomas C. and William H. Rahue, George C. Ran- 
dall, Alfred F. Ra}', Chauncy E. Raymond, Martin T. Ricard, Isaac E. 
Rounds, Charles Royce, Fred M. Saunders, Luther Severance, George 
W. Shattuck, Charles F. Smith, Charles Staples, Benjamin F. Strong, 
James F. Stiles, Daniel E. Taft, Aug. Tewksbury, De Algeroy Thomp- 
son, Augustus Troedean, William C. Vaughn, Henry Vondell, James 
Vondall, Alvin L. and Nathaniel P. Walker, Henry G., Samuel G. and 
Stephen P. White, Pardon A. Whitney, Edward Wilson, Charles J. Wm- 
slow, Charles A., Dana C, Edwin S. and George B. Woodward. Vol- 
unteers for three years under and after call of October 17, 1863 : — Ben- 
jamin B. Allen, William Bliss, Leander Bordeau, Elisha Bradish, Jno. 
Browe, George BuUard, Silas Burdoo, Edward Carrigan, Henry E. Chad- 
wick, Edson A. Chamberlain, Francis, jr., and Francis Chenette, William 
Clark, Henry O. Cummings, George H. Day, Charles F. Fisher, Oscar 
Gardner, Sabin Gartin, Moses George, William D. Gilbert, Clark M. Hall, 
Gardner C. Hawkins, James Hazard, David Hewson, Henry E. Howe, 
John Hurlburt, David Ledue, Henry H. Lewis, Jno. H. Mann, jr., Jno. 
W. Marsh, Lewis L. Marsh, James Masure, Edward H. Mero, Charles F. 
Myers, Fred Parkhurst, Worthington, Pierce, Jerome J. and William C. 
Pratt, I^enjamin F. Putney, Leander J. Sanderson, Julius Sault, Charles 
Scott, Chris. D. Seymour, Asa W. Stowell, George W. Taft, Oscar A. 
Tyrrell, Charles B., Charles B., jr., and William H. Wentworth, Eli White, 
Norman B. Williams, George H. and Sylvester Woodward. Volunteers 
for one year : — Nelson H. Atwood, George E. Bridge, Fred C. Blossom, 
John Campbell, Nathan C. Claflin, Henry M. Clark, Homer Darling, 
Carlos B. Dutton, Fred Fallon, Jno. C. Fisher, George C. Hagar, Elbert 
Hewitt, Henry A. Hill, Thomas Keene, Walter P. Leonard, Newman M. 
Lincoln, Albert L. McClay. Benjamin S. and Jno. C. Morgan, Addison 
F. Palmer, Edward A. Perry, Payson A. Pierce, Winfield S. Robinson, 
Benjamin S. Sargent, Asa A. Shaw, Edwin K. Slack, Albert H. Switzer, 
Charles Veo, Gideon Vincent, Darwin E. and Henry O. Washburn, John 

The Bench and Bar. 177 

T. Woodward. Volunteers re-enlisted : — Rush B. Carlton, George P. 
Gilbert, George D. Keyes, Henry L. King, Ichabod W. Mattocks, An- 
drew McKain. George S. Pratt, William H. Rahue, Alfred F. Ray, 
Charles F. Smith, Frank H. Stiles, Louis Vaundell, Samuel B. and Ste- 
phen P. White, Dana C. Woodward. Volunteers for nine months : — 
Horace Bradley, Edwin R. Carroll, Sylvanus Chamberlain, Alonzo D. 
Clapp, Hiram O. Cobb, Samuel W. Cox, John Defoe, George E. Dimick, 
Elbridge K. Dodge, Philip Duphinney, Charles H. Eaton, Edwin C. Em- 
mons, Charles H. English, Friend P. Fletcher, Charles H. French, Will- 
iam D. Gilbert, Marshall C. Goff, Chris. Grundell, John W. Hagar, Oscar 
F. Hemenway, Seaver Howard, Fred Howard, James L. Hoyt, Ed- 
win M. Jaquith, Calvin A. Laws, Ezra H. Lovell, Lorison Lucas, Lewis 
L. Marsh, Zebb Cobb, Chris. C. Metcalf, Orrin G. Miller, Fred Parkhurst, 
George V/. Perry, Worthington Pierce, Dan F. Pingree, Jos. S. Pratt, 
Benjamin F. Putney, Lake Ransom, George L., Henry G., Isaac P. and 
Wallace O. Raymond, Asman W. Richardson, Laurgautis H. Rood, Ed- 
win H. and Mark E. Slayton, Orlando C. Smith, Wallace W. Southgate, 
EUiot Thomas, Harvey and William S. Vaughn, Charles B. White, Seth J. 
Winslow, Henry C. Wood, Crayton A. Woodbury. Entered service : — 
George A. Bailey, Eliphalet B. Cram, Henry A. Fairbanks, James Mc- 
Kain. In United States Navy : — Charles Case, Samuel Cross, Albert A. 
Green, John Lawler. 



TO properly understand and fully appreciate the history of the judi- 
ciary of any nation or commonwealth, and the worth and attain 
ments of the magistrates and practitioners at its bar, some knowledge 
of the origin and development of the machinery and spirit of this 
branch of civil government is necessary. 

The sentiment is commonly expressed that the judicial system of the 
State of Vermont is largely copied or derived from the common law of 


1/8 History of Windsor County. 

England, and slightly from the civil law of the Continent. In many 
respects this is true, and resemblances may be traced therein ; there are 
certain changeless principles running throughout the laws of every State 
and people from the time of Moses to Elizabeth. The statute and com- 
mon laws of England are the recognized fundamental principles upon 
which are based the legislative and constitutional enactments of this com- 
monwealth, although directly the constitution of Vermont was modeled 
and based upon that of the State of Pennsylvania. 

But long before the adoption of a constitution forVermont the people 
of the region were living under a form of government established by the 
province of New York, by which the district now forming Windsor 
county was made directly subservient to the laws of the judiciary of that 
province. Counties were erected and courts organized ; but that judicial 
authority was questioned and opposed, and finally set aside. It can 
hardly, therefore, be considered essentially within the province of this 
chapter to refer at any length to the organization of courts other than 
those established under recognized and competent authority. 

An old adage teaches us that " necessity knows no law " ; and it is 
well-known that necessity — stern necessity — made it indispensable to the 
safety of the inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants that some means 
should be devised by which the opponents to the policy of the majority 
of the people could be held in check, that the inimical conduct of the 
Tory element might not become dangerously contagious ; for, if once be- 
come rampant, that element would certainly have endangered and en- 
tirely overthrown the institutions of the infant State, and passed its con- 
trol into the hands of the New Yorkers. 

And it was stern necessity, too, that impelled Ethan Allen and his 
compatriots to establish an informal court for the trial and punishmentof 
the New York officers sent to the grants with warrants of dispossess and 
arrest; but the penalty and judgment of this court seldom went beyond 
a severe reprimand, and the not infrequently " impressive " effects of the 
"beech seal." Necessity, also, made it incumbent upon the authorities 
of the " separate jurisdiction " to establish courts of confiscation, not alone 
that Toryism might be checked, but that the means might be provided 
wherewith to defray the expenses of the government in political affairs, 
and as well to provide and maintain an armed force for aggressive and 

The Bench and Bar. 179 

defensive warfare, which, during that period, was waging against Great 

But after the independence of Vermont had been declared, and after 
the constitution of the State had been adopted, assuming these trans- 
actions to have been absolutely right regardless of the fact that they 
were not then sanctioned by the general government, the authorities 
were in a position to organize courts and administer tlie affairs of the 
State more " in due form of law." 

The fourth section of the original constitution of the State of Vermont 
declared that "Courts of Justice shall be established in every county in 
this State." This was adopted in 1777, but it was not until the next year 
that officers were chosen under its provisions. This brought into exist- 
ence the first courts of the two counties, Cumberland and Bennington, 
that then embraced the entire territory of the State. The county of 
Cumberland, of which Windsor county then formed a part, was divided 
into two shires — Westminster and Newbury — for which judges were 
chosen as follows: ^ Major John Shepardson, first; Stephen Tilden, 
second; Hubbel Wells, third; Deacon Hezekiah Thompson, fourth; and 
Nathaniel Robinson, fifth, judges for the shire of Westminster. And 
General Jacob Bailey, first ; Jacob Burton, second ; William Heaton, 
third ; Reuben Foster, fourth ; and Captain John French, fifth, judges 
for the shire of Newbury. In June, 1778, Samuel Fletcher succeeded 
Hubbel Wells, and Joshua Webb succeeded Nathaniel Robinson, in the 
shire of Westminster ; and Deacon Smalley succeeded Jacob Bailey, 
John Burnett succeeded Jacob Burton, and Benjamin Baldwin succeeded 
John French, in the shire of Newbury. 

The persons above named were judges of what has been termed a 
Special Court for Cumberland county ; and they cannot be said to have 
been either Supreme, Superior or County Court officers, as those dis- 
tinctiv^e courts were not then established ; at least no record evidence of 
any such establishment during that year is to be found. 

In 1779, at a legislative session holden at Bennington, in February, 
the General Assembly passed an act " constituting and establishing one 
Superior Court in the State of Vermont." This court was provided to 
consist of five judges, and terms of court were appointed to be held 

'Journal of the Assembly, March 24, 1778. 

i8o History of Windsor County. 

"within and for the county of Cumberland, at Westminster, on the sec- 
ond Thursday of March next," and for the same county at Newbury on 
the second Thursday of September next (1779). And the same Legis- 
lature, on a later day of the session, passed another act, entitled, "An 
act regulating Trials and Appeals," which reads in part as follows : 
" Whereas, no county courts have been established in the State ; which 
makes it necessary that all such cases or actions as would otherwise be 
heard before such county courts, should now be heard and determined 
in the superior court, Be it enacted," etc, — directing County Court 
actions to be determined in the Superior Court until County Courts be 
established, etc. 

But the laws passed at this session (>f the Legislature were declared to 
be "temporary laws," and remain in force only until "the rising of the 
General Assembly in October next." In October, however, an act was 
passed extending the operation of all laws previously passed until the 
close of the Assembly's business in March, 1780. The October Legisla- 
ture also passed an act directing that judges of the Superior Court be 
chosen by the joint ballot of the Governor and Council and the House 
of Representatives. And further, another act fixed the fees of an at- 
torney practicing in the Superior or County Court at £6 ; but this was 
repealed November 8, 1780. 

In the month of February, 1781, the county of Cumberland was di- 
vided, and out of its territory the other counties of Windham, Windsor 
and Orange were erected. This was followed by the organization of the 
new counties for all purposes, among them the establishment of County 
Courts; and provision was made for the election of one chief judge and 
four assistant judges, to be chosen by the people of the counties respect- 
ively. And about this time or a little later there was annexed to this 
county a considerable body of land east of the Connecticut River, due 
consideration for the people of which district was at once had in the ap- 
pointment or selection of Windsor county officials. Whether the first 
judges for the county of Windsor were appointed or elected is a trifle 
uncertain, but that the election was held and judges chosen on the day 
first appointed, the last Tuesday of March, 1781, would appear to be 
discredited from the fact that a number of officers were taken from the 
New Hampshire side, while the annexation of the towns from that local- 


The Bench and Bar. i8i 

ity was not perfected or completed until the 5tli of April following. 
The records bearing upon this subject appear to be silent, and the only- 
reliable evidence regarding the selection of judges of the County Court 
for the county is found in the proceedings of the Governor and Council 
for the year ending 1781. From the transactions of that body it ap- 
pears that on the i6th day of April, while in session at Windsor, 
Elisha Payne of Lebanon, N. H., was nominated and appointed chief 
judge, while Joseph Marsh, Benjamin Emmons, Bezaleel Woodward and 
John Weld were in the same manner chosen side judges. Thus was 
constituted the first regular County Court of Windsor county, and the 
above named persons comprised the first bench of justices. 

It should be stated in this connection that the record of the proceed- 
ings of the Governor and Council, upon which the above appointments 
were made, has the qualifying statement "are hereby appointed for the 
time being," etc., thus confirming the opinion that the judges for 1781 
were not elected by the freemen of the county. Deming, in his catalogue 
of Vermont officers, does not mention any judges for Windsor during the 
year 1781. 

The first term of the County Court for Windsor county was held at 
Windsor, on the last Tuesday of May, 1781, at which his Honor, Judge 
Payne, presided, while Joseph Marsh and Bezaleel Woodward served in 
the capacity of associates. Windsor was continued to be the temporary 
seat of justice of the new county until the efforts of Benjamin Emmons 
secured the permanent location for county buildings at Woodstock ; 
and even after Woodstock became so designated, courts were afterwards 
held at Windsor, as a half- shire town of the county, for a number of 
years. In the year 1787 courts were first held at Woodstock. 

It cannot be said with any present degree of certainty whether or not 
any of the first judges of the Windsor county courts were sufficiently 
versed in legal lore as to be deemed '* learned in the law," a quality now 
essential in order to be elevated to the president or chief judgship, but 
with the associates or side judges it has never been required that they 
possess a legal education in order to qualify themselves for their duties. 
Elisha Payne, the first chief judge of the county, was not a lawyer, 
neither was his successor in office, Joseph Marsh, the school learning of 
the latter having been only such as was acquired in a single month. 

History of Windsor County. 

But notvvithstanding that, Judge Marsh was a learned man, and pos- 
sessed such intellectual ability as made him not only an excellent judge, 
but withal one of the most influential men of his time. His services on 
the bench continued from 1782 till 1796, when he was succeeded by 
Luther R. Morris, the latter serving as chief judge but two years. 

The courts which have been mentioned in this chapter — the Superior 
or Supreme, and the County Courts — were the organized ones of the 
shire. The revised constitution, which was adopted upon the recom- 
mendation of the Council of Censors, provided for other courts than those 
formed under the first constitution ; and the revisions and amendments 
that have been made at various other times, several in number, have 
amply provided for the courts of the State and county, and their pow- 
ers and disposition, all of which it can hardly be considered within the 
province of this chapter to discuss, however important and interesting 
the subject might be. The several changes that have been made, and 
the courts that have at different times been established and abolished, 
are within the understanding of every well-informed lawyer, and any 
further comment upon them would appear to be superfluous. But it 
will not be considered out of place to here make mention of the judges 
of the Supreme Court of Vermont from the year 1778 to 1800, both in- 
clusive, for such, a record will bring to the present bar the names of 
some of the brightest legal minds of Windsor county, whether or not 
they were recognized as members of the legal fraternity. The follow- 
ing succession is taken from " Thompson's Vermont " : 

1778, Moses Robinson, chief judge, John Shepardson, John Fassett, 
jr., Thomas Chandler, and John Throop, associates; 1779, Moses Rob- 
inson, chief judge, John Shepardson, John Fassett, jr., John Throop, 
and Paul Spooner, associates; 1780, Moses Robinson, chief judge, Paul 
Spooner, John Fassett, jr.. Increase Moseley, and John Throop, asso- 
ciates ; 1781, Elisha Payne, chief judge, Moses Robinson, John Fassett, 
jr., Bezaleel Woodward, and Joseph Cadwell, associates; 1782, Moses 
Robinson, chief judge, Paul Spooner, Jonas Fay, John Fassett, and Pe- 
ter Olcutt, associates ; 1783, Moses Robinson, chief judge, Paul Spooner, 
John Fassett, Peter Olcutt, and Thomas Porter, associates; 1784, Paul 
Spooner, chief judge, John Fassett, Nathaniel Niles, Thomas Porter, and 
Peter Olcutt, associates; 1785, Moses Robinson, chief judge, Paul 

The Bench and Bar. 

Spooner, Nathaniel Niles, John Fassett, and Thomas Porter, associates; 
1786, Moses Robinson, chief judge, Paul Spooner, Nathaniel Niles, Na- 
thaniel Chipman, and Luke Knowlton, associates; 1787,' Moses Rob- 
inson, chief judge, Nathan Niles and Paul Spooner, associates; 1788, 
Moses Robinson, chief judge, Paul Spooner and Stephen Row Bradley as- 
sociates; 1789-90, Nathaniel Chipman, chief judge, Noah Smith and Sam- 
uel Knight, associates ; 1791-92-93, Samuel Knight, chief judge, Elijah 
Paine and Isaac Tichenor, associates; 1794-95, Isaac Tichenor, chief 
judge, Lott Hall and Enoch Woodbridge, associates; 1796, Nathaniel 
Chipman, chief judge, Lott Hall and Enoch Woodbridge, associates; 
1797, Israel Smith, chief judge, Enoch Woodbridge and Lott Hall, asso- 
ciates ; 1798-99-1800, Enoch Woodbridge, chief judge, Lott Hall and 
Noah Smith, associates. 

Succession of presiding judges of the Windsor County Courts : Elisha 
Payne, 1781-1782 ; Joseph Marsh, 1 782-1796 ; Lewis R Morris, 1796- 
1798; Stephen Jacob, 1798-1801 ; Paul Brighani, i8oi-i8o2; Jesse 
Williams (declined), 1803 ; Elias Keyes, 1803-1814 ; Ebenezer Brown, 
1814-1815; Elias Keyes, 1815-1817; William Strong, 1817-1818; 
Elihu Luce, 1818-1822; William Strong, 1822-1823; Aaron Love- 
land, 1824-1825; Abner Forbes, 1825; Titus Hitchinson, 1825-1833; 
Jacob CoUamer, 1833-1842; William Hebard, 1842-1845 ; Daniel Kel- 
logg, 1845-1850; Jacob Collamer, 1850-1854; Abel Underwood, 1854- 
1857; Isaac F. Redfield, 1857-1860; James Barrett, 1860-1880; Rus- 
sell F. Taft, 1880-1882; John W. Rowell, 1882-1886. In 1886 a 
change was made in the judicial arrangements by which it was provided 
that the courts held in the county should be presided over by the judges 
alternately. The former practice was that one or more of the judges 
should be assigned to a district of the State, and hold all the courts of 
that district. 

Succession of assistant judges: Joseph Marsh, Benjamin Emmons, 
Bezaleel Woodward and John Weld, by appointment from Governor and 
Council, April 16, 1781. Thomas Murdock, 1782-1787 ; Elias Weld, 
1782-1790; Elijah Robinson, 1782-1801 ; Abel Curtis. 1782-1784; 
Paul Brighton, 1 784-1 788, and 1790-1796; Jesse Williams, 1786-1803; 
Asaph Fletcher, 1801-1805 ; Aaron Leland, 1803-1817 ; William Hun- 

' After the revision of the constitution only two associate judges were chosen. 

History of Windsor County. 

ter, 1805-1816 ; William Strong, 1816-1817 ; Amos Heald, 1817-1818; 
Aaron Leland, 1818-1822 ; Daniel Dana, 1818-1820; John Bridge, 
1820-1825 ; Abner Forbes, 1822-1829; Aaron Loveland, 1823-1824; 
Thomas Emerson, 1824-1828; Samuel W. Porter, 1828-1838; William 
Steele, 1 829-1 831 ; Royal M. Ransom, 1831-1832; Samuel C. Love- 
land, 1 832-1 834; Ephraim D. Briggs, 1 834-1 836; David Pierce, 1836- 
1845 ! Reuben Washburn, 1838-45 ; Walter Thomas and Thomas 
Barrett, 1845-1849; Hampton Cutts and Calvin French, 1849-1852; 
Gardner Winslow and Barnabas Deane, 1852-1854; Daniel Woodward 
and Joseph Dodge, 1 854-1 856 ; Walter Palmer and Napoleon B. Roundy, 
1856-1859; John S. Marcy, 1859-1872 ; Joseph W. Colburn, 1859- 
1863; John Wilder, 1863-1866; Calvin French, 1866-1879; Crosby 
Miller, 1872-1882; William M. Pingry, 1879-1885 ; William C. Dan- 
forth, 1882-1886; William Rounds,! 1885-1889; Nelson Gay, 1886- 
1887; Charles P. Marsh,i 1887-1889. 

Of the practitioners at the bar of Windsor county, past and present, 
many have attained distinction, and some eminence. Among the lead- 
ing legal minds of this commonwealth this county has furnished her full 
quota. On the bench and at the bar of her courts have been found many 
lawyers of strict integrity and rare ability ; men of worth, men of char- 
acter, men whose social and mental qualities have made them famous, 
men whose marked attainments have made for them a high standard in 
the legislative halls of the State, and in the governmental affairs of the 
nation ; men whose influence has been so salutary and all-pervading 
that the entire bar seems to have caught something of its spirit, and 
maintained a freedom from all unworthy methods as can be found in very 
few communities. 

Difficult, indeed, would it be to name the pioneer members of the legal 
profession in Windsor county. It is now more than one hundred years 
since the first courts were organized, and the earliest dockets disclose but 
little information throwing any valuable light on this subject ; and the 
early bar recorded nothing of its own history. Still, from the brief en- 
tries found in the court dockets, there appears the surnames of several 
who are, perhaps, entitled to be placed among the pioneers of the pro- 
fession ; such names as Stephen Jacobs, Elijah West, Stephen Row Brad- 

' Present assistant judges. 

The Bench and Bar. 185 

ley, Jacob Smith, John Hunt, Jonathan H. Hubbard, Reuben Atvvater, 
Nicholas Bayless, Paschel P. Enos, Daniel Farrand, Titus Hutchinson, 
Oliver Gallup, Charles Marsh, Paul Brigham, Amasa Payne, and other 
worthy counselors, among whom are found the names of Buck, Barrett, 
Hall, Cady, Bishop and others whose Christian names cannot now be re- 
called. These were the pioneers of the profession in this county, all of 
whom are believed to have practiced in the courts prior to the year 1800 
and a number of them before 1787. From the meager and unreliable 
information found among the ancient court records, it would appear that 
Stephen Jacobs was, perhaps, the leading lawyer of the bar in his time, if 
the participation or appearance in the greatest number of actions entitles 
one to be so designated. His name, too, appears on the first dockets as 
attorney, but where he was admitted and how long he continued practice 
cannot now be accurately determined. He was State's attorney in 1786, 
and afterward, 1798-1801, presiding judge of the County Court, 

And it is something surprising, too, to observe the great amount of 
ligitation engaged in over a century ago, as disclosed by the dockets, 
when the population of the county was less than half of what it now has. 
And it is a fact that before the year 1800 there was a greater number 
of causes on the docket than the average from year to year of the present 
day. At that time there was less money, but there were more disputes, 
as the machinery of business was less perfectly organized, and land titles 
were not wholly settled. The character of ligitation, say from half to 
three-quarters of a century ago, has been thus described by an old prac- 
titioner : 

"The business of an attorney of those earlier days was largely before 
justices of the peace, and was chiefly, and so in all the courts, the col- 
lection of debts, by employing the severe pressure upon debtors which 
the law then invited. Money being scarce, business was done mainly 
upon credit, and to a considerable extent in barter. Older lawyers will 
perhaps remember the obligations made payable in 'good merchantable 
hollow ware,' 'fulled cloth,' 'grain,' 'neat cattle, bulls and stags excepted,' 
or ' good New England rum,' and the like. It was not an unusual de- 
vice of the country traders to make nominal changes in their partner- 
ships from time to time, or put forth other ostensible reasons for placing 
their books in the hands of the village lawyer for collection of accounts. 


1 86 History of Windsor County. 

The temptation of fees and income dependent upon the number of suits 
brought, which fees were expected to come out of the debtor in the 
form of costs, and the credit of being reputed a sharp collecting lawyer, 
was a stimulus to him to push the law to its extremities of coercion. At 
the same time the creditor might be ready with the instructions, ' put 
him in jail. He will contrive some way to pay ; or his friends wont 
suffer him to lie in jail; or the town will see the debt paid rather than 
support his family as paupers.' In the case of a debtor who had credit 
or means of credit, but no present money, the grand economy was to 
pursue the cause to judgment, execution and commitment, when the 
debtor would give a jail bond, and generally immediately violate its 
provisions. Then would follow a new suit upon the bond, with judg- 
ment, execution, commitment, and a second jail bond, breach and suit, 
and so on indefinitely, to the increasing profit of the attorney. 

" After a time the Legislature, envying the lawyer's happy state, ruth- 
lessly cut off this source of his gain by prohibiting the taking a second 
jail bond when the judgment was upon a jail bond, a provision now 
found in the revised laws. Many a village lawyer in Vermont laid the 
foundation of a fortune for himself and family in these early conditions 
of practice; and it was not unusual for one to bring several hundred 
suits, yearly, chiefly before justices, and for small collections. The 
changes of fifty years in business, society, and the law have left the 
attorney of the present day but little of this class of business, — a change 
not to be deplored." 

Since the settlement of the cases arising under the national bankrupt 
act of 1867, the dockets of the courts have been constantly growing 
smaller. From a published report it is found that in 1877-78, through- 
out the State, there were 2,581 entries of civil causes, 181 jury trials, 775 
decrees in Chancery, and 209 Supreme Court judgments. In 1882-83 
the business had diminished until there were only 1,391 entries of civil 
causes, 99 jury trials. 318 decrees in Chancery, and 183 Supreme Court 
judgments. On the other hand the suits tried in recent years have 
occasionally involved large property interests; heavy corporate litiga- 
tion has noticeably increased, and lawyers of established litigation have 
still enough to do. 

Still, men will fall into dispute, and honestly and earnestly differ upon 

The Bench and Bar. 187 

some business transaction ; but these matters are generally settled by- 
compromise, through the intervention of friends, and occasionally the 
attorney, and comparatively few of them are carried through the courts. 
The general tendency seems to discountenance rather than promote liti- 
gation ; if the debtor is good he generally " settles" in some manner, but 
he against whom a debt is prosecuted to judgment may be generally 
considered as execution proof, and " nulla bona" is in most cases found 
noted in the sheriff's handwriting on the back of his writ of execution. 

It would indeed be the grossest injustice imaginable to attribute to the 
whole early bar of Windsor county the qualities described by the quo- 
tation above from the pen of an old practitioner. That may have ap- 
plied to some members of the bar, but not to the whole profession, for 
the great majority of lawyers, early and late, have been free from any 
such characterization, or any such indulgences for sordid purposes. 

The Bar Association. — Societies or organizations among members of 
the legal profession, similar to that to which the above name has been ap- 
plied, are not of infrequent form'ation ; but it is customary that when or- 
ganized they become incorporated, though it appears that that of Wind- 
sor county never entered upon such a state of existence. The first and 
only effort, of which there appears any record whatever, looking to the 
organization of a Bar Association in this county, was made at the March 
term of the County Court, at Woodstock, in the year 1806. It appears 
that at that term the assembled attorneys associated themselves to- 
gether, but whether or not they adopted a constitution and by-laws can 
not at this day be ascertained ; nor can it be learned what the precise 
object of the society may have been, except to attribute to the legal 
gentlemen comprising the association a desire to promote a more 
friendly acquaintance among members, and for the discussion of such 
legal propositions as would naturally and properly come within the prov- 
ince of such an organization, and for mutual protection and benefit. 

Judging from the somewhat singular business transactions, in the 
nature of " Regulations and Rules " for the ostensible government of the 
society, it might fairly be inferred that the last suggested object, " mutual 
protection and benefit," was the controlling element that led to the or- 
ganization of the association, for one of the many rules required that no 
practicing attorney should receive any student- at-law into his office 

i88 History of Windsor County. 

without the payment to the attorney of a tuition fee of two hundred and 
fifty dollars. Other conditions and restrictions were laid down by the 
association, some of which, perhaps, were intended to modify or qualify 
the apparently severe rules, and to provide for exceptional cases or con- 

This association, while it had no controlling power with the courts, 
did have, nevertheless, a recommendatory authority, at least so far as 
governing the conduct of an attorney in his relations with his clients ; 
and there were certainly two instances in which members of the profes- 
sion were disbarred by the court, at the recommendation of the society, 
for having engaged in practices prohibited by the rules. Therefore 
some good did "come out of Nazareth." 

The exorbitant fee rule did not appear to have worked to the entire 
satisfaction of all the members of the association, but was kept in force 
for a period of some eight years, when its rigors were somewhat qualified 
by an amendment or substitute to the effect that students pay a tuition 
fee of fifty dollars per year. One of the original rules required that a 
student not possessing certain prescribed qualifications in the matter of 
education, should be obliged to remain in an attorney's office for a term 
of five years, from which fact it would seem that unless the original rule 
was in some manner abated, the supplementary provision that placed 
the fee at fifty dollars per year was no substantial modification after all. 

But it is hardly proper to comment at much length upon the peculiar 
laws of this legal organization. Like ah others, it had its advantages 
and its faults, which may be said to have been about equal It contin- 
ued to exist till somewhere about 1840, and then passed naturally out 
of existence, since which time its rules have been numbered among the 
" obsolete laws." 

During his incumbency of the office of county clerk Norman Williams 
prepared a list of the attorneys who were admitted to practice in Wind- 
sor county, prior to the year 1839, his compilation in the docket in 
which it was written being entitled thus : " List of attorneys admitted 
to the County Court in Windsor county previous to the year 1839. 
(Imperfect.)" It is believed that Mr. WilHams added the word "im- 
perfect" to indicate that he had not searched the very earliest records 
to ascertain who were admitted, as Mr. Jay Read Pember, the present 

The Bench and Bar. 

clerk, has " gone through " the dockets which were examined by Mr. 
Williams (subsequent to 1799, and continuing many years), and he 
makes but one addition to the roll as prepared. But Mr. Williams 
makes no entries of names of attorneys who were admitted or practiced 
in the county prior to 1799, which fact may account for what he con- 
sidered an imperfect list. 

Further than that above stated, Mr. Williams prepared a roll of the 
attorneys who were admitted in Windsor county, commencing with the 
May term of 1839; and this has been continued by his successors in 
office to the present day. The names that are given in the earlier pages 
of this sketch, relating to the old attorneys, are the result of Mr. Pem- 
ber's research. And in addition to the explanations already made, it 
should be stated that the following list of attorneys cannot be considered 
as absolutely perfect, from the fact that there will not appear the names 
of those who now are or heretofore may have been lawyers of the 
county, but who were admitted elsewhere, in other counties, and after 
admission located in Windsor county for the practice of their profession; 
and there was a time in the history of the bar of this State when an 
admission to the Supreme Court was not an admission to the County 
Court, and conversely. 

Commencing with the year 1799 the roll prepared by the persons 
heretofore named is as follows: 1799, March term, Luther Mills; Sep- 
tember term, Cyrus Ware. 1800, March, ^ Zenas Clark; September, 
Horace Everett. 1801, March, Eliakim Spooner; September, Martin 
Field; December, Stephen Mix Mitchell. 1802, March, David Storrs, 
Alvin Foot; September, John H. Crane; December, Samuel Whitney, 
jr. 1803, September, Theophilus Olcutt, Stephen Grant. 1805, Sep- 
tember, Joseph Paine. 1806, September, John Nelson. 1807, Septem- 
ber, Henry Hutchinson. 1808, March, Job Lyman, PVederick A. Sum- 
ner; September, John M. Foster, Samuel Sheldon, Thomas Robinson. 
1809, March, Henry P. Brown; September, Harvey Chase, James 
Hutchinson, George Woodward, David Sloan. 18 10, March, Samuel 
Shuttleworth. 1811, March, Jonathan Hunt. 1812, September, Sam- 
uel Leland. 1814, March, Simeon Short; September, Carlos Coolidge, 
Nomlas Cobb. 18 15, March, Daniel Wells ; September, Titus Brown. 

'The word " term " is hereafter omitted. 

190 History of Windsor County. 

1816, March, Isaac N. Chshman, David Pierce. 18 17, March, Asa 
Holton, Jason Steele, Joseph R. Jarvis. 18 18, September, Nathaniel 
K. G. Oliver. 1820, March, Jeremiah Field; September, Wyllys Lyman, 
Samuel Shuttleworth, jr. 1822, September, Lyndon A. Marsh. 1825, 
September, Edwin Edgerton, Thomas S. Fullerton, George P. Marsh. 
1826, June, Edwin Hutchinson; December, Jabez Sargent, Elijah Par- 
ker, Harvey T. Leavitt, Royal M. Ransom, Andrew Tracy. 1827, De- 
cember, William May, Oramel Hutchinson. 1828, June, Alden C. 
Noble, Henry Hutchinson, Benjamin Swan, jr., William Gordon; De- 
cember, John S. Marcy. 1829, May, Solon Grout, Edward P. Harris, 
Salmon F. Dutton. 1830, June, Josiah Chandler. 183 1, November, 
Charles C. Marsh. 1832, May, Joseph Alexander Swett ; November, 
Andrew Royce. 1833, May, Philander C. Freeman, Hamden Cutts ; 
November, Nathaniel Sprague. 1834, November, James M. Gates. 
1836, November, Sewall Fullam, jr. 1837, May, Calvin French. Luther 
Adams, Harrison Smith. 1838, May, William E. Smiley, Peter T. 
Washburne. 1839, May, William H. Duncan, of Hanover ; November, 
James Barrett, of Woodstock. 1841, May, Sebastian R. Streeter, of 
Woodstock, Henry E. Stoughton, of Chester, Warren Currier, of Wind- 
sor ; November, John F. Dean of Cavendish, Josiah O. Hawkins of 
Reading. 1842, May, Gilbert A. Grant of Windsor, Albert M. Hol- 
brook of Bethel, Samuel W. Slade and Abel Merrill, jr., of Woodstock. 
Dan Tracy of Hartford, Frederick L. Willard of Windsor, Ivory W. 
Richardson of Chester; November, Lyman Mason of Cavendish, Fred- 
erick C. Robbins of Ludlow. 1843, May, Charles P. Marsh of Wood- 
stock, Daniel C. Heald of Chester, Charles Jarvis of Weathersfield ; 
November, Noah B. Safford of Springfield, Morris A. Cook of Ches- 
ter, James A. Hall of Reading. 1844, May, Warren C. French of 
Woodstock, Thomas Hale of Chelsea. 1845, March, Daniel C. Denni- 
son of Royalton. Charles H. Crosby of Chester. 1846, March, Lucius 
C. Boynton of Woodstock. 1847, May, Clark H. Chapman of Caven- 
dish; November, William Collamer of Woodstock, Ambrose A. Ran- 
ney of Townshend. 1848, May, Frederick Billings of Woodstock ; No- 
vember, Reuben H. Washburn of Ludlow, Spencer H. Leonard of Ches- 
ter. 1849, May, Henry C. Stoughton of Royalton, Dudley T. Chase of 
Windsor, Rufus F. Andrews of Woodstock ; September, Rufus F. An- 

The Bench and Bar. 191 

drews of Woodstock ; November, Josiah W. Hubbard of Springfield, 
John Ward of Woodstock. 1850, May, Jabez C. Crooker of Hartland ; 
December, Oramel S. Senter of Thetford. 185 1, May, Charles M. 
French of Proctorsville, William Rounds, jr., of Chester; December, 
William J. Loveland of Norwich. 1 852, May.Volnfey S. FuUam of Lud- 
low; December, Henry B. Hopkins of Chester. 1853, December, John 
Alonzo Chandler of Woodstock, Charles Carroll Dewey of Woodstock, 
Austin Adams of Windsor. 1854, May, Dennis N. Cooley of Wood- 
stock. 1855, May, Lewis A. Grant of Chester; November, John S. 
Washburn of Ludlow. 1856, December, Jonathan B. Farnsworth of 
Woodstock, William W. Howard of Plymouth. 1857. December, Bez- 
alee W. Lovell of Springfield, Norman Williams, jr., of Woodstock, 
James Oilman Henry of Woodstock. 1858, May, James J. Wilson of 
Bethel ; December, Henry Foster Anderson of Woodstock. 1859. May, 
Gilbert A. Davis of Chester; December, Don H. Woodward of Spring- 
field, Samuel E. Pingree of Bethel, i860. May, Jacob E. Taylor of 
Woodstock, Royal B. Roundy of Weathersfield, Redfield Proctor of 
Cavendish, Stephen M Pingree of Bethel, Henry B. Atherton of Cav- 
endish ; December, Wheelock G. Veazey of Springfield. i86r. May, 
George C. Hathaway of Woodstock, Patrick Henry Hutchinson of Ches- 
ter ; December, Christopher A. Webber of Rochester, William H. Wal- 
ker of Ludlow. 1862, May, Henry H. Dennison of Royalton, Hugh 
Henry of Chester, William Wallace Southgate of Woodstock, Daniel 
B. Dudley of Royalton; December, Norman Paul of Pomfret. 1863, 
December, Moulton J. Gilman of Bethel. 1864, May, George H. Tamb- 
ling of Hartford ; December, Thomas O. Seaver of Windsor, James N. 
Edminster of Windsor. 1865, May, William E. Johnson of Woodstock, 
Frank J. Bowman of Barnard. 1866, May, George B. French of Cav- 
endish ; December, PVanklin B. Dennison of Royalton, Frank G. Clark 
of Woodstock. 1867, May, Edwin J. McWain of Bethel. 1868, De- 
cember, James K. Polk Chamberlain of Pomfret. 1869, May, Martin 
H. Goddard of Ludlow, Edwin W. Fitch of Chester, John W. Marsh of 
Woodstock, Joseph C. Dennison of Royalton, David C. Hackett of Roy- 
alton; December, Joseph Hiland Dodge of Andover. 1870, May, Ed- 
win White of Woodstock ; December, Charles A. Wilson of Cavendish. 
1871, May, John L. Spring of Lebanon; December, Wallace Van Cor 

192 History of Windsor County. 

of Royalton, Hiland H. Wheeler of Woodstock. 1872, May, William 
Batchelder of Bethel, Alba N. Lincoln of Woodstock. 1873. May, 
Madison T. Sawyer of Cavendish. 1874, December, William B. C. 
Stickney of Bethel. 1875, December. Milo S. Buck of Cavendish, 
Charles M. Marsh of Woodstock, Charles Williams of Woodstock, 
William H. Cotton of Hartford. 1876, May, George A.Weston of Ches- 
ter ; December, Robert S. Southgate and Fred C. Southgate of Wood- 
stock, S. A. Griffin of Ludlow. 1877, May, James C. Barrett of Wood- 
stock, Josiah W. Dean of Cavendish. 1878, December, Rush T. 
Barrett of Woodstock, William W. Stickney of Ludlow. 1879, May, 
Ed\^ard T. Hodsden of Hartford; December, John H. Dennison of Roy- 
alton, Clarence W. Scott of Plymouth. 1 880, May, Herbert D. Ryder of 
Springfield, Francis C. Hatch of Woodstock; December, James G. 
Harvey of Rovalton. 1881, May, Frederick Arnold of Bethel ; De- 
cember, Joseph C. Enright of Windsor. 1882, May, John J. Simonds 
of Windsor, Edward D. Reardon of Springfield. 1883, May, Warren 
C. French of Woodstock, Charles H. Mason of Royalton. 1884, May, 
Frank H. Clark of Reading, Elbridge M. Bush of Cavendish. Admit- 
ted subsequent to 1884, Frank A. Walker of Ludlow, Sanford E. Emery 
of Cavendish, Fred W. Cady of Windsor, (1888,) Alba C. Peck of Cav- 
endish. To the above list may be appended the names of a number of 
lawyers who were admitted in other counties, and who subsequently 
came to Windsor county to practice. This list is taken from the com- 
pilation of George B. French, who was county clerk from 1867 to 1885: 
Samuel W. Porter, admitted in Windham county, 1814; Julius Con- 
verse, Orange, 1826; William M. Pingry, Caledonia, 1832; Oliver P. 
Chandler, Caledonia, 1832; Augustus P. Hunton, Washington, 1837; 
Albert M. Albee, Windham, 1843; Charles M. Lamb, Orange, 1850; 
George L. Fletcher, Windham, 1859; Jerome W. Pierce, Windham, 
1862; Charles P. Tarbell, Orange, 1870; William H. Bliss, Orange, 1877. 
Personnel of the Present Bar — At Bethel, Fred Arnold, Augustus B. 
Hunton, William B. C. Stickney, (State's attorney,) James J. Wilson. 
Cavendish, Milo S. Buck, Alva C. Peck. Chester, George L. Fletcher, 
Hugh Henry, (probate judge, Windsor district,) William Rounds (assist- 
ant judge). Hartford, Samuel E. Pingree, Stephen M. Pingree. Lud- 
low, Martin H. Stoddard, William W. Stickney, Frank A. Walker, Will- 

The Medical Profession. 193 

iam H. Walker. Proctorsville, Sanford E. Emery. Royalton, Dudley 
C. Dennison. Springfield, Albert M. Allbe, Jerome W. Pierce. South 
Royalton, Charles M. Lamb, Charles P. Tarbell. Windsor, William Batch- 
elder, Fred W. Cady, Gilbert A. Davis, Joseph C. Enright White 
River Junction, James G. Harvey, John J. Simonds. Woodstock, Oliver 
P. Chandler, Warren C. French, William E. Johnson, Charles P. Marsh 
(assistant judge), Norman Paul, Thomas O. Seaver, (probate judge, Hart- 
ford district,) Frederick C. Southgate. 



WHEN we consider the importance and elevated character of the 
science of medicine-— its object, the preservation of the health and 
lives, and the healing of diseases, and the amelioration of the physical 
and mental sufferings of our fellow human beings — its extent embracing 
a knowledge of all science — it is evident that medical education should 
engage the earnest attention of at least the entire medical profession. 
The advances made in all the branches of knowledge, and especially in 
the science of medicine during the past century, have excelled in extent 
and value those of all past ages; and it is no longer possible to compress 
its vast domain within the narrow limits of " seven professorships." The 
present age owes its wonderful progress to experimental and scientific 

Evolution and development are the talismanic watch- words oT the nine- 
teenth century, and the doctrine is being accepted that things in the 
world do grow, and are not made ; it is no longer universally accepted 
as a matter of religious faith that the world was created by supernatural 
power, for many of our deepest thinkers, men of the most profound under- 
standing, believe that it has been gradually unfolded by the action of 
natural causes. But, not wishing to be accused of heresy, it may be 


194 History of Windsor County. 

stated that whether the theory be according to Darwin, or Hackel, or 
Spencer, or some other philosopher, the law will be the same in any 
case, and away back, behind "protoplasm," "germinal matter" and 
" celular germ," there still exists abundant proof of a " First Great 
Cause," of an " Infinite Wisdom," for the depth of which language hath 
not expression. A flood of light on this subject is now pouring forth on 
the world, but its acceptation as a convincing truth rests in a great 
measure with the individual. 

" The world," says Goethe, " is so framed that it cannot keep quiet." 
All the natural energies are brought into full force by the spirit of enter- 
prise, by the spirit of progress. The telegraph wires wipe out all terri- 
torial boundaries, and railways penetrate the utmost confines of the earth, 
and by them States and Territories are bound fast together in one web. 

"The Bible," says Gail Hamilton, "is full of excellent precepts, and 
the world is full of bad examples. If a man smite us on the right cheek, 
we — knock him down. If a man sues us at law, we stand suit, and if he 
would borrow of us we promptly turn away, unless he can give ample 

Science and enterprise have spanned the continent with electric wires, 
cabled the Atlantic Ocean, given us the measurements of revolving plan - 
ets, spread forth the canvas to the gale, and made the trackless ocean a 
highway through the world. By the use of scientific and cunningly de- 
vised instruments bleak skies and rude winds are foreseen, and the navi- 
gator places himself in safety. The electric light has displaced gas as 
effectually as the latter did the " tallow dip," and is established upon a 
secure commercial basis. School-houses, churches, newspapers, and 
books open up to the poorest the lights and opportunities of knowledge. 

The wealth of nations increases and we see all the arts of life approach- 
ing nearer and nearer perfection. In science, art and literature eacli 
succeeding generation is wiser than its predecessor. The mistakes of 
past experience serve as beacon-lights to warn us off the rocks and shoals 
of error and guide us to the port of truth. 

The great and wide advancement in the different branches of medical 
science within the last generation is as much a marvel as the progress 
made in any other of the arts and sciences. The poorest laborer can 
now obtain advice and medicine far superior to that which royalty could 
command one or two centuries ago. 

The Medical Profession. 195 

"The advance in medical knowledge within one's memoYy," say Sir 
James Paget, "'is amazing, whether reckoned in the wonders of science 
not yet applied, or in practical results, in the general lengthening of life, 
or, which is still better, in the prevention and decrease of pain and mis- 
ery, and in the increase of working power." 

The dawning of medical science, which now sheds its light through the 
world, began with Hippocrates nearly twenty-three hundred years ago, 
and he first treated of medicine with anything like sound or rational 
principles. He wrote extensively, much of which has been translated 
and serves as a foundation for the succeeding literature of the profession. 
He relied chiefly on the healing powers of nature, his remedies being 
exceedingly simple. He taught that the people ought not to load them- 
selves with excrements, or keep them in too long; and for this reason 
he prescribed " meats proper for loosening the belly," and if these failed 
he directed the use of clysters. 

Three hundred years before Christ, Erasistratus invented and used the 
catheter, introduced the tourniquet, and produced an instrument for 
lithotriptic operations. Celsus flourished A. D. 50 to 120, as the greatest 
of Roman surgeons. 

Through all the centuries from the beginning of the Christian era 
down to the time of the discovery of the circulation of the blood by 
Harvey, 1619, medicine shed but a glimmering light in the midst of the 
darkness then enshrouding the world, and the greatest strides in the 
advancement of the various branches of medical science have been made 
in the last one hundred years, and most of them may be placed to the 
credit of the last half century. 

Physiologists no longer believe with Paracelsus in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, that the planets have a direct controlling action on the body, the 
sun upon the heart, and the moon upon the brain ; nor do they now be- 
lieve that the vital spirits are prepared in the brain by distillation ; nor 
do they admit that the chyle effervesces in the heart under the influ- 
ence of salt and sulphur, which take fire together and produce the vital 
flame. On the contrary, modern physiology teaches that the phenom- 
ena of the living body are the result of physical and chemical changes ; 
the temperature of the blood is ascertained by the thermometer, and 
the different fluids and gases of the body are analyzed by the chemist, 
giving to each its own properties and function. 

196 History of Windsor County. 

While the eighteenth century witnessed greater advancement in the 
department of medical science than any or all its predecessors, the 
crowning achievement seems to have been reserved for the nineteenth — 
the present century. Among the thousands of elements that comprise 
this century's advance in medical science mention will be made of but 
one, and that among the first discoveries, i. e., the use of anesthetics, 
which benumb the nerves of sensation, and produce a profound but 
transient state of insensibility, in which the most formidable operation 
may be performed while the patient sleeps and dreams of home and 
happy hours,' and the physician is left to the pleasing reflection that he 
is causing no pain or suffering. 

But it appears that as rapid as has been this advance during the last 
hundred years, so, correspondingly, have there developed new forms 
and phases of disease to baffle the skill of the most eminent physicians 
and scientists in the land ; and while diseases, malarious in their char- 
acter, have for a time defied the attempts to overcome them, they have, 
nevertheless, been subdued and conquered. Medical skill has proven 
equal to every emergency. 

There is, to day, known to botanists over one hundred and forty thou- 
sand plants, a large proportion of which are being constantly added to 
the already appalling list of new remedies. Many of these new drugs 
possess little, if any, virtue, save as their sale adds to the exchequer of 
some enterprising pharmacist. A drug hsuse in New England recently 
issued a circular, in which they advertised 33 syrups, 42 elixirs, 93 solid 
extracts, 150 varieties of sugar-coated pills, 236 tinctures, 245 roots, 
barks, herbs, seeds and flowers, 322 fluid extracts, and 348 general 
drugs and chemicals. 

The ancients were not so well supplied with drugs. It was the cus- 
tom among the Babylonians to expose the sick to the view of passen- 
gers, in order to learn of them whether they had been afflicted with a 
like distemper, and by what remedies they had been cured. It was also 
the custom of those days for all persons who had been sick, and were 
cured, to put up a tablet in the temple of Esculapius, wherein they gave 
an account of the remedies that had restored them to health. Prior to 
the time of Hippocrates all medicine was in the hands of the priests, 
and was associated with numerous superstitions, such as sympathetic 

The Medical Profession. 197 

ointments applied to the weapon with which a wound was made, incan- 
tations, charms, amulets, the royal touch for the cure of scrofula, human 
or horse flesh for the cure of epilepsy, convulsions treated with human 

While all this credulous superstition of early ages, born of ignorance, 
existed to a vastly large extent, it has not been fully wiped out by the 
generally advanced education of the present day. The latest appeal to 
the credulity of the masses of the people is an invention to relieve the 
unfortunate sick, and is known as " the Faith Cure." The persons seek- 
ing to popularize this means of cure are either deceived themselves, or 
are deceiving others. Upon this point a popular writer says: " If the 
disease be an incurable one, all the prayers in the world will not cure it. 
F'ilth brings fever; prayer cannot interpose." 

There is probably no department of medicine at the present time 
more promising of good results than is sanitary science. While physi- 
ology and pathology are making known to us the functions of the hu- 
man body, and the nature and cause of disease, sanitary science is stead- 
ily teaching how the causes of disease may be removed or avoided, 
and health thereby secured. 

Progress during the coming one hundred years, if only equal to that 
of the past, will more than have "accomplished great works in the ad- 
va'icement of sanitary science ; but the accomplishment of this work 
calls not only for the labor of the physician, but for the intelligent co- 
operation of the people ; the physician cannot do it alone. If anything 
really great is to be done in the way of sanitary improvement, and of 
preventing disease and death, it must be done by the people themselves. 
This implies that they must be instructed in sanitary matters. The}- 
must be taught what unsanitary conditions most favor the origin of dis- 
eases, how disease is spread, and the means of its prevention. If it is 
true that that knowledge is of the greatest to us which teaches the means 
of self-preservation, then the importance of a wide-spread knowledge 
of how to prevent disease and premature death cannot be overestimated. 

A number of the towns of Windsor county have already acquired the 
proportions of municipal being, and with every increase of population 
there comes an increased demand for sanitary regulations, especially in 
the more thickly peopled localities ; and it behooves the authorities of 

198 History of Windsor County. 

those towns to look well to the matter of a complete system of sewerage. 
This is a matter that needs prompt and efficient attention. The expense 
of course would be considerable, but the outlay might better be made 
than to defer action until disaster should come that might be a greater 
cost both of means and lives. 

But what can be said in these pages concerning the history of the medi- 
cal profession of Windsor county, and who were its pioneer represent- 
atives ? Upon this question there appears but little of record, and still 
less of reliable tradition. The oldest living medical practitioner in the 
county would hardly attempt an enumeration of the practitioners that 
preceded him; those of the last century that rode the country over dur- 
ing its pioneer days. They are all gone now and have left no record of 
their lives and deeds for succeeding generations. Whoever they were, 
and wherever they may have lived, the pioneer representatives of the 
healing art recognized the necessity of associating together for the pro- 
tection of their craft, and regulating the standard of fitness of aspirants 
for professional duty. Such a sentiment led to the formation of the 
" First Medical Society in Vermont," which was incorporated on the 25th 
of October, 1784. None of the incorporators, however, of that society 
were residents of Windsor county. 

The second medical society of the State was formed in October, 1794, 
in pursuance of an act of the Legislature by physicians of Windsor 
county. The third was an organization of Franklin county, incorporated 
February 6, 1804; and the fourth was a Windsor county society, incor- 
porated on the 27th of October, 18 12, but not fully organized by its 
members until the succeding year. These societies were county organi- 
zations. The first State societywas incorporated by an act of the Legis- 
lature passed November 6, 1813, and was known as the "Vermont 
Medical Society." Among its incorporatofs were a number of Windsor 
county residents, as follows : Josiah Goodhue, Joadam Gallup, Moses 
Cobb, Stephen Drew, Nahum Trask, Silas Bowen, Eldad Alexander, 
Asaph Fletcher. Henry Gray, Erastus Torrey, Isaac Parker, Joadam 
Dennison, Joseph Wiijslow, Silas Brown, Nathaniel Pierce, Benjamin A. 
Dennison, Luther Pletcher, Charles Wolcott Chandler, John Burnell. 

The incorporators named in the act from the several counties, or any 
five from a single county, were authorized to form themselves into a 

The Medical Profession. 199 

county society for the same purpose as that for which the State society 
was created, that is : " The improvement of the theory and practice of 
the different branches of the heahng art," etc. It is not essentially im- 
portant to refer at any length to the powers and duties prescribed in the 
act as belonging to the State society, other than to note the fact that 
under it county societies were authorized, and out of which the " Medi- 
cal Society of the County of Windsor " was created and organized dur- 
ing, or immediately after, the year 1813. 

The minutes of proceedings and constitution of this old society are un- 
questionably lost, and nothing remains that in any manner relates to its 
existence except a book of charges found in the possession of Dr. Edwin 
Hazen, of Woodstock. This book purports to contain a record of the 
medical works loaned by the society to its members. The library com- 
prised forty volumes, physiological and pathological, which were held for 
the use and instruction of members, and loaned to them upon proper oc- 
casion. From this book is taken the names of the physicians who were 
members of the society, as follows : Joseph A. Gallup, Joseph A. Deni- 
son, Nahum Trask, Erastus Torrey, John Burnell, John D Powers, 
A. W. Monger, Elijah W. Alexander, Amos B. Page, Silas Bowen, Thomas 
Swift, Frederick Ware, James Tracy, Isaac Danforth, Alfred Page, Moses 
Cobb, Ora F. Paddock, John Anger, Ptolemy Edson, Willard P. Gilson, 
Samuel P. Page, Dyar Story, W. Bowman, John Plmory, Edwin Hazen. 
Dr. Hazen was the last physician to become a member of the society ; 
and he says that even' occurred about 1844 or 1846 ; and that the soci- 
ety was then about to pass out of being, in fact, " on its last legs," as the 
Doctor expresses it. 

In the year 1837, at a meeting of the society held June 13th, Dr. John 
Burnell read an address to the assembled members, which was a review 
of the history of the organization, with some reference to the events that 
led to its formation, and the difficulties encountered in accomplishing it. 
Through the kindness of Dr. Hazen we are enabled to use such extracts 
from the address as will be deemed of interest to the profession of the 
present day. 

"Early in the year 1812 some four or five of us in this immediate 
vicinity (Woodstock), who were then young in practice, conceived the 
plan of associating together and forming ourselves into a kind of club, 

200 History of Windsor County. 

for mutual improvement in our profession. We had understood that an 
attempt had been made by the physicians of the county, or some indi- 
viduals of them, by petitioning the Legislature, to get an act of incor- 
poration for a medical society for this county. But on account of the 
extreme jealousy of that body, of all secret societies, it being tlien the 
days of 'Washington Benevolent Societies,' ' Hartford Conventions,' etc., 
the petition was ridiculed out of the House by moving that it be referred 
to the 'mad-dog committee,' which discouraged any further attempt at 
assistance from that source. 

" Feeling the want of their aid, and supposing that some of the older 
practitioners might be willing to unite with us, we consulted with them 
upon the subject. Their advice was that another attempt should be 
made upon the Legislature, and recommended that an advertisement 
for a convention of the physicians of the county should be published, to 
meet in this place (Woodstock), to concert further measures upon the 
subject. ... In pursuance of this advice the notice referred to was 
inserted in the public papers at Windsor, and the convention on the 
3 I St of August, 1 8 1 2, was the result. Some fifteen or twenty physicians 
were present. . . . We were determined to have a society, the 
Legislature to the contrary notwithstanding ; and it was thought best, 
all concurring therein, to try the Legislature once more, and a commit- 
tee was chosen for drafting the petition. 

"At our next meeting, September 23, heard and accepted the peti- 
tion, and chose Dr. Joseph Winslow agent to present it, and use his en- 
deavors to get it granted. And it is recollected that on account of the 
appearance in our political horizon at that time, showing less party ani- 
mosity and jealousy of the influence of secret societies, and especially as 
Dr. Winslow was a leading man on the side of the dominant party, we 
had strong assurance of success, and the event proved we were not dis- 
appointed. ... At the next meeting, January 7, 181 3, our agent 
reported the act of the Legislature, constituting us a body politic, by the 
name of the Medical Society of the County of Windsor. And it like- 
wise appears that at the same time our code of by-laws was reported by 
the committee which had been appointed for the purpose, and adopted 
by the society, which, with some alterations and amendments, still re- 
mains as our rules and regulations. At this meeting, January, 1 8 13, a 

The Medical Profession. 201 

full board of officers was chosen, and the society was first fully organized 
according to law. . . . From that time for several years our meet- 
ings were held alternately, annual meeting at Woodstock, and semi- 
annual at Windsor. . . . But we were to feel the influence of those 
blighting causes, which are more or less unavoidable in institutions of 
this kind; and which, but for the exertions of those members who pre- 
ferred peace and the success of our profession to the gratification of feel- 
ings of personal animosity, our society must have come to the ground. 
I allude principally to an attempt which was made, fifteen years since, 
to introduce within the walls of this society the discussion of the merits 
of an unhappy law suit between two of its members, which was then but 
just terminated. Although it was treated by the members generally as 
it should have been, after much annoyance by him who made the at- 
tempt, and one other, who espoused his cause, much injury to our cause 
resulted from it. 

"The languishing state and final suspension of all business of our 
sister county societies, and consequently of the parent State society, are 
not among the least of the causes against which we have had to contend. 
Where shall we look for this cause which is operating so generally to 
paralyze all efforts for the furtherance of medical science and the re- 
spectability of our profession ? By referring to the records of a meeting 
of this society in June, 1823, it will be found that the following resolution 
was introduced, and published in the Woodstock Observer, or ordered to 
be there published : 

" 'Whereas, the medical literature of our State has its progress im- 
peded by the public interest and influence being divided between Cas- 
tleton and Burlington ; Resolved, therefore, by the Windsor County 
Medical Society, that we recommend the union of those schools, and 
invite the attention of the Vermont Medical Society, and of the several 
societies, to this subject.' 

" If it was thought in 1823, when we had but two medical schools in 
the State, that they were exerting a bad influence in dividing public in- 
terest, how much more influence of the same kind will three schools 
exert, and one having two courses of lectures in each year ? Lest it 
may be thought that the foregoing resolution had its origin in the prej- 
udice of members of this society towards those medical schools, or any 

202 History of Windsor County. 

of the faculty at the head of them, it may be proper to mention that it 
was introduced and advocated by two of the gentlemen then connected 
with the Castleton Academy of Medicine." 

The reader will at once observe from the tenor of the foregoing ex- 
tracts that there evidently existed an inharmonious feeling in the pro- 
fession relating to the system of management of the medical college 
then in operation at the county seat. This would appear to be the real 
object of the worthy Doctor's address, to give voice and expression to 
his sentiment upon the subject, although in so doing he gave something 
of the history of the old medical society of the county. In another 
and still later part of his essay, the Doctor says : " But, it may possibly 
be agreed that if there are too many schools of medicine, it is an evil 
which will cure itself, cannot be supported, some of them must go down. 
True, Mr. President, they may, but in the meantime what will become of 
our medical society, that ought to be the supervisor of these institutions, 
while all our principal and leading physicians are engaged with all their 
might in sustaining each his favorite school ? In the meantime, too, we 
shall be inundated with ' quackery,' which is already making fearful in- 
roads in our goodly State." 

It is quite evident that Dr. Burnell was zealously engaged in the laud- 
able effort of endeavoring to save the medical society from dismember- 
ment and dissolution; but, notwithstanding that, the society ceased to 
exist about the year before mentioned. 

The Clinical School of Medicine. — During the latter part of the year 
1799 Dr. Joadam, or as he was more commonly styled, Joseph A. Gal- 
lup, came to reside and engage in the practice of medicine and surgery 
in the town of Woodstock. He is remembered as being a decidedly 
eccentric and erratic person, and like all such possessed determination 
of character to a remarkable degree, a quality that is now commonly 
termed obstinacy. But, notwithstanding these traits. Dr. Gallup was a 
man of learning and great medical ability in the special branches he 
most favored, and of excellent understanding in his profession in gen- 

And like many men called great, Dr. Gallup possessed a " hobby," it 
being his greatest desire, that amounted almost to a passion with him, 
that he might at some day establish a medical school at Woodstock, for 

The Medical Profession. 203 

the thorough training and education of the young men of the region 
who aspired to membership in the medical fraternity. To this end the 
doughty Doctor labored earnestly and zealously, but it was not until 
the year 1826 that his idea began to assume a definite form. By that 
time he was prepared to announce to the general public the fact of his 
having established at Woodstock a Clinical School of Medicine, amply 
provided with a competent corps of instructors and lecturers upon the 
several topics necessary for the thorough and complete education of all 
medical students who sought to avail themselves of its benefits. How- 
ever, some untoward event occurred that compelled a temporary sus- 
pension of the affairs of the school, and it was not until the early part of 
March, 1827, that it was in fact opened. 

The institution was managed during the year almost solely by its 
worthy founder and such medical gentlemen as he had brought here 
who constituted the " faculty " ; but the successes of the first series of 
lectures were not particularly gratifying, while the expenses were con- 
siderable. But, not dismayed by misfortune. Dr. Gallup the next year 
succeeded in interesting a large number of the medical profession of the 
county in the matter of his enterprise, and the result was a numerously 
signed petition to the Legislature for an act of incorporation, that the 
school might be established and conducted on a more substantial basis. 
The matter, in the nature of an act, came before the Legislature, passed 
through the customary committee, was opposed by some and favored 
by others, and finally put upon its passage, and defeated. 

This misfortune, together with other disturbances, had the effect of 
temporarily disorganizing the economy of the school, and caused a post- 
ponement of the course of lectures arranged for the fall term of 1828; 
but by the succeeding spring the affairs of the school were resumed un- 
der more favorable conditions than had previously existed. By this 
time the friends of the enterprise had provided a suitable building for 
the lectures and other instruction, and another similar institution had 
taken this one under its patronage to the extent of conferring such de- 
grees as were desirable, the adverse determination of the Vermont Leo-- 
islature having left the Woodstock school without such authority. Thus 
despite the action of the General Assembly, the enterprise founded by 
Dr. Gallup became finally established upon a reasonably substantial ba- 

204 History of Windsor County. 

sis, and so it was continued a number of terms and school years. De- 
grees were conferred upon the quahfied candidates through the friendly 
ofificers of other institutions, and for a time the Clinical School of Med- 
icine actually appeared to prosper. 

But during these years, too, there existed and was gradually increasing 
an element of opposition and dissatisfaction with the management of the 
institution ; and although the residents of the village of Woodstock and 
vicinity came to the relief of Dr. Gallup, and promised and gave him 
substantial encouragement and aid, the opposition at length acquired 
such strength as to threaten the destruction of the school, and the final 
result was the founding of another medical institution in the same town, 
in January, 1834. Two such enterprises of course could not stand. At 
length friends of both interfered in the interest of harmony and the gen- 
eral welfare, and a compromise was speedily effected, under which Dr. 
Gallup was prevailed upon to surrender his interest in the enterprise 
into other hands and control. His connection thereby ceased, and the 
affairs of the school at once assumed another form, and the act that 
brought into being the '' Vermont Medical College " was soon afterward 
passed by the Legislature. 

That act was passed by the Legislature on the 26th of October, 1835, 
and named as corporators David Palmer, Henry H. Childs, Willard 
Parker, Benjamin C. C. Parker and John A. Pratt; but the name of the 
institution was left to the determination of these corporators and their 
associates, to be decided upon at their first meeting. This meeting was 
held on the 20th of April, 1836, and of which Dr. David Palmer was 
chairman, and Dr. Willard Parker secretary. After the meeting had 
been organized the corporate name, " Vermont Medical College," was 
adopted. Norman Williams was then elected a member of the corpora- 
tion. Then followed the adoption of by-laws, and the election of offi- 
cers, with this result : Henry A. Childs, president ; David Palmer, vice- 
president; Norman Williams, secretary. These professorships were 
adopted : The theory and practice of medicine and obstetrics, Henry M. 
Childs, professor; surgery and physiology, Willard Parker, M. D., pro- 
fessor; chemistry and materia medica, David Palmer, M. D., professor; 
anatomy, Robert Watts, M. D., professor. A number of changes and 
additions were subsequently made in relation to the professorships of 

The Medical Profession. 205 

the college, but those just named were adopted at the first meeting of 
the corporators. 

However gratifying to its officers and to the people of this vicinity 
may have been the successes which crowned their efforts in establishing 
the Vermont Medical College, it was not destined to enjoy a long life. 
As has been stated heretofore, the institution was brought into existence 
in the year 1835, and put into operation during the following year. In 
1843 its zenith of success was attained, but soon thereafter came a de- 
cline, a gradual falling away both in interest and patronage that finally 
ended in a complete abandonment of the enterprise, by the resignation 
of its faculty in the year 1856, although the real and personal property 
of the college trustees was not disposed of until the year 1862. 

Unlike the school founded by Dr. Gallup, the Vermont Medical Col- 
lege was empowered to confer " all such medical degrees, honors, diplo- 
mas or licenses as are usually given or conferred in colleges or medical 
institutions, but shall confer no other than medical degrees." This was 
embraced in the corporate act. The last exercise of authority under the 
above quoted provision occured at the annual meeting of the trustees, 
June 24, 1856. During this unfortunate period an effort was made to 
revive the institution. Frequent and earnest consultations were held, in 
which the advice of learned physicians and college professors was asked 
and given, but to no good purpose; the college failed for lack of mate- 
rial support. In 1 861 the board of trustees at a meeting held September 
9th decided to place the property in the hands of Charles Chapman and 
Philo Hatch, as agents to sell the same at the best advantage. On the 
nth of October, 1862, the real estate was sold at public auction, Dr. Ed- 
win Hazen, of Woodstock, becoming the purchaser for the sum of seven 
hundred and fifty dollars. The further sum of one hundred and fifty 
dollars was realized from the sale of the personal property of the corpo- 
ration. The old college building still stands on the hill, in the south.west 
part of Woodstock village ; but the character of its occupancy is mate- 
rially different from that for which it was originally intended, being now 
a dwelling and boarding-house for summer visitors. 

During the years of its existence the Vermont Medical College gradu- 
ated a very large number of students, as will be seen from the appended 
statement. But it appears that previous to June 6, 1837, there was a 

2o6 History of Windsor County. 

connection between this institution and the Middlebury College, and that 
the degrees conferred by the Woodstock college was done through the 
medium of the Middlebury College ; but at the time stated the trustees 
adopted this resolution: "Resolved, that the connection of this institu- 
tion with the Middlebury College be and is hereby dissolved, and that in 
future degrees shall be conferred by and under the authority of this in- 

The graduates of the Vermont Medical College need not be named in 
this sketch, from the fact that very few of them were residents of the 
county ; but it will be proper to state the gross number of students grad- 
uated with the close of the school year, each of which graduates car- 
ried away with him the title of " M. D." In June, 1836, the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine was conferred by the president of Middlebury Col- 
lege on eleven graduates; in 1837, on sixteen graduates; in 1838, on 
seventeen ; 1839, on fifteen : in 1840, on twenty three; in 1841, eighteen; 
1842, thirteen; 1843, fourteen; 1844, fifteen; 1845, twenty-eight; 1846, 
twenty-four; 1847, twenty-five; 1848, thirty; 1849, twenty-five; 1850, 
nineteen; 185 i, twenty- six ; 1852, twenty-five; 1853, twenty- two ; 1854, 
ten ; 1855, five; 1856, ten. 

Succession of officers from time of incorporation to 1856: 1836, 
Henry W. Childs, president; David Palmer, vice-president ; Norman 
Williams, secretary. 1837, the records of the board of trustees for this 
year do not disclose an election of officers, but it is understood that those 
for the preceding year were continued, either by election or omission to 
elect. 1838, Henry A. Childs, president ; David Palmer, vice president; 
Norman Williams, secretary. 1839, David Palmer, president; Rev. 
B. C. C. Parker, vice-president; Norman Williams, secretary; John A- 
Pratt, treasurer. 1840, David Palmer, president; Rev. B. C. C. Parker, 
vice-president; Norman Williams, secretary; John H. Pratt, treasurer. 
1841. Henry H. Childs, president;^ Rev. B. C. C. Parker, vice-presi- 
dent; Norman Williams, secretary; John A. Pratt, treasurer. 1842, 
Henry H. Childs, president; Rev. B. C. C. Parker, vice-president; Nor- 
man Williams, secretary; John A. Pratt, treasurer. 1843, Henry H. 

"Dr. Childs was chosen president at an adjourned meeting of the board. At the 
time of the election Dr. Palmer was seriously ill, and the trustees deferred electing a 
successor until his illness terminated his life. 

The Press. 207 

Childs, president ; Benjamin R. Palmer, vice-president; Norman Will- 
iams, secretary; John A. Pratt, treasurer. 1844, Henry H. Childs,' 
president; Benjamin R. Palmer, vice-president; Norman Williams, sec- 
retary. 1845, "o record of any officers being elected. 1846, Benjamin 
R. Palmer, president; Hon Jacob CoUamer, vice-president; Norman 
Williams, secretary. 1847, Benjamin R. Palmer, president ; Jacob Col- 
lamer, vice-president; Norman Williams, secretary and treasurer. 1848, 
Benjamin R. Palmer, president; Jacob Collamer, vice-president; Nor- 
man Williams, secretary and treasurer. 1849, same as in 1848. 1850, 
Benjamin Rush Palmer, president; Norman Williams, secretary and 
treasurer. (No others elected.) The years 1851-52-53 there was no 
change from the officers of 1850. In 1854 there appears to have been 
none elected except that Jacob Collamer was chosen vice-president. 
1855, Jacob Collamer, president ; William Henry Thayer, vice-presi- 
dent; Norman Williams, secretary and treasurer. 

Such organizations as are in the county at the present time, that re- 
late to the medical profession, and have their membership from among 
the physicians, are those known as the White River Valley Medical As- 
sociation and the Connecticut Valley Medical Association, both of which 
are in active existence. But each has its jurisdiction extending beyond 
the borders of the county, and beyond the limits of the State ; for the 
character of each society is such that physicians residing east of the 
Connecticut may have membership in either association, or both if the}' 


EDUCATION is the great civilizer, and printing its greatest aux- 
iliary. Were it not for the aid furnished by the press the great 
mass of people would still be groping in the darkness of the middle ages, 
and knowledge remain confined within the limits of the cloister. 

It is surprising when searching our libraries to discover how little has 
been written of the " Art preservative of all arts," and the educator of 

3o8 History of Windsor County. 

all educators. While printing has been the chronicler of all arts, pro- 
fessions and learning, it has recorded so little of its history as to leave 
even the story of its first invention and application wrapped in mystery 
and doubt. We only know that from the old Ramage press which Faust 
and Franklin used, capable of producing only a hundred impressions 
per hour, we have now the ponderous machine which turns out one 
thousand copies per minute. 

In glancing over the pages of history we discover the gradual devel- 
opments in all the arts and sciences. We notice that they go hand in 
hand — one discovery points to another, one improvement in the arts 
leads to others continually, and the results of the last few centuries show 
that observations of no apparent use led to the most important discov- 
eries and developments. The falling of an apple led Newton to unfold 
the theory of gravitation and its relation to the solar system ; the dis- 
covery of the polarity of the loadstone led to the construction of the 
mariner's compass; the observation of the muscular contraction of a frog 
led to the numerous applications of galvanic electricity ; the observation 
of the expansive force of steam lead to construction and manifold uses 
of the steam engine ; the observation of the influence of liyht on chloride 
of silver led lo the art of photography ; the observation of the commu- 
nication of sound by the connected rails of a railroad led to the invention 
of the telephone ; the impressions cut in the smooth bark of the birch 
tree led to the art of printing — the art which transmits to posterity a 
record of all that is good and valuable to the world 

There is progress discernible in every successive generation of man. 
Gradually has he advanced from a state of nude barbarism and total 
ignorance to a degree of perfection which gives him almost absolute 
dominion over all elements, and in the pride of glorious and enlightened 
manhood he can exclaim with Cowper: 

" I am a monarch of all I survey, 
My right there is none to dispute ; 
From the center all 'round to the sea, 
I am lord of the fowl and the brute." 

So long as mind shall occupy its seat, so long will progress be the 
watchword of man, and onward and upward will be his march to an 
endless and limitless ascent — where all the hidden and occult secrets of 

The Press. 209 

creation will unfold their mysteries to his comprehension and crown him 
master of them all. 

The printing-office has well been called the Poor Boy's College, and 
has proven a better school to many ; has graduated more intellect and 
turned it into useful, practical channels; awakened more active, devoted 
thought than any alma mater on the earth. Many a dunce has passed 
through the universities with no tangible proof of fitness other than his 
insensible piece of parchment — himself more sheepish, if possible, than 
his "sheep skin." There is something in the very atmosphere of a 
printing-office calculated to awaken the mind to activity, and inspire a 
thirst for knowledge. Franklin, Stanhope, Berranger, Thiers, Greeley, 
Taylor and a host of other names, illustrious in the world of letters and 
science, have been gems in the diadem of typography, and owe their 
success to the influence of a printing-office. 

The newspaper has become one of the chief indexes of the intelligence 
and progress of the community in which it is published, and its files are 
the foot-prints of the advancement and refinement of the period of its 
publication ; and the printing-office is now deemed as essential as the 
school- house or church. It has taken the place of the rostrum and the 
professor's chair, and become the great teacher. No party, organization, 
enterprise or calling is longer considered perfect without its " organ " — 
the newspaper — as a mouth- piece. 

In journalistic ventures Windsor county has been as prolific as per- 
haps any in the State, there having been established, and conducted for 
a greater or le.«=s length of time, between the year 1784 and this present, 
something like sixty or seventy separate newspaper publications, and 
the majority of them were put in operation prior to i860, and covered a 
period when there was far less demand or necessity for newspaper infor- 
mation than has existed since that year. And prior to that time the 
publication of a newspaper, in all the details of its departments, was at- 
tended with far greater proportionate expense than at this day; for now 
news can be gathered from all quarters of the globe and placed before 
every community within twelve hours from the occurrence of an event, 
while formerly weeks and sometimes months elapsed before reports of 
transactions abroad, and the more distant parts of America, reached the 
newspaper office. This is the result of rapid telegraphic transmission of 


History of Windsor County. 

news, made possible by the organization of press associations. And dur- 
ing the years subsequent to i860 the actual expense of obtaining news 
and interesting selected miscellaneous reading matter has been materially 
lessened by the invention and distribution of what has been designated 
" patent sides," for local rural papers. Until within a very few years it 
was not an unusual thing for some large offices to print certain portions 
or sides of a paper, to the number of hundreds of thousands, and sell the 
prepared sheets to rural offices at a very slight advance upon the cost of 
the blank paper ; but this means of providing and disseminating news is 
not now employed to so great an extent by far as it was ten or fifteen 
years ago. 

Another device that has contributed toward lessening the cost of news- 
paper publications, and which supplanted largely the " patent sides " sys- 
tem, is that known as " plate matter," being nothing else than selected 
literature from the papers of large cities, and establishments designed for 
the preparation of the matter ; all of which is stereotyped from the orig- 
inal work, and thus distributed at a very moderate cost to the local offi- 
ces. The advantages of this system are employed in very many offices 
throughout the country, perhaps in some in Windsor county. This 
method of acquiring reading matter is far from objectionable, in fact is 
highly commendable, for by it the publisher of a paper is enabled to fur- 
nish his readers with carefully selected miscellany at a cost far less than 
was necessary to be charged a dozen or more years ago. The people, not 
the publisher, derive the greatest benefits from these systems. 

The press in Windsor county had a beginning quite as humble as that 
of any other of its institutions, and whether or not it has kept even pace 
with them in this age of progress the reader must judge. It will not be 
questioned that, in every respect, as a community, the people of this 
county have kept even step with the spirit of advancement in human 
progress that has so signally distinguished the present century. Their 
churches and schools will compare favorably with those of any other of 
the several counties of the State ; and as for the general characteristics 
of the people, whether as to enterprise, industry, morality, or intelligence* 
it is claimed — and with much show of reason — that Windsor county oc- 
cupies an advanced position among the others of the State similarly sit- 
uated. This is not only true of the present generation, but was the case 
even before the opening of the present century. 

The Press. 211 

The honor, if it may be so called, of having founded this newspaper in 
Vermont belongs to Windham county ; and the first paper so published 
was the Vermont Gazette, or Green Mountain Post Boy, the production of 
Judah P. Spooner and Timothy Green. Its first issue appeared in Feb- 
ruary, 1 78 1, but its publication ceased in 1783. The second paper of the 
State was started at Bennington, in June, 1783, by Anthony Haswell and 
David Russell, and its name was the Vermont Gazette, or Freeman s De- 
pository. This paper was continued through manifold vicissitudes until 
about the year 1850. 

But to the county of Windsor, and to the village of the same name, is 
given the credit of having the third newspaper publication of this State • 
and that the Vermont Journal and Universal Advertiser, founded and 
established in the year 1783, by George Hough and Alden Spooner. 
The first issue of this paper made its appearance on the 7th of August of 
the year named. But unlike its predecessor, the Gazette or Green 
Mountain Post Boy, the Journal proved to be a prosperous venture, and 
has continued in publication even to the present day, though having ex- 
perienced numerous changes in proprietorship and "dress." For its 
establishment the proprietors, or one of them at least, purchased the 
materials and press of the defunct Gazette office at Westminster, and 
moved them to Windsor for the purpose of the new publication. 

The early years of life of the Journal were not a continued series of 
struggles and hardships more than any other of the pioneer institutions 
of the county, nor were the efforts of its enterprising publishers rewarded 
with any remarkable success in the matter of cash accumulations. In 
fact, this was a commodity at that particular period most noticeable for 
its absence, and in every branch of business and trade the proprietors 
were content to receive produce of all kinds in exchange for merchandise; 
and in the infant days of journalism in this State it was not a rare occur- 
rence that the publishers advertised to take " clean cotton rags " in pay- 
ment for subscriptions. 

The publication of the Journal by its original proprietors was contin- 
ued without material interruption until the year 1788, but during the 
month of December of that year Mr. Hough retired from the partnership, 
and Mr. Spooner became sole proprietor, the first issue of the paper 
under his exclusive control being made December 29. A little more 

212 History of Windsor County. 

than three years later the pioneer name of Vermont Journal and Univer- 
sal Advertiser was dropped, and Spooner's Vermont Journal appeared 
in its stead. No further change in the paper or its proprietorship was 
made until the year 1817, at which time VVyman Spooner, a nephew of 
Alden Spooner, purchased an interest. This firm continued until August 
10, 1818, when the junior partner became sole owner and proprietor. 

During Wyman Spooner's control the name was again changed by 
dropping "Spooner's," leaving the title page simply Vermont Journal ; 
but on the 12th of August, 1826, Alden Spooner having again entered 
the office, its previous name was restored, and -jo continued until the 
early part ot February of the succeeding year, when Enos Folsom became 
proprietor of the enterprise, Alden Spooner still holding, however, a lien 
on the property, and under which claim the plant was sold to Simeon Ide 
during the year 1828. Mr. Folsom, during his brief editorship, also cut 
from the heading the word Spooner's, and took, for the third time, the 
name Vermont Journal. 

On the 1st of August, 1829, the Journal wSi% united with the Vermont 
Republican^ a paper of the town, founded in 1809 by Farnsworth & 
Churchill. This union was followed by the issue of the Vermont Repub- 
lican and Journal; and again, on the 5th of January, 1835, Simeon Ide 
and Charles H. Smith having then succeeded to the ownership of the last 
named paper, the old journal, the pioneer newspaper of the county, tem- 
porarily lost its identity entirely, the new firm adopting the name of Ver- 
mont Republican and Courier. 

However, during the year 1844, through the energy of Charles F. 
Merrifield, the old paper was again brought into existence, and the Ver- 
mont Journal was again in the community ; this time, too, to remain as 
one of the staunch newspapers of the town and county. Since its revival 
the editorial management has frequently changed, but finally became 
firmly established under the control of the Journal Publishing Company, 
a character of management and ownership of late years having become 
quite popular. The name of the proprietary company implies that a 
number of persons are interested in the enterprise, from patriotic or 
political motives, but who are not directly in charge of the practical work 
of the office, that duty devolving upon one or more persons whose quali- 
fications fit them for such service, and who are called either manager or 
editor, or both. Marsh O. Perkins is the present editor of the paper. 

A ^.^'-C% ^ 

^2^^<^S:^ /.Jcl2/U^ 

The Press. 

The Vermont Journal is to-day, and for years past has been, one of the 
most influential newspapers of the county, and the recognized organ of 
the RepubHcan party. Its circulation is large, and by no means con- 
fined to this county ; and it enjoys, moreover, a Hberal advertising pat- 
ronage — in successful newspaper business a sine qua non. 

The Morning Ray. — This newspaper is understood to have been is- 
sued during the year 1791, the first number appearing in October. 
Thompson, however, gives no account of its existence, probably from the 
fact of its not having a life of more than a few months. Its proprietor 
was James Reed Hutchins, and its ofifice was in Windsor. 

The Windsor Federal Gazette. — As its name indicates, the Gazette was 
one of the newspapers founded in Windsor, the first issue being sent to 
the readers on March 3, 1801. From the character of the title it may 
readily be inferred that its proprietor and founder, Nahum Mower, was 
an adherent to the cause of the Federalists, who were then a minority 
party in American politics. But whether or not Mr. Mower found that 
his party's doctrines were not popular with the people, is perhaps uncer- 
tain, but it is nevertheless a fact that he ceased its publication during the 
latter part of 1804, and issued in its stead the Post Boy and Vermont 
and New Hampshire Federal Courier. Perhaps the doughty publisher 
imagined that this more formidable title would bring him a goodly sub- 
scription patronage from the New Hampshire side of the river, but the 
early death of his enterprise would indicate to the contrary. The paper 
continued only two short years. A file of the Post Boy, for such was it 
commonly called, is now in the library at Woodstock, and an interesting 
little volume it is. 

The Northern Memento. — The first attempt at founding a newspaper 
at the county seat was made during the year 1804, when Isaiah H. Car- 
penter felt the public pulse by making a canvass for subscribers for his 
contemplated publication. Mr. Carpenter, it appears, was not a novice 
in journaHsm, for he had learned the printing trade at Windsor ; and in 
addition to that he had " tun " a little printing-office in the town of Bar- 
nard, and there published a few small books. This experience of course 
fully qualified the enterprising gentleman for general newspaper work 
— as some people believe before having tried it. 

But the people of Woodstock apparently desired a paper and gave 

214 History of Windsor County. 

Mr. Carpenter sufficient support to justify him in printing one for them, 
which he did, the first number appearing May i6, 1805. Whether this 
support subsequently fell off, or the publisher found the expense account 
greater than at first estimated, cannot now be determined, but in 1806, 
some time in February, the Memento was discontinued, and no paper 
was thereafter started in that town for the space of fourteen years. 

The Green Mountain Palladinni. — Chester was the third town in the 
county to which came the good fortune of having a home paper. In 
the year 1808 Charles, William and Henry Spear, brothers, established 
there the newspaper of which the above was the name. Thompson cor- 
rectly numbers this among the journals "of which we know but little 
but their names." However, it is known that \\\& Palladium continued 
publication for some ten or twelve years. 

The Vermont Republican. — An earlier portion of this chapter has 
already mentioned the union of this newspaper enterprise with the Ver- 
mont Journal, o\\ August I, 1829. and the subsequent continuation of 
both, by Ide & Smith, under the name of Vermont Republican and 
Journal The Republican was founded at Windsor on January 1, 1809, 
by Messrs. Farnsworth & Churchill, and was contintied in existence, in 
its separate character, until the association with t\\e Journal, and thence- 
forth to the time of its sale and transformation into the Republican and 
Courier, during the year 1835. The Republican, at the time of its 
founding at least, was pubhshed as the organ of the party for which it 
was named, and favored prosecuting the war with Great Britain, which 
was then threatening. The opposition, however, were determined not 
to be outdone in the matter of having a newspaper to advocate their 
side of the political questions then agitating the public mind ; and to 
effect the acts of the Loyalists they brought into existence, in the year 
1 8 10, 

The Washingtonian. — The paper was under the management of men 
who were experienced in newspaper work : Thomas M. Pomeroy, pub- 
lisher, and Josiah Dunham, editor. The WasJiingtonian first appeared 
in July, 1810; but the party whose cause it championed seems not to 
have had sufficient strength in this region to give to it that substantial 
support so needful for success, and its publication was therefore discon- 
tinued in July, 1813. 

The Press. 

The Woodstock Observer. — The second attempt at founding a news- 
paper at the county seat, while more successful than that preceding, 
was not crowned with as gratifying results as were hoped for or ex- 
pected. The first step toward starting this enterprise were taken during 
the year 1819, David Watson, a resident of the town, and a practical 
printer, having charge of the matter. Watson could print, but, strange 
as it may appear, he was conscious of the fact that he could not edit a 
paper. After casting about for a time in quest of a suitable person for 
the editorial department, but without success, Watson concluded to put 
the Observer before the public without editorial assistance, and this was 
done in 1820. Several persons contributed to the columns of the Ob- 
server, chief among whom, perhaps, was Norman Williams. But, 
notwithstanding Mr. Watson's best efforts, the venture would not pay ; 
consequently in 1823 he transferred the office to Rufus Colton, a former' 
employee of Watson's, by whom the paper was published until 1832 
and then suspended operations. 

The Christian Repository. — This publication was hardly of the char- 
acter that would entitle it to mention among newspapers of the county, 
as it was nothing else than a quarterly magazine. It was established in 
the year 1820, under the editorial charge of Samuel C. Loveland, and 
printed by David Watson of the Observer. In 1825 the enterprise was 
purchased by Rev. Robert Bartlett, by whom it was edited for about 
three years, and then resold to Mr. Loveland. In 1829 William Bell 
became proprietor, and soon after changed the character of the publi- 
cation into a weekly newspaper, under the title of Universalist Watch- 
man and Repository , thus making it a denominational paper. One year 
later a further change in its management occurred, and the title was 
again changed, this time appearing Universalist Watchman, Repository 
and Chronicle. In 1833 the office and material were moved to Mont- 

The next venture into the field of journalism at Woodstock was that 
made in 1821 by Rev. Walter Chapin ; and this, too, was a sectarian 
paper pub'ished every two weeks, and called the Evangelical Monitor. 
Its purpose was to promote the growth and welfare of the Congregational 
church. It was discontinued during the early part of 1823. In 1827 
another religious bi-weekly paper was started at Woodstock, called the 

2i6 History of Windsor County. 

Gospel Banner, under the editorial charge of Rev. Jasper Hazen. But 
one volume of the paper was printed. In the year 1828 David Watson 
began the publication of the V^ermont Enquirer; but this venture appears 
to have met with still less of success than the worthy editor's former en- 
terprise, the Observer, and was suspended after a few numbers. 

The Vermont Chronicle was established at Bellows Falls by E. C. 
Tracy, in April, 1826, and moved, two years later, to Windsor. Here it 
continued to exist until 1875, enjoying a fair degree of success during 
its stay in the county. Several changes in ownership were made dur- 
ing these years, Mr. Tracy, however, remaining with the paper through- 
out. In 1875 the paper was moved to Montpelier, where it is still 

In 1 829 the town of Norwich first had a home paper, the name of which 
was the Vermont Inquirer, published under the direction of Messrs. 
Uavis and Porter. It was a short lived paper, however, being discon- 
tinued sometime during the 3'ear 183 i. About the same time, or perhaps 
a little later, 1830, the town of Chester received its second visitation 
of aspiring journalists, and the result was the starting of the Free- 
dom's Banner, under the care of the firm of Fellows & Co. It was pub- 
lished in the town for about ten years, and then dropped. In the same 
town the Banner was succeeded by the Musical Gasette, a monthly jour- 
nal published by a Mr. Silsley. Its existence, however tempting may 
have been its title, was quite brief, and after some three years of publi- 
cation it passed out of circulation. Since that time no other newspaper 
has been published in Chester; at all events there appears no record 
of any. 

The year 1830 seems to have been an eventful one in the annals of 
journalism in the county in general, and in Woodstock in particular; 
for during that year the town's people witnessed the founding of no less 
than four newspaper publications — TJie Atnerican Whig, by Joseph 
Hemenway and E. J. W. Holbrook; the Henry Clay, by Benjamin F. 
Kendall ; Liberal Extracts, by T. E. Powers ; the Workingman s Ga- 
zette ; and still another, though a magazine in character, called the 
Domestic Medical and Dietetical Monitor, or Journal of Health, by John 
Harding of South Woodstock. It may be remarked, right here, that 
Woodstock was never outdone in newspaper or magazine publications 

The Press. 217 

by any other town of the county, notwithstanding the fact that no paper 
of an)'- kind was started in the town previous to 1805. 

The American Whig appears to have been the result of a consolida- 
tion of the Vermont Luminary, a former paper of Randolph, and the 
Equal Rights, an embryo paper, the origin of which we know not of, but 
it is said to have originated in Chester, and the whole united under the 
combined title of the American Whig, Vermont Lumiiiary and Eqnal 
Rights. Its publishers were Hemenway & Holbrook, above mentioned. 
The intent and purpose of this formidable journal (so in name at least) 
was to oppose and crush out Free Masonry, to which object the Wind- 
sor County anti- Masonic committee was pledged. This committee 
directed the course of the paper. In its three-fold character the paper 
struggled against Masonry, and incidentally against fate, for a period of 
about six years, and then died a martyr to the cause it chiefly espoused ; 
but Masonry appeared not to have been seriously affected by the on- 
slaughts of the papers. Other than the original editors, or publishers, 
these persons were subsequently connected with the Whig: Samuel 
Hemenway, Samuel Hemenway, jr., Ferdinand Sherwin, and Henry L. 

The Henry Clay was first issued in the early part of September, 1830, 
under the editorial care of Benjamin Franklin Kendall, while David 
Watson served as publisher. But after a year's continuance the name 
of the paper was changed to Vermont Courier, and Farmers' and Me- 
chanics Advocate, thus, in name at least, outstripping its cotemporary 
of the same year. A couple or so years later some changes were again 
made, by a union with the Windsor Republican, and a new name, Re- 
publican and Courier, adopted. Still later, a change in proprietorship 
brought to the paper the more plain and sensible title of Vermont Courier, 
by which it was known to the time of its demise, in 1838 or there- 

The Liberal Extracts was a journal representing the ideas of the Wood- 
stock Free Reading Society; the latter an organization that now might 
be called an Infidel Club. Nahum Haskell edited the Extracts during 
its brief but eventful career. It was a monthly publication, and contin- 
ued only one year. 

The Workingmans Gazette was started in 1830, in the interest of the 

2i8 History of Windsor County. 

workingmen of the vicinity, as will readily be inferred from its name. 
The period of its publication was quite brief There were too many so- 
ciety journals emanating from the county seat, and some must go — event- 
ually all then in existence departed. The Gazette, however, became 
merged into the Henry Clay, the latter then being controlled by Mr. 
Kendall. No further attempt was made to found a paper at the shire 
town until 1833, when Silas Esterbrook came out with the Village Bal- 
ance, an anti- Masonic sheet that lasted only through one year's campaign. 
It was followed, three years later, however, 1836, by a similar publica- 
tion, The Constitution, edited by Henry S. Hutchinson ; but this, too. 
died almost "a' bornin." During the same year, 1836, another paper 
was conducted in Woodstock, called The Hornet. This was an opposi- 
tion sheet to the Constitution, and was edited by B. F. Kendall and 
Thomas E. Powers. It eventually shared the fate of its predecessors. 

During the ten years between 1830 and 1840 the village of Windsor 
seems to have experienced an epidemic of newspaper ventures, there be- 
ing started during that decade four journals, nothing, however, in num- 
ber to compare with the great works accomplished at the county seat. 
The Windsor papers were : The Journal of Temperance, by Richards & 
Tracy, a semi-monthly, first number March 30, 1832; The Windsor 
Statesman, by Talford & Fletcher, started in 1833 and died in 1840; the 
Spirit of Seventy-Six, started in 1835, by Darius Jones, died 1837, by 
the hand of fate ; the Vermont Times, established in 1839, by Charles H. 
Severance, died in infancy, 1841. No other paper was attempted in 
Windsor until 1847, when the School Jonrnal a?id Agricnltnralist vndidQ 
its appearance. It lasted just about six years. Thus the old 'Vermont 
Journal, with all its vicissitudes, survived all others ; and who shall say 
this was not a "survival of the fittest?" 

Thus far in these pages nothing has been said concerning the " rise 
and fall " of the press in the town of Springfield. Well, there was made 
no effort to establish a paper there prior to 1833, ^^d then the mania of 
the period did not appear to strike that locality with such severity as was 
observable in the northern sections of the county. However, in 1833, 
Messrs. Coolidge & Sprague commenced the publication of the Record 
of the Times. Three years later the enterprise was dropped, and Spring- 
field had no local paper thereafter for seventeen years. Then, in 1853, 

The Press. 219 

Mr. Gurnsey commenced the publication of the Springfield Telegraph; 
but telegraphic press communications were then infrequent as compared 
with more recent years, so, after two years of indifferent success, the Tel- 
egraph suspended publication. 

Next in the succession of evanescent journals in the town came TJie 
Record and Farmer, 2>.\\ enterprise established in November, 1866, by D. L. 
Millikin, and by whom it was published until 1868, and then sold and 
merged into the Vermont Journal. Five years later, January i, 1873, 
Frank W. Stiles started the Enterprise, a monthly journal ; but this 
proved unsuccessful, and was consequently withdrawn from the public 
after a year's publication. During the same year, 1873, E. D. Wright 
entered the field with the Weekly News, but this, too, was an unsuccess- 
ful venture, and its proprietor sold out to the Woodstock Post. In 1875 
the Springfield Bulletin was born. O. A. Libby acknowledged its pa- 
ternity and assumed its support. It proved a weakling, and died, aged 
about eight months. 

The Springfield Reporter. — In the year 1878, about two and one-half 
years after the suspension of the Bulletin, the present Spri^igfield Re- 
porter was started, under the editorial supervision and control of Frank 
W. Stiles, the founder of the Enterprise of some years preceding. In 
1878 Mr. Stiles found an open field for a good, newsy paper, and by that 
time the people of the town were also awake to the necessity of a local 
journal to represent their interests at large. Therefore the Reporter was 
presented to the reading public, its first issue appearing in the early part 
of January, 1878. The paper met with a cordial reception in the com- 
munity, and increased in circulation and advertising support until it be- 
came, and still continues, firmly established upon a secure commercial 
basis. From its founding to the present time the Reporter has been 
under the control of Mr. Stiles. 

Returning again to the successions of county newspaper enterprises it 
is found that in 1837 Nahum Haskell and Augustus Palmer founded the 
Vermont Mercury, at Woodstock, the first number being published on 
April 6th. Subsequently two changes were made in the name of the 
paper, the first to Woodstock Mercury, and the second to Windsor County 
Advertiser, the name being taken in 1853. Norman Williams and 
Thomas E. Powers were frequent contributors to the columns of the 

220 History of Windsor County. 

Mercmy, especially in that department devoted to the advocacy of the 
Whig doctrines, of which they, and the proprietors as well, were the 
local champions. The Meracry was discontinued about 185 i. 

The Spirit of the Age. — This is one of the established newspapers of 
the present day, but its founding dates back to the year 1840. Charles 
G. Eastman was the editor of the Age at the outset, and continued in that 
capacity until 1845, at which time A. E. Kimball succeeded him. Mr. 
Eastman, in 1843, changed the name of the paper to the Woodstock Age, 
but his successor, among his earliest acts in connection with it, restored 
the old name to the title page, and there it has since remained. In 1847 
Mr. Kimball was succeeded by E. M. Brown, and the latter, in turn, by 
William D. McMaster, the present owner and editor. 

The Spirit of t lie Age is the only recognized organ of the Democratic 
party at present published in this county ; and while, perhaps, its circu- 
lation it confined mainly to readers of the party's faith, it has, neverthe- 
less, a large and paying subscription list both within and without the 
county. That it is well edited and managed is reasonably attested by 
the fact that Mr. McMaster's long connection with the paper, and his re- 
ward for long continued party service, lies not only in the extensive pat- 
ronage of the Age, but also in his elevation to the postmastership of 
Woodstock village. 

Subsequent to the founding of the Spirit of the Age, and prior to 1850, 
three other newspapers were started at Woodstock : The Whig Advocate, 
a small campaign paper that made its appearance in 1842, with Charles 
P. Marsh, editor ; the Coo7t Hunter, also a campaign document, and an 
auxiliary or supplementary publication of the Age; and the Temperance 
Herald. The last named paper continued some four or more years. 

The Vermont Standard. — The unfortunate end that, with a single ex- 
ception, overtook all previously established newspapers at the county 
seat, seems not to have had the effect of entirely discouraging all subse- 
quent efforts in that direction. But on April 29, 1853, when editor 
Thomas E. Powers and publisher Lewis Pratt, jr., issued the first num- 
ber of the Vertnont Temperance Standard, the prospects for long con- 
tinued and abundant success were not specially inviting. For had not 
the Temperance Herald, the immediate predecessor of the Standard, gone 
to the ground, and that despite the fact that its friends had contributed 

The Press. 221 

five hundred dollars for its early support ? But, notwithstanding that, 
the proprietors of the Standard had confidence in the enterprise they 
founded, and subequent events proved their judgment to be correct ; 
but it is doubtful if even these original founders contemplated the radical 
change in store for their paper, by its changing from the Temperance 
Standard, presumably, from its name, an advocate of temperance, to the 
Vermont Standard, and eventually to become a recognized organ of Re- 
publicanism in the town and county. But such was not the case. 

Dr. Powers continued in charge of the editorial department of the pa- 
per for nearly two years, retiring December 29, 1854, and was succeeded 
by Rev. G. C. Sampson. The last named editor was succeeded, two 
years later, January, 1857, by Luther O. Greene and W. P. Davis, both 
of whom were formerly connected with a paper at St. Albans. Among 
the early acts of these proprietors, in connection with their new acquisi- 
tion, was the change of its name to the Vermont Standard, dropping 
" Temperance," as a distinguishing feature of the paper's character, but 
by no means relinquishing temperance advocacy. Mr. Davis's connection 
with the paper continued until the 27th of July, i860, when Mr. Greene 
became sole proprietor, and has so remained to the present day. 

Subsequent to the founding of the Standard three attempts have been 
made at starting newspaper publications at the county town. The first 
of these attempts brought forth the Northern Farmer, a paper intended 
to be devoted to the agricultural interests of the vicinity in particular, 
and to current news in general. E. M. Brown and A. B. Crosby were 
the originators of this enterprise, but their efforts were not rewarded with 
any special degree of success ; whereupon, in the course of a few months, 
the office material was removed to West Randolph. It began publication 
in the early part of 1855. 

The Otta QnecJiee Post was established by Robert A. ]^erkins, and first 
appeared September 15, 1871. It never prospered in that locality, al- 
though its proprietor afterwards became sowewhat prominent as a jour- 
nalist. The i-'cj-/ changed its name, in 1872, to the Woodstock Post, and 
advocated the election of Horace Greeley for the Presidency. It was 
known, or during that campaign called itself, an Independent Republican 
paper ; but in following the plan set by the leaders of the memorable po- 
litical contest, the Post, as well as all other so-called independent papers 

222 History of Windsor County. 

of that period, found themselves fairly landed within the Democratic camp, 
from which some never afterwards escaped, while others did, and returned 
to the Republican fold. The Post was discontinued in 1875, the last 
number being issued June 4th of that year. 

The Acorn was the result of the latest effort at starting a new paper at 
Woodstock, the date of its first issue being May i, 1872. It was a 
monthly publication, under the charge of a number of young journal- 
istic aspirants of the county seat. It was not a long-lived paper, and 
withdrew from the field in October, 1873. 

The town of Hartford, or, more particularly, the village of White 
River Junction, has witnessed the founding of five separate newspaper 
enterprises, although but one. The Landmark, long survived the voyage 
over the ever- troubled waters of the sea of journalism. The first paper 
established in this town was The White River Advertiser and Ver- 
mont Family Gazette, a creation of October, 1852, and the victim of a 
destroying fire in 1853. It was published by Davis & Southworth. 
Twenty-five years later, in 1878, on the first of January. Thomas Hale 
commenced the publication of the Republican Observer ; but two years 
of experience in the locality seems to have satisfied Mr. Hale, as he then 
moved the establishment to New Hampshire. 

Third in the succession of papers in this town was the S?in, founded 
December 9, 1881, by Royal Cummings, but who, in March of the next 
year, disposed of the plant, Araunah A. Earl becoming the purchaser. 
On the 13th of March, 1882, Mr. Earl issued the first number of the 
paper under the name of Landtnark, and as such it has ever since been 
published, and by the same practical, enterprising and competent pro- 
prietor. No better mention of the character and general purpose of the 
Landmarh can be made than by quoting from the publisher's own ad- 
vertisement, as follows : " Devoted specially and entirely to the in- 
terests of its publisher, who is independent when it will pay, neutral 
when it don't." The Landmark is one of the present papers of the 

The Valley News was the result of the latest effort at starting a pa- 
per at the Junction, but it was only a feeble effort, and failed of sub- 
stantial or lasting results. 

The town of Ludlow has but one home paper, the Tribune, although 

The Press. 223 

five previous attempts were made to establish a publication for that 
vicinity. The first effort in that direction brought forth the Geniits of 
Liberty, but the paper proved of short duration. Next appeared The 
Blotter, \n 1854, under the proprietorship of R. S. Warner and W. A. 
Bacon. The paper changed owners with frequency, which fact itself was 
an evidence of non-success, and was finally sold " under the hammer," 
as the saying goes. The purchaser, Mr. Warner, formerly its owner, 
endeavored to put the paper again before the public, but it was of no 
avail. The Blotter lasted from the fall of 1854 to the latter part of 1856- 
But iVIr. Warner was not discouraged by one, or even two, unsuccessful 
attempts, and in January, i860, presented to the people of Ludlow 
another paper, called The Voice Among the Mountains. But this publi- 
cation, like its predecessor, made frequent changes in ownership, and 
was finally made a monthly. As such its days were ended with its third 
year, and The Voice Among the Mountains was no longer heard. On 
the 17th of April, 1866, D. E. Johnson "tried his hand" at journalism, 
and brought to light The Transcript, but during the early days of the 
paper Mr. Johnson died, and the ofhce and plant were then sold to a 
former publisher of the Brattleboro Record. It proved unprofitable, and 
was soon discontinued. 

The next newspaper of Ludlow was The Black River Gazette, founded 
in December, 1866, by R. S.Warner and Moses Burbank. In March, 1867, 
Mr. Burbank died, and another owner succeeded to his place Without 
attempting to follow in detail all the changes in ownership of the Gazette, 
it is sufficient to state that the paper was continued with varying and in- 
different success until 1884, when the then owner moved the whole 
plant to Brandon, and thenceforth as a Windsor county journal it ceased 
to exist. 

The Vermont Tribune, the present newspaper of Ludlow, was founded 
in 1876, the first number appearing on November 24th. Its first pub- 
lishers were Mott Brothers. The Tribune has continued, with changes, 
of course, in ownership, to the present day, and is now counted among 
the prosperous journals of the county. Its prosperity is evinced by its 
general appearance and the character of its contents; and it is no ful- 
some flattery to say that the Tribune, under the management of Mr. E. G. 
Allis, is as clean, bright, newsy and interesting a paper as can be found 

224 History of Windsor County. 

in the county to-day. Mr. Allis succeeded to the proprietorship of the 
Tribune in April, 1881, his predecessor being L. B. Hibbard, who pur- 
chased from W. A. Mc Arthur in July, 1879. The hitter bought the pa- 
per in September, 1877, from F. W. Bacon, who was the successor of 
the founders, in February of the same year. 

The Bethel Courier, while it is hardly a newspaper of the county, nev- 
ertheless circulates as such, is still entitled to at least a passing notice. 
The paper is printed at West Randolph, and has an edition under the 
above title ; also it has an editor at Bethel, Walter M. Brooks. 

Among the other newspapers of the county in times passed was the 
Patroiis Rural, of Rochester, a monthly publication, devoted to the 
Grange interest, not printed, however, in that town, but at Bellows 
Falls. It was started in 1882, under the local management of Alpha 

The township of Royalton has had three newspapers, the first the 
Vermont Advocate, published by Wyman & Spooner for a time, and 
then moved to another county ; the Greenback Herald, started in April, 
1878, by K. D. Pratt, who undoubtedly expected, or at least hoped, to 
flood the county with greenbacks, through the efforts of the short-lived 
party of that name, but they did not — more's the pity ; and the South 
Royalton Gazette, established in 1880, by Charles Culver, and contin- 
ued only about three months. 

Then, in other paits, was the Citizen Soldier, of Norwich, a paper 
purporting to represent the militia interests. It opened the " campaign " 
in July, 1840, and was "commanded" by Major Sweet. In February, 
1841, "headquarters" were moved to Windsor, and here, in July fol- 
lowing, it was " captured " — by the hand of misfortune. 

The Vermont Netvs was started in Springfield in 1879. It ceased 
publication sevf n weeks later. 

Town of Woodstock. 225 



THE history of the town of Woodstock has recently been made 
the subject of a considerable volume, the results of the patient toil 
and deep research of Mr. Henry Swan Dana ; and it is no fulsome com- 
pliment to say concerning Mr. Dana's work that it is all that could be 
desired; clearly and concisely written, admirably well done, an honor 
to its editor, to its publisher, and an agreeable and welcome record to 
the people of the town to which it relates. Therefore it seems that an- 
other history of Woodstock, following so closely upon that just pub- 
lished, would be an absolutely useless undertaking, but a history of 
Windsor county without a history of its shire town would be much 
like a play minus the leading character. But one fortunate effect of the 
recent publication is to greatly lessen the bulk or volume of the present 
chapter, and renders only necessary in this connection the briefest ref- 
erence to the events of the town's interesting history, for the gratifica- 
tion and use of the people of those towns of the county in which it is 
hardly to be expected that Mr. Dana's work will circulate. 

Toivn Description ajtd Boundaries. — Among the towns of Windsor 
county Woodstock occupies a central position, and this fact was one of 
the strongest arguments in favor of its selection as the county seat. The 
town is bounded on the north by Pomfret and a small part of Hartford ; 
on the east by Hartland ; on the south by Reading and West Windsor; 
and on the west by Bridgewater. 

In common with the great majority of the county's towns, Woodstock 
is considered a mountainous district, but there is less of extreme heights 
than are found in many other localities, while between the broken ranges 
are extensive interval lands, more, perhaps, of the latter than numbers 
of other towns can boast ; and in these valleys, as well as on some of 
the elevated rolling lands, are most excellent farms which produce 
abundant returns under proper cultivation. 

226 History of Windsor County. 

Perhaps the most attractive mountain formation within the town 
is that commonly known as Mount Tom, lying in the northern portion, 
on the northwest of Woodstock village. This peak, if such it may be 
called, possesses no peculiar characteristics that are noticeably absent in 
the other similar mountains, but yielding to the application of man's 
labor, it has been made one of the most beautiful and attractive spots 
within the region of the county. From the main thoroughfare leading 
northward from the village there has been constructed, even to the mount- 
ain's greatest height, a comfortable wagon road, while on the summit 
openings have been made from which there is presented to the view of 
the beholder a most magnificent panorama of nature. This improve- 
ment upon nature's provision, as well as numerous others, is due to the 
generosity and public-spiritedness of Mr. Frederick Billings. Other 
peaks might be made equally prominent and attractive should there be 
expended in their adornment the same labor and attention as has been 
applied to Mount Tom. 

The principal water course of the town is the stream of many 
aliases, but commonly called Quechee River. To some of the Indians, 
original visitors to the locality, history tells us that it was known as the 
" Wtatock Ouitchey." Under another authority it is called, evidently 
from the Dutch, " Wasserqueeche," while to the early proprietors and 
settlers it was known as " Waterqueeche." Otherwise it has been called 
" Otta Quechee," but common consent lias abbreviated even this, and 
the stream is now generally designated, in more simple English, " Que- 
chee River." The Quechee enters the town from the southeast part 
of Bridgewater, and thence has its course generally northeast to the 
northeast part of Woodstock, touches the corner of Pomfret, returns 
ag.iin, forms the boundary between this town and Hartford, and thence 
eastward, but an exceedingly tortuous course, and finally discharges its 
waters into the Connecticut in Hartland, Particularly through the val- 
ley of the Quechee in Woodstock is found the greatest extent of agri- 
cultural lands of the town, but a close second to that is the valley of 
the South Branch, a tributary of the main stream that has its source in 
the southeast part of the town, and drains the entire eastern part 

Charters and Early Settlements. — The town of Woodstock was 

Town of Woodstock. 227 

brought into existence by virtue of a charter granted by Benning Went- 
worth, provincial governor of New Hampshire, to David Page and his 
associates, sixty two persons in all, and dated July 10, 1761, being the 
same day upon which the other towns of Hertford (Hartland) and 
Bridgewater were chartered. As provided by the charter the town was 
to contain "something more than six miles square, and no more," or 
its equivalent in acres, about 24,900. 

In nearly every respect this charter was similar to those by which 
other towns were brought into existence, and the reservations were in 
like manner substantially the same, in the charter of Woodstock as fol- 
lows : " His Excellency, Benning Wentworth, a tract of land to contain 
five hundred acres as marked in the plan B. W., which is to be accounted 
two of the within shares; one whole share for the incorporated Society 
for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts ; one share for a glebe 
for the Church of England as by law established ; one share for the first 
(settled) minister of the Gospel ; one share for the benefit of a school in 
said town." The governor's two shares, five hundred acres, reserved for 
his own benefit and emolument, were situate in the northeast corner 
of the town, in the locality where is now situated the hamlet called 

One of the provisions of the charter designated the time of the first 
meeting of the proprietors, and was as follows: "Also, that the first 
meeting for the choice of town officers, agreeable to the laws of our said 
province, shall be held on the last Tuesday of August next, which said 
meeting shall be notified by Oliver Willard, who is hereby also appointed 
moderator of the said first meeting, which he is to notify and govern 
agreeable to the laws and customs of our said province," etc. 

Under the conditions of the charter it is undoubtedly a fact that the 
proprietors held the prescribed first meeting and elected the several 
town officers, following which was made the usual survey, and possi- 
bly a division of town lots. But the government of these proprietors 
was not destined to be of long continuance, for, at the time the charter 
of Governor Wentworth was made, the controversy between the prov- 
inces of New York and New Hampshire was in progress. In 1764 that 
controversy took a rather sudden even if not an unexpected turn, and 
by it the jurisdiction hitherto exercised over this district of territory by 

228 History of Windsor County. 

the provincial government of New Hampshire was vested in the province 
of New York. 

Then, again, very soon after the granting of the original charter, cer- 
tain of the proprietors commenced purchasing the interests and rights of 
their fellows, and it was not long before a good proportion of the lands 
of the town were centered in ownership in the hands of a few persons; 
and when the king's order of July, 1764, became generally understood, 
these owners of course at once sought a new charter, or at least a con- 
firmation of the old, at the hands of the governor of New York. And 
there were others, too, not previously interested in the lands of the 
town who longed to become possessed of the same under a new and 
entirely distinct charter. But it was not until the year 1772 that the 
New York authorities took decisive action in the premises, and they then 
made a charter patent for the town, naming as grantees Oliver Wil- 
lard and his associates, the entire number being twenty-four. The date 
of this charter was June 3, 1772, and conveyed to the grantees or pat- 
entees " twenty four thousand and seven hundred acres of land, and the 
usual allowance for highways, including a tract of five hundred acres of 
land granted to Lieutenant William Leslie, and containing, exclusive of 
the said tract and the four lots of land hereinafter described, the quan- 
tity of twenty-three thousand and two hundred acres of land and the 
usual allowance for highways." The lands mentioned as granted to 
Lieutenant Leslie referred to the five hundred-acre tract in the north- 
east corner of the town, originally known as the "Governor's Lands." 
The other reservations that contributed to the reduction of the chartered 
lands were the grants for public purposes. 

The twenty-four grantees named in the patent issued by the New 
York authorities were these : Oliver Willard, Isaac Corsa, Joseph Bull, 
John Blagge, William A. Forbes, Benjamin Stout, jr., Cornelius Van- 
denburgh, Peter Vandevoort, William Talman, George Birks, Henry 
Gulick, William Clark, John B. Stout, Benjamin Stout, Henry Beekman, 
John Fowler, Caleb Hyatt, Daniel Goldsmith, Daniel Green, Samuel 
Stevens, Charles McEvers, James Seagrove, Christopher Blindell and 
Adam Gilchrist. These were persons nearly every one of whom were 
in no manner identified with the New Hampshire Grants, directly or 
indirectly, but who were favorites of the governor of the province of 

Dr. Thomas E. Powers. 

Town of Woodstock. 229 

New York, and as a reward for their political fealty they were made 
grantees under the charter. But one at least of these, Oliver Willard, 
seems to have had a double claim upon the good will of the governor, 
for he was interested in very large tracts of lands on the New Hamp- 
shire Grants, not only in Woodstock, but elsewhere ; and he was, more- 
over, an ardent supporter of the cause of New York as against the 
claims of the inhabitants on the grants, or those claiming rightful pos- 
session under the New Hampshire charters. 

Whether or not these patentees had an organization is unknown, but 
it is quite probable that they did not, for no sooner had the charter been 
issued than Oliver Willard began possessing himself by purchase of the 
rights and interests of his associates, and within the space of three days 
from that time he became the absolute owner and sole proprietor of the 
entire town, exclusive of the reserved tracts heretofore referred to ; 
and it is believed that there was no organization of the town under 
this patent prior to that of 1 773, concerning which mention will be 
found on later pages. 

Notwithstanding the unsettled condition of the land titles in the town, 
growing out of the several attempts at obtaining charters from New 
York, there were pioneers who had the temerity to make settlements 
and improvements on the lands of the town, even before the granting of 
the charter to Oliver Willard and his associates. There are records, 
traditional or otherwise, tending to show that adventurous pioneers 
visited the region of the town both before and soon after the issue of 
the New Hampshire charter, but it is nowhere alleged that there was a 
permanent settlement effected prior to the coming of Timothy Knox, in 
the year 1765 ; and it is not understood that Knox made his settlement 
here under a claim of ownership of the lands he occupied, but rather 
that his taking up an abode here was the result of a desire to be tem- 
porarily exiled from the civilized and inhabited regions of the country 
to the southward of this State. Or, to be entirely plain, Knox, who 
was a student at Harvard, became disappointed in an affair of love, and, 
desiring to exclude lumself entirely from society, came into this then 
wild region and built him a hut on the south branch of the Quechee, in 
the locality known as the Beaver Meadows, where he employed himself 
in trapping and hunting. He was a "squatter" on the land, but after- 

2^0 History of Windsor County. 

ward became a regular settler among the pioneers of the town, and in 
1780 was elected as one of the town fence viewers. 

The second settler in the town was Andrew Powers, who purchased 
from Oliver VVillard, in the year 1768, a tract of land embracing several 
hundred acres, and by whom it was divided and parcels sold to William 
and James Powers, sons of Andrew, and to James Sanderson, who also 
became settlers in the town during that year, 1768. From this time the 
settlem.ent increased steadily, but not rapidly; and in 1771, the year in 
which the New York authorities caused to be made an enumeration of 
the inhabitants of old Cumberland county, Woodstock was found to con- 
tain a population of forty-two persons, which would at that time be com- 
prehended by from seven to ten families. 

In the spring of 1773 the town was found to be possessed of a sufficient 
number of taxable inhabitants to warrant its organization and the elec- 
tion of town officers. For this purpose the inhabitants of the town 
assembled at the dwelling of Joab Hoisington on the third Tuesday of 
May, 1773, and chose the following officers : Moderator, Lieutenant John 
Strong; town clerk, Joab Hoisington; supervisor, Benjamin Emmons ; 
overseers of the poor, Joab Hoisington and Benjamin Emmons ; assess- 
ors, John Strong and Daniel Waldo; collectors, John Sanderson and 
Asahel Hoisington ; commissioners of highway, John Strong, Benjamin 
Emmons and Joab Hoisington ; surveyors of highways, Joseph Call, Joab 
Hoisington and Sylvanus Cottle ; constables, Daniel Waldo. Joseph 
Cottle, Ezra Drew and Joseph Call ; fence viewers, John Hoisington 
and William Powers. 

Thus there were present at this first town meeting at least twelve dif- 
ferent persons, each of whom is presumed to have been of full age, and 
entitled to vote, as well as to hold office under the new town government. 
But it is also fair to assume that there were some who were entitled to 
the privileges of freemen who either were not present at the meeting, 
and if they were there, were not inclined to accept any of the various 
positions and offices dealt out on that auspicious occasion. Such may 
have been the case at that period of our history, but it would be considered 
a somewhat remarkable thing among the people of the present genera- 

In order to bring to the attention of the reader the names of as many 

Town of Woodstock. 231 

as possible of the pioneers of the town, it has been deemed advisable to 
extract from the town records the succession of town officers from the 
time of the above meeting down to and including those chosen for 
the year 1780, together with such other extracts from the record book 
of proceedings as are thought to be of interest to the present reader. It 
should be stated, however, that the proceedings of the town meeting of 
March, 1777, are nowhere on record. 

Officers chosen May 17, 1774: Moderator, John Strong; clerk, Joab 
Hoisington ; supervisor, Asa Whitcomb ; assessors, John Strong and Joab 
Hoisington ; collectors, Benjamin Burch and Sylvanus Cottle ; overseers 
of the poor, Asa Whitcomb and Joab Hoisington ; commissioners of 
highways, John Sanderson, James Henwood and Oliver Farnsworth ; 
overseers of highways, Nathan Rowland, Joab Hoisington and Oliver 
Farnsworth; constables. Lieutenant John Strong, Rufus Carpenter, Jo- 
seph Darling and Joseph Ripley ; fence viewers, Simon Davis and En- 
sign William Powers ; " hog drivers," James Sanderson and John San- 
derson ; "reefe keeper," John Hoisington ; town treasurer, Joab Hoising- 
ton. At this meeting the people voted to build a pound ; also voted 
that Benjamin Emmons and William Powers be a committee to build the 
pound and make a clearing for a burying-ground. 

At a meeting held September 13, 1774, it was voted to hire Mr. (Rev.) 
Aaron Hutchinson for five years in connection with Hartford and Pom- 
fret. This is the first allusion made by the records in the matter of pro- 
curing a minister to conduct religious meetings in the town. 

Officers chosen May 16, 1775 : Moderator, Lieutenant John Strong ; 
town clerk, Joab Hoisington; supervisor, Lieutenant Benjamin Emmons; 
overseers of the poor, Joab Hoisington, Stephen Powers and Phineas 
Williams ; assessors, Lieutenant John Strong and Joab Hoisington ; col - 
lectors, Nathan Howland and Oliver Farnsworth ; constables, John 
Sanderson, Rufus Carpenter, James Harwood and Ebenezer Kingsley ; 
commissioners of highways, Simon Davis, Joseph Cottle, Phineas Williams, 
Joab Hoisington and Elias Thomas ; overseers of highways, John Strong, 
Benjamin Emmons, Phineas Williams, and Ebenezer Kingsley; fence 
viewers, Elias Thomas and William Powers ; treasurer, Joab Hoisington ; 
" hog commissioners," Benjamin Emmons and John Sanderson. 

At this meeting it was voted to get a town supply of ammunition, one 

232 History of Windsor County. 

hundred pounds of powder, two hundred pounds of lead and four hun- 
dred fluits. Joab Hoisington and James Harwood were chosen a com- 
mittee to procure the ammunition; and it was provided that the treas- 
urer should sell to each inhabitant " one pound of powder, two pounds 
of lead, some flints, and no more." At this same meeting, also, Benja- 
min Emmons, John .Strong and Joab Hoisington were chosen a " Com- 
mittee of Advice " (Committee of Safety). 

Officers chosen May 22, 1776: Moderator, John Strong ; town clerk, 
Joab Hoisington ; listers, Ebenezer Kingsley, Stephen Powers and Joab 
Hoisington ; assessors, Colonel Joab Hoisington, Dr. Powers and Ebene- 
zer Kingsley; collectors, Joseph Cottle and Elias Thomas; commis- 
sioners of highways, Captain Williams, Colonel Joab Hoisington, Simon 
Davis, Elias Thomas and Joseph Cottle ; overseers of highways, Simon 
Davis, Asahel Hoisington, Captain Williams and Elias Thomas ; consta- 
bles, Ebenezer Kingsley and Elias Thomas ; selectmen, Dr. Stephen 
Powers, Deacon (Benjamin) Emmons and Joab Hoisington ; fence view- 
ers, Amasa Delano and Elias Thomas ; " hog drivers," John Sanderson, 
Asahel Hoisington and Captain (Ebenezer) Williams ; sealers of weights 
and measures, John Hoisington and Jonathan Kingsley. 

At a town meeting held July 13, 1776, Dr. Stephen Powers and Joab 
Hoisington were chosen a committee to have charge of the ammunition, 
and deal out to each man having fire-arms one- half pound of powder 
and one pound of lead, and to supply others as soon as they had arms. 

Ofificers chosen March 10, 1778: Moderator, " Deacon " Emmons; 
town clerk, Oliver P'arnsworth ; treasurer. Lieutenant Joseph Safiford ; 
first selectman, Benjamin Emmons; second. Ensign Nathan Howland ; 
third, Captain Phineas Williams; fourth, Joseph Safiford; fifth, Oliver 
Farnsworth ; constables, Nathaniel Killam and Benjamin Burch ; assess- 
ors, Ebenezer Kingsley, Ebenezer Craine and Joseph Churchill; tithing- 
man, Rufus Carpenter; overseers of highwaj^s, Warren Cottle and Phineas 
Sanderson ; surveyors of highways, Charles Killam, Joseph Darling and 
Jabez Bennett; "hog riefTs," James Sanderson, Amasa Delano, Elias 
Thomas and Elijah Bayley ; fence viewers. Captain Phineas Williams 
and Oliver Farnsworth. Voted, at this meeting, " to build two pounds, 
twenty feet square, one at Oliver Farnsworth's and the other at Captain 



John D. Fowkrs, M. D. 

Town of Woodstock. 233 

Officers chosen March 30, 1779: Moderator, Lieutenant Joseph Saf- 
ford ; town clerk, Oliver Ainsworth ; selectmen, Joseph Safiford, Phineas 
Williams, Jabez Cottle, Samuel Button and Ephraim Brewster; treas- 
urer, Joseph Safiford ; constable, Elias Thomas ; collector, Stephen De- 
lano; highway surveyors, Jonas Matthews, Josiah Dunham, Asahel 
Hoisington, Jonathan Kingsley and Samuel Dutton ; listers, Abisha Sam- 
son, Jabez Bennett and Joseph Cottle ; leather sealers, Elijah Field and 
Josiah Lamb ; grand juror, Nathan Rowland ; tithingmen, Samuel Dut- 
ton and Jabez Cottle ; haywards, John Sanderson and David Slayton ; 
branders of horses, John Strong and Phineas Powers ; sealer of weights 
and measures, Jonathan Kingsley; pound keepers, Benjamin Burch and 
Oliver Farnsworth; deer-reefs, Timothy Rose and Phineas Powers; fence 
viewers, Joseph Churchill, Jesse Safford and Amasa Delano; petit jurors, 
Joel Matthews, Ephraim Brewster, Jabez Cottle, Joseph Safford, John 
Strong, Phineas Williams. Samuel Dutton and Joseph Churchill. 

Among other proceedings had at this time it was voted " to build a 
meeting-house on the road that goes from Samuel Pratt's to the other 
road, west of Oliver Farnsworth's " ; and at an adjourned meeting held 
at the house of Dr. Powers, on April 3, 1779, it was "voted to divide 
the town into districts for the advantage of schooling." For this business 
Samuel Dutton, Phineas Williams, William Hilton, Jabez Cottle and Oli- 
ver Farnsworth were chosen a committee. It was also voted at the 
same time to divide the town into five school districts. On the 24th of 
July, of this year, the inhabitants voted to divide the town into two 
parishes, by an east and west center line, and chose Joel Matthews, 
Phineas Williams, Warren Cottle, Joseph Cottle and Oliver Williams as 
a committee to make the division. 

Officers chosen March 6, 1780: Moderator, Jabez Cottle ; town clerk, 
Gershom Palmer ; treasurer, Nathan Howland ; selectmen, Phineas 
Williams, Jabez Cottle, John Strong, Charles Killam and Oliver Farns- 
worth ; constable, Nathaniel Ladd ; listers, Rufus Bassett, Stephen De- 
lano and Oliver Williams; grand jurors, Joel Matthews and Warren 
Cottle; collectors, Joseph Darling and Nathaniel Pool ; leather sealers, 
Elijah Field and Lemuel Harlow ; tithingmen, William Hilton and 
Amasa Delano ; brander of horses, Joel Matthews ; sealer of weights and 
measures, Gershom Palmer; fence viewers, Timothy Knox and Ebene- 


234 History of Windsor County. 

zer Kingsley; highway surveyors, EHas Thomas, William Hilton, Jo- 
seph Churchill, Gershom Palmer and Jonathan Farnsworth. 

At a meeting of the townsmen held August 14, 1780, it was voted to 
raise three men for service for three months on the frontier, and to pay 
them forty shillings per month, payable in wheat at five shillings per 
bushel, or rye at four shillings, 9r Indian corn at three shillings; also, 
Elias Thomas, John Strong and Phineas Williams were chosen a com- 
mittee to provide said men. And it was further provided at the meet- 
ing, probably as an extra inducement for the men to enter the service, 
that they have the same allowance of rum that the State allows. 

The foregoing record is a statement of the succession of town officers 
of Woodstock from the time of its first town meeting in 1773, down to 
and inclusive of the year 1780, excepting those elected in 1777, for 
which year no entry appears upon the town records, if, indeed, any 
were elected during that year. By this succession there is brought to 
notice the names of many of the pioneers of the town, but it cannot be 
presumed that all of them are there mentioned. It was the custom of 
the several towns of the State during the years 1778 and 1779, and at 
various later periocjs, to have administered to those who desired it the 
freeman's oath, a provision of the first constitution of the State of Ver- 
mont, and in the record-book of proceedings it was the custom to en- 
ter the names of all who took and subscribed the oath, but this, it 
appears, was not done in Woodstock, or if it was, no record of the 
freemen's names was made. 

When, in 1772, the town of Woodstock was chartered or patented to 
Oliver Willard and his associates, it was provided by the instrument of 
patent that the officers of the town should be elected in conformity with 
its terms, and the several offices to be filled were named specifically. 
This was for the guidance of the people of the town, and the offices 
were those that were usual to the towns generally of the province of 
New York. Conforming to the requirements of the patent, the first 
town meetings were held and officers chosen under it for several years, 
but when the new State of Vermont was brought into existence by the 
declaration of independence in 1777 there seemed to be at once a 
tendency to elect officers in accordance with the laws adopted and laid 
down under the constitution of the State. But before the independence 

Town of Woodstock. :535 

of Vermont was declared, and as early even as 1776, there were town 
officers elected not according to the strict interpretation of the New 
York charter, but something after the custom of the towns on the 
grants, and in accord with the manner of choosing officers under the 
New Hampshire charters. 

In the year 1776 the people of the town elected both listers and as- 
sessors, the offices being identical in character of duty of their incum- 
bents, the former an office named under the law and custom of New 
Hampshire, and perhaps other New England provinces, while the latter, 
assessors, was the name of the same office under the prevailing law of 
New York. What motive may have induced the people to choose in- 
cumbents under both of these named offices is a question that cannot now 
be satisfactorily explained, but it was a matter of no great importance, 
for there could be no conflict of authority between the incumbents, as 
the same persons, Ebenezer Kingsley, Joab Hoisington, and Dr. Ste- 
phen Powers, filled both positions. At the meetings held prior to 1776 
supervisors had been elected annually, but in the meeting of that year 
that name is dropped, and in its stead appears the more familiar title of 
selectmen. In 1778 'assessors" was the word used to describe the 
office of "listers," but in 1779 listers is restored and thereafter used, 
with some possible exceptions. 

But it required no great effort on the part of the townsmen of Wood- 
stock to change the character of their local government from that pre- 
scribed by New York to that adopted by the State of Vermont, and 
this notwithstanding the fact that the town was at that time a part of 
the county of Cumberland under the New York control, and continued 
so to be until the admission of Vermont to the Union in 1791. And it 
is a fact, too, that from 1778 until 1791, the town of Woodstock, and 
the other then organized towns of this State as well, formed a part of 
two distinct counties, under the authority of two separate States, each 
contending for the jurisdiction over the same. Every intelligent reader 
understands that Woodstock was organized under the immediate con- 
trol of the New York authority, and that that province and subsequent. 
State continued to exercise control over it, or at least attempted to do 
so, until Congress finally admitted Vermont to the Union ; and it is a 
fact, equally well known, that in 1778 the government of the independ- 

236 History of Windsor County. 

ent State of Vermont was completed, and the territory divided into 
counties, the part wherein Hes this town being embraced by the county 
of Cumberland. This was continued so until 1781, when, the county 
being large in area and population, it was found necessary to divide old 
Cumberland county, and out of its territory form three new sub-divisions, 
the counties of Windham, Windsor and Orange. 

During the period of the controversy between the State of New York 
and the independent State of Vermont, there was about the same pre- 
vailing sentiment existing in Woodstock as was found in a majority of 
the towns east of the mountains. That controversy of course com- 
menced long years before this town was brought into existence, possibly 
before it was contemplated ; and it was commenced before Vermont, as 
a State, was thought of, and while it was yet a part of the New Hamp- 
shire Grants, so called. When Woodstock was first chartered, in 1761, 
the proprietors naturally looked for protection and paid allegiance to 
the mother province. New Hampshire, but when the king's decree of 
1764 fixed the western boundary of that province at the west bank of 
the Connecticut River, and proclaimed this region a part of the province 
of New York, the proprietors had no alternative than to accept the de- 
cree and look for a confirmation of their charter at the hands of the new 
power. They could, however, have joined hands with the settlers in the 
towns west of the Green Mountains, and fought the New Yorkers with 
the same weapons and methods as did the famous Green Mountain Boys, 
had it not been for the isolated situation of the town, and the further 
fact that the dominant sentiment in this particular region inclined to the 
New York jurisdiction and control, although there were but compara- 
tively few of what were termed violent Yorkers in this locality. 

The person who became proprietor and owner of the lands of Wood- 
stock, Oliver Willard, was as a matter of course bound to favor the New 
York control, for, when the king's order was promulgated, he was the 
owner of large tracts of land under the New Hampshire charters, and 
to lose them would have taken nearly all of his earthly possessions. In 
1763 he was a resident and proprietor of Hartland, and owned extensive 
tracts in other towns; moreover he was the friend of the governor of 
New York. His acquisition of lands in this town did not commence 
until after the king's order, but he then prosecuted his purchases here 

John D. Powers. 


Town of Woodstock. 


with such vigor thaf he became its leading proprietor when the patent 
was issued, and still later acquired the interests of his associates, becom- 
ing at last sole owner of the entire town, except the reserved lands. 
His influence was exerted in behalf of the New York jurisdiction, and 
by it others were brought to the same inclination ; and the town, at one 
period at least, may be considered as being largely in favor of being 
governed by the authorities of New York. But as other settlers came 
to the region, purchased their lands of Willard, paid for, occupied and 
improved them, his interest and influence ceased to prevail, and the 
town came to occupy a rather neutral position, and, still later, to favor 
the cause of the new State. 

Among the persons who b^^ their presence and influence contributed 
largely to the latter situation of affairs in the town, none was more 
prominent than Benjamin Emmons, concerning whom Mr Dana, in the 
" Governor and Council," says: In April, 1772, Benjamin Emmons left 
Cliesterfield, and settled with his family in the town of Woodstock. 
He took at once an active part in organizing the new settlement, and at 
the first town meeting held in May, 1773, he was chosen supervisor. 
The duties of this office, which he filled for two years, made him familiar 
with the civil affairs of Cumberland county and with all the pohtical 
movements of the day, over which his good judgment and his faculty 
for business must soon have begun to exercise an influence. At the 
annual town meeting in Woodstock, May, 1775, he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Safety, and he remained on this committee as 
long as it existed. In August of the same year he was chosen a lieu- 
tenant under New York, of the upper regiment of Cumberland county, 
and in June, 1776, a member of the County Committee of Safety. 

From the outset Emmons's own political sentiments seem to have been 
clear and pronounced. He was for independence of the colonies as 
against the mother country, and when in the New Hampshire Grants 
the break with New York was fairly begun, he was for the independence 
of the grants. Though not enrolled among the members of the Dorset 
Convention, at the adjourned session of this convention, held in West- 
minster, October 30, 1776, he was placed on a committee to canvass 
Cumberland and Gloucester counties, for the purpose of making the 
people acquainted with the objects of the convention, and of stirring up 

238 History of Windsor County. 

their minds in favor of a separation from New York. At the next two 
sessions of this convention, held, the first in Westminster, and the second 
in Windsor, he was present as delegate from Woodstock. All this active 
service prepared the way for his being returned to the convention which 
assembled at Windsor on the 2d of July. 1777, and framed a constitu- 
tion for the new State of Vermont. The people were not unmindful of 
his services thus far in securing the independence of Vermont, and at 
the first election held under the constitution elected him one of the 
twelve councilors. Furthermore, when it seemed good to establish a 
Court of Confiscation, soon after the General Assembly met in March, 
1778, Emmons was appointed one of its members. His sound judg- 
ment and well known patriotism were sufficient reasons why he might 
be made a member of this court, but in some minds it may have added 
to his fitness for the post that he could show in his own town seven 
thousand acres of land to be confiscated, formerly the property of Charles 
Ward Apthorp, of New York. 

The Revolutionary Period. — During the period of the war of the Rev- 
olution the people of the town of Woodstock had not the means of per- 
forming a prominent part in the military affairs of the State. When 
that war began the available men of the town numbered hardly more 
than a "corporal's guard," and their every energy was necessarily di- 
rected toward the improvement of their lands in order that the common 
comforts of life might be provided for their families. Then, too, the 
town was practically under the government of the province of New 
York, and that jurisdiction was quite tardy in its action in joining with 
the other colonies in throwing off the allegiance to Great Britain. This 
tardiness was due, in part at least, to the peculiar character of the New 
York government, it being what was termed a ro}'al government, its chief 
executive being commissioned by the crown, and its other ofilicers re- 
ceiving their appointments directly or indirectly at the suggestion of the 
king or his council, and generally as a reward of fealty. In this respect 
New York differed from many of the American colonies, and its con- 
trolling authorities, being so constituted and chosen, were naturally 
faithful to their creating power. Therefore it was some time before 
New York could be brought to join the other provinces in making war 
against the mother country. 

Town of Woodstock. 239 

This situation of course had its influence in this region, but, notwith- 
standing that, the people here were opposed to the pohcy of Great Brit- 
ain toward the colonies ; and it must be remembered that the inhabitants 
of this region were not New Yorkers, but came mainly from the colonies 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut and New Hampshire, and the slow 
action on the part of New York received no sanction from this locality, 
however much the people here may by force of circumstances have been 
obliged to acquiesce in it by reason of their connection with the province 

But when action was taken in the direction of forming military organi- 
zations on this side of the mountains no town did more according to its 
capacity to do than Woodstock. There were a number of men in the 
town who took a prominent part in organizing companies, among them 
Joab Hoisington, Benjamin Emmons, John Strong, Phineas Williams, 
and undoubtedly others whose names cannot be recalled. But there 
appears to be no record from which it can be determined who from the 
town joined the ranks and entered the service. The military companies 
which were represented by Woodstock men were attached to the " upper 
regiments" of militia, and their service was confined mainly to duty on 
the frontier, a service that in more modern warfare is called " guard and 
picket duty." 

The first mention of any town action toward providing for military 
operations is that contained in the records of the meeting of May 16, 
1775, when Joab Hoisington and James Harwood were made a commit- 
tee to procure 100 pounds of powder, 200 pounds of lead and some flints, 
which the treasurer was directed to sell to the inhabitants, as mentioned 
in preceding pages. Subsequently, however, a committee was chosen 
" to deal out" the ammunition to men having fire-arms, and to others 
when they procured their arms. The first mention in the records of 
town action relative to procuring men for the service is that in the pro- 
ceedings of a meeting held August 14, 1780, when EHas Thomas, John 
Strong and Phineas Williams were chosen a committee to provide three 
men to do duty on the frontier for three months. The proceedings of the 
Board of War for this year show that the town had five men in the serv- 
ice during the year. 

It has already been stated that the militia organizations of the town 

240 History of Windsor County. 

were formed under the authority of New York, and as a part of the regi- 
ments of Cumberland and Gloucester counties ; but after the new State 
had become created and its affairs somewhat settled these commands, or 
part of them at least, became militia organizations under the Vermont 
government, and as such' were subject to the order of the commander in- 
chief of the State troops. But the militia of Woodstock had their own 
homes and town to guard, as the Legislature of October, 1780, in session 
at Bennington, declared Woodstock to be a frontier town. And the 
same body, at the same session, levied a provision tax on the several 
towns of the State for the support of the military forces thereof, the kind 
and quantity required of Woodstock being as follows: 3,543 pounds of 
flour; 1,181 pounds of beef; 590^ pounds of salted pork; 99 bushels 
of Indian corn ; and 49-5- bushels of rye. 

But during the Revolutionary war the town of Woodstock was not 
destined to suffer from the invasions of an armed enemy, and the nearest 
approach to that realization occurred during the months of August and 
October, 1780. the occasions of the Indian raids upon the northern towns 
of Barnard and Royalton, and other towns on the northern frontier. But 
in each of these cases the invaders made their escape with captives and 
plunder, and although an organized pursuit was made against the party 
that attacked and burned Royalton, in which pursuit possibly some of 
the Woodstock militia may have joined, no battle was brought on owing 
to the fear on the part of Colonel House that the Indians would carry 
out their threat to murder the prisoners in case the militia attacked 

Woodstock made the Shire Town. — The one great cause above all 
others that contributed to making Woodstock a populous town in the 
county was the acquisition of the county buildings, its designation as the 
shire town of Windsor county. Still, by the inaction of the townsmen 
in their special meetings called to discuss this subject, the town very 
nearly lost the desired designation, and had a person of less energy and 
influence than Benjamin Emmons had charge of the project it is quite 
probable that the seat of justice would have been placed elsewhere than 
in Woodstock. 

In 1 78 1 the General Assembly passed an act by which the county of 
Cumberland was divided, and out of its territory the three counties of 

Town of Woodstock. 241 

Windham, Windsor and Orange were erected. It became necessary 
after this division that some one town in each of these counties should 
be selected as the seat of justice, and at once each possible favorable 
locality put forth every effort to obtain recognition and favor with the 
appointing power. But the legislative body of the State was not dis- 
posed to act hastily in the matter ; in fact, measures of possibly greater 
importance were just then engrossing the public attention; the union with 
the New Hempshire towns, which; had it become permanent, would un- 
doubtedly have resulted in fixing the county seat in some town other 
than Woodstock. 

On the 5th of April, 1781, the union with the eastern towns was 
accomplished, and soon thereafter a law was passed by which a portion 
of them were annexed to Windsor county. But before the Legislature 
agreed to the union the question of annexation was submitted to the free- 
men of the several towns of this State, and the result showed a large 
majority of the towns to favor the project. Woodstock, however, was 
one of the few towns that voted against the proposition. Very fortu- 
nately for Woodstock the eastern union was dissolved, and then being 
near the geographical center of the county, her claims to designation as 
the county town were worthy of consideration; and, through the efforts 
of Benjamin Emmons, on the 27th day of October, 1786, the Legislature 
passed an " act establishing Woodstock the Shire town for the County 
of Windsor." 

This subject needs no further mention in this connection. It will be 
found fully discussed and commented upon in an earlier chapter of this 
volume ; and there also will be found a complete description of the court- 
houses and other county buildings that have from time to time been 
erected in the town. 

War of 1812-15. — In the history of the State of Vermont this was a 
somewhat exciting period, but in the local history it was not particularly 
eventful, except as it may have been a season of political discussion be- 
tween the Loyalists (Democrats and Republicans, for they were of the 
same understanding at that time) and the Federalists ; and it is possible 
that arguments between ''hese contending factions were not entirely con- 
fined to wordy disputes, although there is no evidence to prove to the 
contrary. The Loyalists were largely in the ascendancy in point of num- 


242 History of Windsor County. 

bers, and the battles between them and the Federah'sts were fought at 
the polls. It was a customary thing, especially during the early years 
of the war, for the Federalists to call themselves the " Peace Party," 
while the opposition was characterized as " Screaming War Hawks." 
This may not have been known in this particular locality, but was so 
generally through the State. 

It was the Loyalist party of the country that prosecuted the war, 
brought it on, fought it, and succeeded in beating the mother country in 
a contest at arms for the second time ; and the Federalists occupied the 
same position in regard to the war as did the Tory element during the 
Revolution, but were less violent only in action, not in argument. They 
argued that the country was not prepared for war, therefore they 
opposed it. 

Of the military organizations of the town at that time the leading one 
was that known as the Washington Patriot Company, or the Silver 
Grays, but their battles were those of peace, being confined to " muster" 
and "parade days." Of this company Titus Hutchinson was captain, 
William Ellis, first lieutenant, Oliver Williams, second lieutenant, and 
John Anthony, ensign. The company did not enter the service, nor 
did any other command, as such, from the town. That there were resi- 
dents of the town who were in the army at some time during the war 
cannot be doubted, but it would be quite difficult if not impossible to 
bring all their names to mind. 

TJu War of 1861-65. — Without commenting at all upon the events 
of the brief period of agitation just preceding the actual outbreak of the 
war, or upon the events that followed the news of the attack upon Fort 
Sumter, the attention of the reader is directed at once to the first com • 
pany that offered its services under President Lincoln's call for seventy- 
five thousand men to put down the Rebellion. To the First Regiment 
of Vermont troops this town had the credit of contributing Company 
B, the second company of the command, to which was accorded the 
second position of honor, the " left of the line." This company was the 
organization known as the Woodstock Light Infantry; and although 
known as a Woodstock compan\^, a number of its members were from 
other towns of the county than this. Its officers, however, with a single 
exception, were men of this town. The roster shows the officers to have 

Town of Woodstock. 243 

been as follows : Captain, William W. Pelton ; first lieutenants, Andrew 
J. Dike, Solomon E. Woodward; second lieutenants, Solomon E.Wood- 
ward (promoted first lieutenant), William Sweet; sergeants, William 
Sweet, George E. Dimick, Royal Darby, N. Bruce (Pomfret) ; corporals, 
Charles O. Thompson, Edwin C. Emmons, Crayton A.Woodbury, Nor- 
man M. Hoisington ; musician, George H. Murdock. Peter T. Wash- 
burn, of Woodstock, was lieutenant colonel of the First Regiment. 

In an earlier chapter of this volume will be found a brief history of 
the several regiments of the State in which were volunteers from Wood- 
stock, or from the county, and as a part of that chapter there is fur- 
nished a complete roll of all the volunteers from this town, as they are 
recorded in the reports of the adjutant and inspector-general of the 

During the course of the war the town of Woodstock was credited 
with having furnished the aggregate number of three hundred and 
thirty-three men, or their equivalent, exclusive of three-months' volun- 
teers, which were classified as follows : Volunteers for three years cred- 
ited previous to call of October 17, 1863, 97 ; volunteers for three years 
under and subsequent to call of October 17, 1863, 53 ; volunteers for 
one year, 42; for nine months, 55 ; re- enlisted, 15; furnished under 
draft and paid commutation, 10; enrolled men who furnished substi- 
tutes, 10; procured substitutes, 15; entered United States Navy, 16; 
entered service, 4; miscellaneous credits, not named, 16. 

The First Church Society. — The establishment of some sort of a 
society for holding public services of a religious character was, in early 
times, a necessary part of town government, and one of the public in- 
stitutions organized and supported at the general expense; and after 
this town had become organized, and its affairs somewhat settled and 
running smoothly, the people began to stir themselves in the matter of 
engaging a minister of the gospel to preach for them. The first meet- 
ing of the inhabitants for this purpose was warned by clerk Joab Hois- 
ington, upon the application of the overseers of the poor of the town 
to meet at the clerk's house on the 13th of September, 1774. The 
meeting being assembled and organized, it was " Voted to hire Mr. 
Aaron Hutchinson for five years in connection with Hartford and Pom- 
fret " ; and further, " Voted Dr. Stephen Powers, Joab Hoisington and 

244 History of Windsor County. 

John Strong a committee," probably for the purpose of carrying out the 
first vote. 

But Rev. Hutchinson did not begin his labors as "preacher" in the 
town until 1776, but they were thereafter continued for the five years, 
and until 1781, when he was succeeded by Rev. George Daman, who 
appears to have been regularly installed as the first settled minister on 
the 26th of December of that year. At the annual town meeting held 
March 30, 1779, it was "Voted to build a meeting-house on the road 
that goes to Samuel Pratt's to the other road west of Oliver Farns- 
worth's." This building, had it been erected in accordance with the 
vote, would have stood near the center of the town, but as the pop- 
ulation was then distributed, the meeting-house would not have been 
conveniently situated for the majority of the people who would prob- 
ably attend the services. This condition of things led to a division of 
the town into parishes, the vote that brought it about being passed 
at a meeting held July 24, 1779. But even this proved unsatisfactory, 
and created a division of sentiment in the town, to such an extent that 
the dividing line was changed somewhat and then allowed to stand. 

The first society was organized in 1781, about or just preceding 
the time that Rev. Daman became pastor, but, on account of a feeling 
of dissension in the society, growing out of matters relating to the ad- 
mission of members and a difference of opinion concerning the most 
available and suitable location for the meeting-house, the society failed 
to make any substantial progress during the first ten or twelve years of 
its existence. The early meetings under the ministrations of Rev 
Hutchinson were held in convenient places : if the weather was cold in 
the house of some of the members, but during the warm months in 
Joab Hoisington's barn. In 1781 the log meeting-house was built, a 
short distance west of the upper bridge over the Quechee. Mr. Damian 
continued his pastoral relation with the church and society until May 
22, 1792, when he asked for and received his dismissal. From this time 
until 1809 the society was without a pastor, but, in the year stated, a 
call was extended to Rev. Walter Chapin, who accepted and was or- 
dained on the 25 th of April, 18 10. 

The old log church west of the North Village was required to serve 
the purposes of the society (with other places temporarily used) from 

Town of Woodstock. 245 

the time of its erection, in 1781, until the erection of the more com- 
modious church edifice on lands offered for the purpose by Mr. Charles 
Marsh. This building was commenced in 1806, and was so far com- 
pleted during that and the succeeding year that services were held in it 
in October, 1807, although it was not entirely finished until 1808. (For 
the history of this church and society subsequent to the year last men- 
tioned, the reader's attention is directed to that portion of the present 
chapter relating to the village of Woodstock.) 

Small Villages of the Town. — Among the small and unincorpo- 
rated villages of Woodstock town that known by the name of Tafts- 
ville is perhaps the most important ; and this importance is derived from 
the fact of its having the benefits of the water privileges of the Oue- 
chee River, and the shipping facilities afforded by the Woodstock rail- 
road, on the line of which the village is situate. Taftsville was so named 
in honor of Stephen Taft, one of the first settlers in the extreme north- 
east part of the town, where the village is located, and who came there 
in 1793, constructed a dam across the river, built a small water-power 
shop, and commenced the manufacture of scythes, axes and other edged 
tools. In 1794 Daniel Taft, brother to Stephen, came to Woodstock, 
and in 1795 joined with Stephen in building a saw-mill on the river, op- 
posite the scythe factory. Subsequently another brother, Seth Taft, 
became interested in the business at this point, and from the initial 
labors of these brothers the village grew and prospered ; and it is a fact 
that the industry here established by Stephen Taft in 1793, with numer- 
ous enlargements both in buildings and manufactured products, has been 
in operation to the present day, and thar, too, by some of the descend- 
ants of the founders. Taftsville now forms a part of school district No. 7. 
A school was built in the locality prior to 1800, but the district has 
experienced a number of changes since the first town division pro- 
vided for in 1779. A post-office was established at Taftsville soon after 
1840, with Dexter Bates as postmaster. 

Next in order of importance, perhaps, among the hamlets of the 
town, is that usually called South Woodstock, or the South Village as 
formerly known ; a small village situated in the southeast part of the 
town, on the upper waters of the South Branch of Quechee River, 
having no railroad, but communicating with the county town by means 

246 History of Windsor County. 

of a stage line. Among the early settlers, and perhaps the first in this 
locality, was the Cottle family, of which there were several members, 
some of whom took an active part in the affairs of the town during 
its pioneer period. A grist-mill was built at the South Village by Jabez 
and Warren Cottle as early as 1780, possibly before, but after a few 
years it was changed into a cloth or fulling-mill, and operated by John 
A. Cottle and Jabez Cottle, jr. About 1812 Abraham P. Mather be- 
came proprietor of the mill. In 1781 Jabez Cottle and Joseph Sterlin built 
another grist-mill near the village, but farther down the brook ; and still 
another was erected at the same place about 1806. To the Cottle family 
also attaches the creditof having furnished the pioneer of the mercantile 
business at this village, Warren Cottle beingthe founder of it, but he after- 
ward took Amasa Ransom a partner. This store was opened not far 
from the year 1793. The firm of Field & Perry, merchants, was estab- 
lished here in 1796, and two years later the pioneer concern failed. 

In 1828 a mail route was established to pass through the South Vil- 
age, and soon thereafter a post-office was established at the place, 
Richard M. Ransom being the first postmaster. During the fall of the 
same year Richard Ransom succeeded to the office and remained post- 
master until 1836, when Oliver Baily was appointed. 

South Woodstock is the only hamlet of the town that enjoys the ad- 
vantages of having a church building within its precincts. This is of the 
denomination of Universalists, and its society was formed in 1834, under 
the pastorate of Rev. Russell Streeter. His leading charge was at the 
North Village, but after his connection with that society was ended he 
continued pastor of the South society until 1847. 

The present business industries and other institutions of South Wood- 
stock are less in number and importance than they were half or three- 
quarters of a century ago. Still it has two hotels, two stores, several 
shops, saw and grist-mill and some other manufacturing industries, a 
church and a school. The village is located in school district No. 15. 

The hamlet known as West Woodstock, but originally as Bennett's 
Mills, received whatever of distinction it ever had from the fact of its be- 
ing a manufacturing point of some note at an early day. The water 
privilege here was sold by Jesse Saffbrd to Jabez Bennett and others in 
1778, and soon afterward a saw and feed or grist-mill were built, Mr, 

Town of Woodstock. 247 

Bennett being the leading person in the enterprise, and from him the 
locaHty receiv^ed its name. Mr. Bennett continued here in business for 
upwards of thirty years. These industries led to the erection of others, 
among them the cloth-mill of Seth Sylvester, but afterward owned by 
Ephraim Eddy. The present leading industry of the village, the Daniels 
Machine Company's works, was established by Reuben Daniels and 
Thomas E. Blake, under the firm of R. Daniels & Co., in 1831, that be- 
ing the year in which the property and privilege were conveyed to them. 
The firm manufactured woolen jacks, wool pickers, and other machines 
used in woolen manufacture. In 1842 the firm suspended, after which 
and until 1850 business was carried on by various parties, but in the year 
named the firm of Daniels & Raymond was formed and business revived. 
In 1864 the building was burned, but rebuilt during the next year, and 
operated as the Daniels Machine Company. In 1869 the property again 
suffered great damage, an extraordinary high water carrying out the 
dam. Then followed ten years of changes, and until 1879, when the 
machine company resumed again under the old n<ime, using both steam 
and water for power, since which it has been so conducted without seri- 
ous interruption either to property or business. A post-office was estab- 
lished at West Woodstock on January i, 1885. Within what may be 
called the village proper are a dozen or fifteen houses. A fine store 
building is in course of erection at the place. 

In the extreme northwest corner of the town, having its principal 
location on the stream called Barnard Brook, is the hamlet known as 
English Mills; but English Mills " aint what it used to be," and the in- 
dustries at this point are but wrecks of former greatness. The locality 
was so named in honor of Joel English, who in 1789 bought a hundred 
acres of land out of the so-called Spencer tract, and became one of the 
most enterprising and progressive of the settlers in that locality. The 
first industry here, however, was established by Simon Davis, by the 
building of a grist-mill, and very soon thereafter a saw-mill, the latter in 
company with Samuel Fuller. In 1793 Joel English acquired an interest 
in the saw- mill, and in 1795 in the grist-mill, in the latter industry Jabez 
Bennett owning a share. The dam across Barnard Brook was built in 
1839, by William S. English, son of Joel English. It was the intention 
of William to establish a starch factory at this point, but some interfering 

248 History of Windsor County. 

event prevented that plan from being carried out, therefore the building 
was put to use as a rake factory, the proprietors of the business being 
Mr. Enghsh and Austin Miller, but the firm lasted only a year, when Mr. 
English became sole owner. In 1884 B. H. Pinney succeeded to the 
proprietorship and has since continued manufacturing there, but the 
products comprise other articles than hand rakes. Other than these 
named industries the locality known as English Mills has no manu- 
facturing prominence, although some of the old mill structures are still 

The Incorporated Village of Woodstock. 

For the purpose of this sketch it is hardly advisable to refer at any 
length to the original buildings on the district of land that is now included 
within the limits of the corporate village of Woodstock, other than may 
be necessary to record the history of some of the institutions of the place. 
In the recentlv published history of Woodstock the editor, Mr. Dana, has 
taken each locality and each separate parcel of land, and given its history 
from the time of the erection of the first structure thereon to a recent 
date ; and that work, being so generally circulated throughout the town, 
renders unnecessary further efforts in that direction as a part of this 
chapter. And should an attempt be made to repeat what has already been 
written so thoroughly and well, no new facts worthy of publication could 
be brought to light that would afford the slightest interest to the reader. 

The lands whereon is situated the main part of the village of Wood- 
stock were purchased by Joab Hoisington from Oliver Willard and Jona- 
than Grout in the year 1771. The entire Hoisington purchase embraced 
something like one thousand acres of land. The tract to the north and 
east of Joab's, and which is now partly if not wholly included within the 
village, was likewise purchased from the same grantors by John Hoising- 
ton, who is believed to have been Joab's father. But at that time neither 
of these worthy proprietors could have entertained even the faintest idea 
that their purchases would ever be the site of a beautiful village, and, 
above all, the seat of justice of the county; and neither of them lived to 
see that consummation. Joab Hoisington died in 1777, at Newbury, 
while performing duties as an officer of one of the regiments of Cumber- 
land and Gloucester counties militia, during the Revolutionary period ; 




Village of Woodstock. 249 

while John Hoisington sold the last of his purchase in 1781, and was no 
longer known to Woodstock. 

It is an evident fact that Woodstock as a village would not have 
had an existence if the county seat had not been located here, but it is 
equally evident that the village would never have attained that promi- 
nence it has in the county but for that location ; and the one thing more 
than all others that contributed to making this a beautiful, thriving and 
prosperous muicipality, was the designation of Woodstock as the shire 
town of the county of Windsor, and that brought about through the per- 
severing efforts of Benjamin Emmons, whom the generations of inhabit- 
ants of the village and locality will ever hold in grateful remembrance. 

With the erection of the first court-house and the county buildings the 
village entered the early stages of municipal being, although more than a 
score and a half of years thereafter elapsed before any direct measures 
looking to such an existence were taken. In the year 18 19 the General 
Assembly passed what is generally known as an "enabling act," by which 
the selectmen of any town in the State, upon the application of resident 
freeholders, were authorized to prescribe certain limits within which cat- 
tle and other animals should not be allowed to run at large. Under the 
provisions of this act the following petition was presented to the select- 
men of Woodstock : 

" To the selectmen of the town of Woodstock in the county of Wind- 
sor and State of Vermont: — We, the subscribers, freeholders of said town, 
hereby request you to lay out and establish the limits and bounds of the 
village at and about the court-house in said town, and notify the same 
according to law; that cattle, horses, sheep, swine, geese and mules, and 
other creatures related to mules, may not lawfully go at large in said vil- 
lage. Woodstock, December 19, 1819. Signed: — Titus Hutchinson, 
Benjamin F. Mower, Benjamin Swan, Nathaniel Waldron, jr., Joseph 
Parker, Daniel Dana, Robert Barker, H. C. Dennison." 

Upon this presentation the selectmen established the boundaries under 
this order : " Whereas application has been made to the undersigned, 
selectmen of the town of Woodstock, agreeable to an act of the General 
Assembly, passed November 11, 18 19, entitled ' An act to restrain cer- 
tain animals from running at large within the villages of the State,' to 
lay out and establish the limits and bounds of the North Village in said 
Woodstock. 32 

250 History of Windsor County. 

" We do, therefore, in pursuance of said application, and the act afore- 
said, hereby establish the following as the limits and boundaries of said 
village, viz. : Beginning at the easterly side of the highway at a point 
opposite the northeast corner of the barn nearest the road on the Ward- 
well farm, so called, (being the Blake farm now owned by Benjamin S. 
Dana,) thence southerly on a straight line by the easterly side of the brick 
house standing at the corner of said highway and the turnpike, to the 
south side of said turnpike road, opposite the southeast corner of said 
brick house — (the brick house on the east side of the road which was re- 
cently burned belonging to Oliver T. Hatch) — thence southeasterly in a 
direct line to the large elm tree standing on top of the hill east of the oil- 
mill brook, (Mount Peg) — thence southerly in a direct line to the south- 
east corner of Lyman Mower's meadow lot — (now owned by Rufus 
Townsend) — thence on the southerly line of said lot, across the highway, 
and on the southerly line of said Mower's pasture to the southeast cor- 
ner of the same — (now owned by said Townsend) — thence in a direct line 
to the southeast corner of the house now owned by Jaud Rickard, (the 
Hiram Power's house) — thence by the westerly end of said house, and on 
a line with the same, to the highway ; thence across the river to the two 
black cherry trees, on the north side of the highway opposite L. & B. F. 
Mower's mill yard (these trees stood near where the house now occupied 
by Liberty B. Marble stands) ; thence on a direct line northerl}^ to the 
northeast corner of the small dwelling house owned by Henry C. Dcni- 
son, esq., northerly of the clothier's shop (this house stood on the site, or 
near by, where Allen Thompson's house now is) ; thence by the north- 
erly end of said house to the northeast corner thereof; thence on a direct 
line to the southeast corner of the school-house, near the dwelling house 
of the said H C. Denison, esq. ; thence easterly in a direct line to the 
place of beginning." 

It is indeed doubtful if there are a dozen persons in the village who 
could follow the boundary lines above described, having no other guide 
than the description itself In the year 1881 these boundaries were 
made a part of a pamphlet publication of the village by-laws, and for 
the purpose of having them properly understood, the portions included 
within the parentheses were added; and it is quite possible that the expla- 
nations then made will not apply to the bounds as now standing. 

Village of Woodstock. 251 

This action, on the part of the selectmen who established the above 
boundaries, (Howland Simmons and Lyman Mower,) was by no means 
an incorporation of the village, and gave it no form of municipaUty 
whatever, but only defined certain limits within which animals should 
not be allowed to run at large. This established boundary would not 
have any particular importance except for the fact of its being substan- 
tially the village boundary of the present time, and was referred to in 
the act of incorporation passed November 11, 1836, as the limits of the 
corporate village at that time established. The inclosed district was 
the village proper, nothing more. 

On the nth of November, 1836, the Legislature of the State passed 
an act entitled "an act incorporating the village of Woodstock," some 
of the sections of which were as follows : " That part of the town of 
Woodstock, in the county of Windsor, which has heretofore been estab- 
lished and recorded as the north village in Woodstock, in pursuance 
of an act passed on the iith day of November, in the year of our Lord 
1 8 19, entitled ' an act to restrain certain animals from running at large 
within the villages of this State,' shall hereafter be known by the name 
of The Village of Woodstock. 

" The inhabitants of said village, qualified by law to vote in town 
meeting, shall meet on the first Monday in January next, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, at the court-house in said Woodstock, and shall, at that 
meeting, or an adjourned meeting, to be held in said month of January, 
elect a clerk, five trustees, a treasurer, and a collector of taxes, who 
shall hold their respective offtces one year and until others shall be 
chosen in their stead. 

" The inhabitants residing in said village are hereby constituted a 
body politic and corporate, by the name of The Village of Woodstock ; 
and by that name shall have succession and may commence, prosecute 
and defend suits or actions, in all courts whatever ; may have a common 
seal and alter the same ; may purchase, hold and convey real estate for 
the use of said village ; may tax themselves and levy and collect taxes 
for the purpose aforesaid, or to carry into effect any legal vote or by law 
of said corporation." 

Subsequent sections of the same act prescribed the duties of the sev- 
eral officers of the village, and also provided for the regulations and 

252 History of Windsor County. 

internal government of the municipality. But, while this act of incorpo- 
ration erected the village into a state of municipal being, it did not 
entirely separate it from the town, and, in fact, never has been sepa- 
rated therefrom, but both join together in the election of such officers 
as are incident to the government of the town, and an officer of the 
town may be a resident of the village, but an officer of the village 
cannot be a resident of the town. In this respect the citizens of the 
village have advantages over those of the town ; but then, whatever 
of disadvantages this may bring to the citizen of the town, he may 
find consolation in the fact that he has no village or municipal tax to 
pay. The last sentence of the ninth section of the act of incorporation 
reads : " The inhabitants and territory included in the limits of said vil- 
lage shall belong to the town of Woodstock, in the same manner as 
though this act had not passed." 

From the time of incorporation to the present there have been but 
few amendatory or supplementary acts passed that materially modify 
the original act. To be sure there have been made some changes, and 
some lands formerly outside have been brought in, while others inside 
have in the same manner been voted out. 

Some matters of interest in connection with the early municipal his- 
tory of the village could be presented in this place but for the fact that 
the early records cannot be found ; and the most dilligent search and in- 
quiry have failed to reveal the slightest trace of their whereabouts. As 
a result of this misfortune we are unable to furnish even the names of the 
officers of the village elected at the first meeting appointed to be held 
in January, 1837, or, for that matter, the names of any of the officers 
prior to the year 1867. 

Nearly every one of the institutions of the village of Woodstock had 
their origin and founding prior to the time of the passage of the corpo- 
rating act. There were the same church societies and edifices for each, 
although some of the latter have been rebuilt within the last fifty years. 
The village, too, had its newspapers, banking house, business blocks, 
hotels, court-house and town hall, and other public buildings. The vil- 
lage even had its fire department, and although an unpretentious organ- 
ization, it was nevertheless effective, and numbered among its members 
some of the foremost men of the town at that time. 

Village of Woodstock. 253 

The Fire Department. — As early as the year 1820 an organization for 
the prevention and extinguishing of fires was formed, and that under an 
act of the Legislature, by which the same was incorporated. On the 26th 
of October of the year stated there was passed "An Act incorporating 
certain persons therein named, by the name of the Woodstock Fire So- 
ciety." The " certain " persons named were Charles Marsh, Benjamin 
Swan, Titus Hutchinson, Lyman Mower, Isaac N. Cushman, Job Lyman, 
Norman Williams, Justus Burdick, James Pearl, Solomon Warren, John 
Pratt, Joseph Churchill, jr , Charles Dana, Benjamin F. Mower, David 
Pierce, David Watson, Henry B. Dana, Charles Williams, John D. Pow- 
ers, and their associates and successors, as "a body politic and corpo- 
rate, to all intents and purposes, by the name of the Woodstock Fire 
Society, and by that name may sue and be sued ; may purchase and 
hold property to the amount of two thousand dollars, and land sufficient 
whereupon to build a house for the safe keeping of an engine and other 
apparatus necessary for extinguishing fire." 

By further provisions of the act the first meeting of the society for the 
election of officers was directed to be held at the house of Robert Barker 
in Woodstock, on the last Monday in December, 1820. The society 
was also authorized to appoint not to exceed ten fire wardens, who were 
clothed with supreme authority in cases of fire. The bounds of the vil- 
lage as laid down by the selectmen were the prescribed limits within 
which the society was to operate. 

Whatever became of this old organization, how long it continued, 
what property it owned, or who its officers were, no citizen of the pres- 
ent day appears to know. It is certain, however, that their organiza- 
tion must have been completed and become effective, for the corpora- 
tors were men of character, integrity and worth, and would not allow 
their names to become associated with any undertaking of a public 
character not calculated for the public good. The society seems to have 
left no record behind it, and whatever is known of it is learned from the 
incorporating act. 

But this was the germ from which grew the present fire department 
of the village ; and when the latter became incorporated measures were 
at once taken to provide for such an organization, but the absence of the 
records prior to 1867 leaves the history of it a matter of untrustworthy 

254 History of Windsor County. 

tradition. However, in 1847 the Legislature passed an act providing 
that such persons as should be elected fire wardens of the village should 
be vested with all power at times of fire for the protection of property 
and the maintenance of peace and order. It is quite probable that that 
act was an enlargement upon the previous authority of the fire wardens, 
and that such an office was created by the by-laws of the corporation 
when organized. In 1867 the village fire wardens were Benoni S. 
Thompson, William C. Barnard, John S. Eaton, Ransom M. Russell and 
Jasper Hazen, jr. 

In 1 88 1 an ordinance was adopted establishing a fire department, 
which was virtually an act of re-organization to place the department 
on a proper working basis, and by the provisions of which the wardens 
were authorized to choose department officers from their own body. 
The company officers were provided to be elected by the company 

In pursuance of a vote passed February 26, 1883, the old engine- 
house was replaced by the present substantial structure. The depart- 
ment long ago passed the "bucket brigade" days, and entered upon the 
hand engine period, the latter being, with the hook and ladder appara- 
tus, the present equipments of the village for extinguishing fire. But 
the introduction of water into the village has made unnecessary the use 
of the hand engines, and resulted in again re-organizing the depart- 
ment, so that at present it consists, according to the last report of the 
engineers, of one Fire and Hose Company of twenty members, and one 
Hook and Ladder Company of ten members. The present board of fire 
wardens is as follows : C. W. Sayward, William Hewitt, Harold S. 
Dana, W. O. Taylor, Fred Delano, Lewis Bordo, Seth T. Winslow, and 
H. F. Dunham ; engineers, O. G. Kimball, N. M. Hoisington, and 
M. S. Myers. 

Woodstock Park and Surrotuidings. — This is one of the most attract- 
ive of the many beautiful locations of the village ; and, as well, it is one 
of the most ancient localities of the village, for here, around the green, 
as it was called, was centered the main business enterprises of one hun- 
dred or so years ago. Little did Joab Hoisington dream that an acre 
or two of the best lands of his large estate would ever be converted into 
a public park, or that on his lands would ever be erected one of the 

Village of Woodstock. 255 

prettiest villages in Vermont. Just how the old village "green" hap- 
pened to come into existence would be, perhaps, a subject difficult of 
explanation. Its lands were always a common, and were never called 
upon to yield to the husbandman's labors. It is said that the tract was 
originally covered with a growth of pine trees, and that they were de- 
stroyed by a forest fire that occurred some time after 1770, probably 
about 1772. In later years this tract became the property of Israel 
Richardson, and he, when the court-house and jail became fixed insti- 
tutions of the town, donated lands upon which they should be built, to 
the extent of a little more than an acre and a half. The deed of the 
conveyance bore date of May 29, 1788, but the donation in fact ante- 
dated that time. The court-house was built where the brick house now 
stands, at the corner of South street, and the jail was located farther 
west, about in front of where the Methodist church now is. 

After the old court-house was burned, in 1791, it became necessary 
to build another, and that the surroundings might be complete, Captain 
Richardson was called upon to make another donation of land for public 
purposes, which he at first declined to do, but, under Charles Marsh's 
threat to erect the county buildings in another part of the village, the 
doughty Captain yielded and donated the " common " land to the public, 
to the extent of its present area. Thus, what is now the magnificent 
Woodstock Park was brought into existence, and around its boundaries 
was built up the main business part of the village ; but when the avail- 
able lands here were all occupied, further enlargements for business pur- 
poses built up the lands east of the common, on what is now Central 
and Elm streets. An avenue of travel found its way into the park lands 
by the laying out and building of what is now Central street, being 
opened during the year 1 800. This was followed by other thorough- 
fares, some parallel and others lateral, in the east part, which resulted 
in the ultimate transfer of business to that locality, while around the 
common the old store buildings were replaced with, or converted into, 
dwellings and several public buildings. 

The first attempt at improving the lands of the common was made 
some time previous to 1830, when they were plowed and graded; but 
during the year last stated a fund was raised by subscription for the 
purpose of laying out the park and planting it with maple trees. Then, 

256 History of Windsor County. 

or about that time, when this work was completed, the common became, 
properly speaking, a " Park." But when, after the village had become 
incorporated, the " city fathers" attempted to build a plain fence about 
the park for the protection of the young trees, then troubles commenced. 
Some people did not propose to be denied the use of the old common 
for all purposes of travel and convenience, and brought the authorities 
into court as defendants. A long litigation followed and was termi- 
nated in the success of the local government. The last fencing, the pres- 
ent iron and stone structure, was built during the year 1878, under the 
direction of Oliver P. Chandler, Justin F. McKenzie and George W. 
Paul, committee, with a fund raised by voluntary contributions on the 
part of generous citizens of the village. 

After the destruction, in 1791, of the old court-house a second was 
built, but not on the same site. F"or the new structure land on the north 
side of the park was used, at the corner where the road crosses the cen- 
ter bridge This was a more pretentious structure than its predecessor, 
but a plain frame building, with a tower on its front, and in the tower a 
bell was placed. But on the 4th of July, 1854, the court house fell a 
victim to the flames, the result of the carelessness of some over-enthu- 
siastic person who was celebrating on that day. The third, the present 
court-house, was erected on the lot where stood, in early times, the 
dwelling of the sisters Myrick, spinsters and garment makers, queer 
characters, in a way, of the village. 

The Norman Williams Public Library. — Here is the most beautiful 
public building of Woodstock ; a perfect gem, an ornament to the vil- 
lage, and a fitting tribute from a grateful son to the memory of kind and 
loving parents. The site whereon this building now stands was the 
home of Norman Williams, one of the substantial and worthy men of 
the village ; and in the "story and a half" house here standing he 
dwelt for fifty years, from 1 818 to 1868. The original house on the site 
was built for the widow of Josiah Cleveland in 1798. In 1883 the old 
house was removed, and in its place Dr. Edward Higginson Williams 
caused to be erected, at his own expense, the stone library building. 
The exterior and interior design and finish of the library are so well 
known that no description is necessary here; that it is one of the most 
ornamental and useful institutions of the village, is all that need be said ; 

Village of Woodstock. 257 

that it is fully appreciated, every person in the region understands. The 
library has a capacity for about fifteen thousand volumes, and on its 
shelves are now nearly seven thousand, gifts from all sources. In the 
reading-room are elegant portraits of Norman Williams and his wife, 
and in the reception-room is a similar portrait of their son, the founder 
of the institution, Dr. Edward H. Williams. 

Of the ancient structures that once had a being on the park front, 
but few remain. The locality has lost much of its appearance of three- 
quarters of a century ago, and could the resident of that period now 
return he would discover no familiar landmarks to assure him of his 
whereabouts, unless, perhaps, the old Hutchinson and Churchill home- 
steads might appear natural ; or the residence wherein dwelt Dr. Gal- 
lup, or the old brick school- house on the opposite side of the park, 
might revive familiar scenes. Another of the ancient landmarks still 
lives, the old Eagle Hotel, but that has been so frequently remodeled 
and enlarged as to have lost all semblance of its former self. And 
should one go to the corner of Elm and Central streets there would no 
more be seen the famous Barker Hotel, with its spacious back yard ; and 
on the opposite side of Central street the old frame row now has dis- 
appeared, and on its site is built the substantial two and three-story 
brick blocks. On the signs, too, over the several places of entrance, 
there appear names that were unfamiliar to the townspeople fifty years 
and more ago. " Church buildings," it is said, " never change." This 
is a rather doubtful statement, or one, at least, that requires a deal of 
explanation to make its truth readily understood. 

The Congregational Church. — The society of this church was un- 
doubtedly the pioneer of the religious institutions of the village, or of 
the town and has its origin in the primitive gatherings to which 
Rev. Aaron Hutchinson occasionally preached in Joab Hoisington's 
barn, or, if in cold weather, the dwelling house of some member of the 
society. After that the society " worshipped " in the little log meeting- 
house, on the road west of the (now) Woodward mills, under the pas- 
toral charge of Rev. George Daman. But the society at length out- 
grew this old structure and, in 1807-08, built a new frame meeting-house 
on Elm street, on lands donated by Mr. Charles Marsh, on part of which 
his law- office stood. The edifice here has twice been thoroughly re- 

258 History of Windsor County. 

paired: first, in 1859, and again in 1889. The last improvement was 
made through the generous contribution of Mr. Frederick BilHngs, the 
whole expense being borne by him. • More than that, in 1880 he caused 
to be erected, adjoining and annexed to the church edifice proper, a 
beautiful and appropriate memorial chapel. The property now owned 
by the society of the Congregational church is perhaps more extensive 
and valuable than that of any of the several societies of the village, 
consisting as it does of the present elegant edifice and chapel, with a 
large and commodious pastor's residence, the latter being on the east 
side of Elm street. 

In September, 1774, the people of the town voted to hire " Mr, 
Aaron Hutchinson " to preach for them, but no society was then organ- 
ized, neither were the gatherings at all denominational ; but at the same 
time a majority of the townspeople inclined to Congregationalism, and the 
teachings of the first minister were supposed to be of that order. The 
first settled pastor of the society was Rev. George Daman, who was or- 
dained December 26, 1 78 1, and continued his relations until the 22d of 
May, 1792, and was then dismissed. 

Following the retirement of Mr. Daman from the pastorate, the soci- 
ety had no settled minister until 18 10, but during the interval had occa- 
sional or supply preaching a part of the time and otherwise united with 
the B-iptist society, which had then been formed. On the 25 th of April, 
1 8 10, Rev. Walter Chapin became pastor of the Congregational church, 
and remained such until the time of his death in 1827, and was succeeded 
by Rev. John Richards, he being ordained November 27, 1827, retiring, 
however, February ii, 183 i. Rev. Robert Southgate came to the pas- 
torate January 4, 1832, and was dismissed in October, 1836. 

In February, 1828, Rev. Worthington Wright was ordained pastor of 
the church, and continued in that relation for a period of more than 
twelve years, retiring in September, 1850. Rev. Dr. Jonathan Clement 
next succeeded, July 14, 1852, and remained nearly fifteen years, until 
June 16, 1867-, when he was dismissed upon his request. Rev. A. B. 
Dascomb became pastor in December following Dr. Clement's dismissal, 
and continued such until February 3, 1874. In September of the same 
year Rev. Lewis A. Hicks was ordained pastor, and was dismissed July 
13, 1 88 1. The last pastor, now recently retired. Rev. James F. Brodie, 
was ordained February 21, 1882, his pastorate ending in 1889. 

Village of Woodstock. 259 

The Uiiiversalist Church. — Universalism in Woodstock became first 
rooted in the withdrawal or rumored secession of Benjamin Emmons from 
the Congregational society, which is said to have taken place somewhere 
about the year 1786. Benjamin Emmons was not only one of the lead- 
ing men of the town and State, but one of the earliest and most influen- 
tial members of the first church society, and his acceptance of the doctrines 
of a new and then pronounced unorthodox belief was the cause of much 
confusion in the old society. About the same time other former mem- 
bers of the parent church left the fold and became identified with the 
new society, among them Captain John Strong, Dr. Stephen Powers 
Judge William Perry. The new society, too, had converts from other 
denominations than the Congregationahst, and there were some {^\^ of 
the townspeople who, perhaps, had leanings toward Universalism at the 
time of their coming here. Considerable accessions to the ranks of the 
society from the Baptist church were also noticeable at about this 

The Rev. Hosea Ballou was the first minister of the society in this lo- 
cality. He became a preacher of Universalism by ordination in 1794, 
but prior to that time he had been a Calvinistic Baptist. He became 
minister in charge of the Woodstock society, in connection with other 
similar organizations, in the year 1803, a relation that was continued 
until August, 1809, when he left the State and accepted a call to the 
church at Portsmouth, N. H. After Mr. Ballou's departure the society 
had no settled minister for many years, but services were frequently held 
during the period, the desk being supplied by various ministers of the 
church, among whom were Joab Young, C. G. Persons, Uriah Smith, 
Jacob Holt, William Bell, and possibly others. 

But during this period, the society having no established leader or 
minister, it suffered severely and became somewhat disorganized. The 
work of again building up and re-organizing fell upon the next settled 
minister. Rev. Russell Streeter, who came to the charge in 1834. As 
well as firmly re-establishing the society, to Mr. Streeter belono-s the 
credit of having brought about the erection of a convenient chapel on 
Church street, during 1835. The parsonage property of the society was 
formerly the home of Dr. Thomas Powers, and was purchased for a min- 
ister's residence in 1877. 

26o History of Windsor County. 

Rev. Russell Streeter severed his connection with the village society in 
1839, and was succeeded in June, 1840, by Rev. Mr. Fay, since which 
time the succession of pastors and supply ministers has been as follows: 
Rev. O. H. Tillotson, 1841 to 1847; ^^^- D. M. Reed, four years; 
Rev. Jonathan Douglass, 1852; Rev. Chapman, six months; Rev. J. S. 
Lee, 1854; Rev. J. D. Cargill, 1859 to 1861 ; Rev. William H. Pattee, 
1862; Rev. Moses Marston, 1862 to 1866; Rev. J. T. Powers, 1867 to 
July, 1 870 ; Rev. Elmer Hewitt, April, 1 87 1 , to October, 1876; Rev. O. K. 
Crosby, April, 1877; Lucian S. Crosby, two years; Rev. B. M. Tillott- 
son, and the present pastor. Rev. J. F. Simmons, who moved to the 
village during the year 1889. 

T/ie CJiristian Church. — The society of the Christian church in Wood- 
stock had its organization somewhere about the year 1806, and drew its 
membership generally from the growing population of the town and par- 
ticularly from the old Baptist society. The first minister of the Christian 
church appears to have been Elias Smith, who preached here some six 
weeks and made considerable additions to the society. Still greater work 
was done by Uriah Smith, under whose ministrations, it seems, two soci- 
eties were in existence in the township. One of the most effective min- 
isters of this church was Frederick Plummer, who first visited Woodstock 
in September, 18 10, and through whose labors the society was greatly 
increased, and numbered among its members some of the leading fami- 
lies of the locality. The meetings in the village were usually held at the 
court-house, but the worthy and zealous elder prosecuted his labors 
throughout the township and vicinity, wherever a field presented for 
fruitful results. Mr. Plummer continued his missionary labors in the 
vicinity until 18 13. 

The court-house continued to be used as the principal house of the 
society until the year 1826, at which time Elder Jasper Hazen generously 
purchased for the society the lot of land on Pleasant street, whereon was 
erected, that same year, the commodious brick edifice, in which the first 
service was held in January, 1827. In the tower of this edifice, in 1827, 
Elder Hazen also caused to be placed a clock, which did service until 
1859, but then became worn out and was subsequently sold. However, 
in 1876, another clock was procured to replace the former. This was 
provided through the generosity of Frederick Billings, who, on the 14th 

^^^^ ^^c 


Village of Woodstock. 261 

of July, 1889, executed a quit-claim deed thereof to the village of Wood- 
stock. (The remodeled Congregational church is likewise possessed of a 
clock, the gift of the same person.) The Christian church edifice has 
been twice thoroughly repaired : first in i860 and again in 1876. Rev. 
Moses Kidder became minister of the society soon after 1846, and has 
continued for a period of upwards of forty years, and is still engaged in 
that capacity. Prior to Rev. Kidder's coming Elder Jasper Hazen was 
the officiating minister, and his immediate predecessor was Elder Rand. 
To Jasper Hazen attaches the honor of having virtually founded the 
church. The lot on which the building stands he bought, and the edifice 
was erected almost wholly through his personal efforts, and largely with 
his means. And it is said, too, that he manufactured the brick used in 
its construction. Elder Hazen was born in Hartford, this county. Mr. 
Dana has written at length concerning his life, which see. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — The seed of Methodism was sown 
in Woodstock during the closing years of the eighteenth century, by the 
somewhat sudden and unexpected visit of Lorenzo Dow. He preached 
in the court-house, but his lectures could not have been considered de- 
nominational at that time, for some of the people, even of that church, 
did not look upon Dow as the advocate of Methodism. The }'oung cleri- 
cal aspirant was finally denied the use of the court-house for his meet- 
ings, and left the place in disgust. Many years afterwards he returned 
to Woodstock and again preached, and then formed the nucleus of the 
present society of the town. The first meeting-house was built in 
what was known as the South Parish, about the year 1807, but none was 
erected at the North Village until 1835-36, when lands were purchased 
from General Lyman Mower, where the present church building now is, 
and upon which a small frame edifice was erected. In 1865 such radi- 
cal repairs were made that the building was practically reconstructed, 
and was dedicated with appropriate services on the 9th of November, 
1865. The Methodist parsonage on the hill was built in 1852. 

Prior to the time of the erection of the meeting-house, and perhaps 
for some time thereafter, this was but a station or a mission society, and 
the services were conducted by circuit or local preachers. From the 
time of building the first edifice, 1836, the succession of pastors in charge 
of the society of the Methodist Episcopal church has been as follows: 

262 History of Windsor County. 

Rev's. S. Quimby, A. G. Button, T. Twitchell, R. H. Spaulding, 

Copeland, W. J. Kidder, Lewis Hill, A. V. Howard, I. H. Patterson, 
J. W. Spencer, C. Kellogg, D. Field, S. G. Kellogg, Z. Haynes, C. Faies, 
L. C. Dickinson, A. L. Cooper, Albert L. Pratt, Joshua Gill, Ira La 
Barton, P. Merrill, A. C. Stevens, N. W. Wilder, A. M. Wheeler, J. W. 
Gurnsey, O. M. Boutwell, T. P. Frost, L. L. Beman, A. J. Hough, A. H. 
Webb, Joseph Hamilton, L McAnn. 

S/. Jcniiess Church, Protestant Episcopal. — The parish of St. James's 
church was organized during the early part of the year 1827, through 
the efforts and influence of a number of the leading citizens of the village 
and vicinity. The church did not experience the vicissitudes incident to 
the early life of some other of the institutions of the place, but was estab- 
lished and built up at a time when the people were prepared for it and 
able to accomplish its work. The early services of the church were usu- 
ally held in the court-house, and occasionally the Congregational edifice 
was placed at the disposal of the new society. Rev. Joel Clap seems to 
have been the missionary laborer in this field, his services commencing 
during the latter part of 1825. The next year measures were taken for 
the erection of the church, which, according to the original design, was 
to have been of stone, but the plan was afterward changed and the 
structure built of wood. The stone, which were delivered on the ground, 
were used for the building of the double houses standing east of the li- 
brary building, facing the park. 

The church was completed and occupied for services in December, 
1827, and was consecrated in September of tiie next year by Bishop 
Griswold and assistants of the diocese of Vermont. The parish purchased 
the rectory property in 1854. Rev. Joel Clap continued as rector of the 
parish until 1832, and was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin C. C. Parker in 
October, 1833. and the latter in turn in 1839 by Rev. John Grigg. On 
June 12, 1840, Mr. Clap returned to the church, and continued until 
1847, retiring on December ist, and being immediately succeeded by 
the Rev. M. A. Herrick, the latter remaining until February, 1861. Next 
came Rev. Joseph N. Mcllwaine, in October, 1861, who ofificiated as rec- 
tor until July, 1866, when he was sent to another field. The Rev. 
Roger S. Howard was next sent to this parish, July, 1867, and remained 
until June, 1869. Following the retirement of Mr. Howard the parish 

Village of Woodstock. 263 

was supplied for a few years by James O. Drumm, a deacon in orders, 
commencing in 1 870 and until 1872, and from that time to October, 
1873, by James A. Hughes, also a supply. In December, 1874, Rev. 
N. G. Allen succeeded to the rectorship, and remained until 1877, being 
followed November ist, of that year, by the present rector. Rev. Francis 
W. Smith. 

Schools of Woodstock. — The village of Woodstock is as well provided 
with school buildings, and with the proper facilities for affording an ex- 
cellent high school education, as can be found in any municipality of 
the State having no greater population than this. Three commodious 
school -houses now exist in the village for the accommodation of pupils, 
and these are respectively known as the primary, intermediate and the 
high schools. The primary school, as the schools are now arranged, is 
on River street; the intermediate on Lincoln street; and the high 
school, "on the hill," has both primary and high school departments. 

Education in Woodstock, or in the immediate vicinity, had a begin- 
ning as humble as that of any other of its institutions. The first school- 
house was built in what is now the east part of the village, where stands 
the present residence of Prosper Merrill, about the year 1797. But the 
district soon outgrew this ancient building and the provision for another 
became a matter of necessity. For the purpose, during the year 18 12, 
the building committee, comprised of three men, Lyman Mower, Sylves- 
ter Edson and Eben King, selected lands on the common, just west of 
where the court-house then stood, and here caused to be built the first 
really substantial school-building of the village. This was a plain, 
substantial two- story brick building and answered the purpose of prin- 
cipal school from the time of its erection down through the years 
of the village's early growth to the time of incorporation, 1836; and 
thence until the time of its sale or exchange for the present high school 
land, which exchange was made on April 7, 1853, between the com- 
mittee of District No. 8 and Lyman Mower. The old school building 
was converted into a dwelling house and is now the residence of W. L. 

Soon after the exchange with Mr. Mower the village caused the pres- 
ent elegant and commodious high school building to be erected. These, 
of course, have been the public schools, those established and supported 

264 History of Windsor County. 

at the general expense ; but, in addition to them, there have been started 
in the village at various times select or private schools, and some of 
these were institutions of considerable prominence during the period of 
their existence. 

Bankitig Institutions of Woodstock. — As long ago as the year 1806 
the Legislature passed an act that brought into existence the Vermont 
State Bank, an institution to be directly under the control and patronage 
of the State, but provided with officers and directors in the several 
localities in which its branches were established. The Vermont State 
Bank at first consisted of two branches, one at Middlebury and the 
other at Woodstock. The first officers of the bank were Titus Hutch- 
inson, president, and Job Lyman, cashier for Woodstock branch. The 
directors appointed for the Woodstock branch were John Mattox, Titus 
Hutchinson, Elias Lyman, Mark Richards, James Tarbox, Benjamin 
Swan and Alex. Campbell. 

"The next year (1807) ^^^'o additional branches were established, one 
at Burlington and the other at Westminster. All the stock of the bank, 
and all the profits arising therefrom, were to be the property of the 
State, and all the concerns of the bank were to be under the control and 
direction of the Legislature forever. The inmiediate management of 
the bank was to be committed to thirteen directors, to be chosen an- 
nually by the Legislature, and who were to elect one of their number 
president of the bank." It was under these provisions that Titus Hutch- 
inson was elected president, as above stated. 

" The bank at length went into operation, but the anticipations of the 
people were not to be realized. What had appeared so fair and plaus- 
ible in theory was found to work very badly in practice, and, although 
a history of the Vermont State Bank would afford an instructive lesson 
to the present and future generation, we have neither materials nor 
room for it here. Suffice it to say, its affairs were soon found to be in 
inexplicable confusion, and the institution insolvent. Various acts of 
legislation were resorted to for sustaining it, notwithstanding which its 
condition grew worse and worse, and within five years from its estab- 
lishment affairs were put in train for winding up its concerns. The 
Legislature in 181 i passed an act directing the removal of the West- 
minster branch to Woodstock, and the next year for the removal of the 


Village of Woodstock. 265 

branches at Burlington and Middlebury to the same place, and also or- 
dering all bills of said bank to be burned, except what were necessary 
for the payment of checks due from the bank. In 1814 an act was 
passed ordering the treasurer of the State to burn all the bills of the 
State bank in his possession, excepting such as he deemed necessary to 
meet demands upon the treasury." ^ 

The Bank of Woodstock. — The unfortunate ending of the old Vermont 
State Bank did not seem to have any lasting effect upon the people, who 
one time declaimed against such institutions in general, for, when the 
Bank of Woodstock was incorporated, November 9, 1831, and the stock 
books opened at Barker's Hotel, more by far than two thousand shares 
were subscribed for and the requisite cash paid into the hands of the 
committee. On the 5th of April the stockholders elected a board of di- 
rectors as follows : Lyman Mower, Charles Dana, George W. Rice, Si- 
mon Warren, and John Pettes. The directors then elected Lyman 
Mower president, and Lyndon A. Marsh, cashier of the bank. Thus the 
old Bank of Woodstock was brought into existence and commenced 
business, but never was known as a highly prosperous concern. But 
without any comment on the vicissitudes it experienced during the pe- 
riod of its existence, it is sufficient to state that its affairs were wound 
up and it passed out of being with the expiration of its charter, being 
succeeded, merged into, or absorbed by 

The Woodstock Bank. — On the 26th of October, 1844, the Legisla- 
ture of Vermont incorporated an institution by the name of Windsor 
County Bank, to have its principal place of business at Woodstock; but 
one of the conditions of the charter was that the bank should not begin 
its business operations before the 1st of January, 1847, and not later 
than the ist of May of the same year. Its capital stock was fixed at 
$60,000 in two thousand shares. But on the 22d of October, 1845, 
the Legislature passed another act, by which the former was amended, 
and the name changed to Woodstock Bank, by which name it was 
known when its doors opened for business in January, 1847. This bank 
was well managed and did a successful business under the presidency of 
Oliver P. Chandler, and thecashiership of Eliakim Johnson. Before the 
charter of the Woodstock Bank expired the National banking act had 

1" Thompson's Vermont," 

266 History of Windsor County. 

gone into effect, and the directors of the bank decided to avail them- 
selves of the provisions of the act, and not. ask for a renewal of their 
charter under the State law. 

The Woodstock National Bank. — This bank was the direct outgrowth 
of the Woodstock Bank, just mentioned, and was incorporated April 17, 
1865, with a capital stock of $100,000. Its first officers were: Presi- 
dent, Oliver P. Chandler ; vice-president, Philo Hatch ; cashier, Elia- 
kim Johnson; directors, Oliver P. Chandler, John Porter, Philo Hatch, 
Julius Converse and Eliakim Johnson. Mr. Chandler resigned from the 
presidency and direction of the bank in January, 1869, and was suc- 
ceeded by Frederick Billings, who still remains in that office. The orig- 
inal cashier, Mr. Johnson, continued in the position of cashier until his 
death, October 21, 1862, upon which Henry C. Johnson was elected 
cashier, and has so remained to the present. On January 14, 1873, 
William E. Hazen was appointed assistant cashier, and in August, 1875, 
was succeeded by the present incumbent, Frederick W. Wilder. 

As has been stated, the original capital stock of the bank was fixed at 
$100,000, but on the 14th of July, 1865, it was increased to $150,000, 
and, again, on January ii, 1867, to $200,000. On June 10, 1872, the 
stock was still further increased to $300,000. The Woodstock National 
Bank has a present surplus of some $60,000, and is officered and man- 
aged as follows : President, Frederick Billings ; vice-president, Oliver P. 
Chandler ; cashier, Henry C. Johnson ; assistant cashier, Frederick W. 
Wilder ; directors, Frederick Billings, Oliver P. Chandler, Frank N. 
Billings, William E. Johnson, William E. Dewey. 

The Ottangnechee Savings Bank. — This institution, tlie only savings 
bank ever established in the village, was incorporated November 13,1 847, 
and opened its doors for business in January, 1848, under the manage- 
ment of the following board of trustees and officers : Trustees, Thomas 
E. Powers, Thomas Russell, Owen Taft, Joel Eaton, Lyndon A. Marsh, 
Henry W. English, Charles S. Raymond, Nahum Haskell, Charles W. 
Warren, Oel Billings, Reuben Daniels and Otis Chamberlin. Officers : 
John Porter, president; Ammi Willard, vice-president ; Elihu Johnson, 
treasurer ; Norman Williams, secretary. 

The Ottauquechee Savings Bank has ever been looked upon and re- 
garded as one of the substantial business institutions of the village, one 


Village of Woodstock. 267 

that has ever been well managed, and a source of profit to its managers 
and depositors as well. When started, and for a number of years thereafter, 
it was usual to open the bank for business on but two days of the week, 
but the business of the concern at length became so extensive, and de- 
positors to numerous, that the doors were opened every business day of 
the week. The bank, too, owns the building at present occupied, having 
acquired the same by conveyance from Morris Fairbanks. The deposits 
of the bank at present amount to about $530,000. The present officers 
are as follows : James B. Jones, president ; Crosby Miller, vice-president ; 
Charles F. Chapman, secretary and treasurer; trustees, James B.Jones, 
Alvin Hatch, Edwin Hazen, Norman Paul, Crosby Miller, Charles H. 
Maxham, Henr}'^ W. Walker, William S. Dewey, J. Walker Parker, Frank 
S. Mackenzie, William S. Hewitt ; board of investors, James B. Jones, 
Alvin Hatch, Edwin Hazen, Norman Paul, Charles F. Chapman. 

Industries. — As a manufacturing center Woodstock has never attracted 
any considerable attention, nor does there seem ever to have been a great 
desire on the part of the people here to build up such enterprises, al- 
though the facilities for cheap and abundant water-power along the Oue- 
chee and South branches are all that could be desired for manufacturing 
purposes. But however inconsiderable may have been the manufactur- 
ing industries of the village, the place has by no means been entirely de- 
void of them, and those that have been carried on were of some impor- 
tance and extent. 

Manufacturing in the vicinity of the village, or what afterwards became 
the village, may be said to have commenced when Joab Hoisington put 
into operation a saw and grist-mill, somewhere about the year 1776. But 
the product of these mills was used entirely in the home market. The 
first considerable industry of prominence was the oil-mill of Jacob Wilder, 
which was established during the latter part of 1792, and had its seat of 
operation on the South branch of the Ouechee, not far from the village 
proper ; but this old establishment experienced all the vicissitudes any 
industry could well be subjected to ; passed through various owners, and 
was the seat of various munufactures, being finally converted into a foun- 
dry by R. D. Granger, and by him sold to Daniel Taft, and then moved 
from the locality to become a part of the Taft industry at Taftsville. This 
was about 1836. 

268 History of Windsor County. 

In the west part of the village, on the north side of the river, stands a 
large brick building, a monument to past prosperity and subsequent ad- 
versity, and which is generally known as the old Woodstock woolen - 
mills, or the Woodward Mills. In former times this location was known 
as Mower's Mills, although the water at this point was first diverted and 
utilized about the year 1790, when Dr. Powers built the dam and erected 
a saw and grist-mill. This property passed to the ownership of Henry 
Mower & Co. in 1803, and five years later to Samuel Chandler. From 
this time forward, for some twenty-five years, the property underwent 
many changes in proprietorship as well as manufactures, and finally, in 
1835, w^s purchased b)'- the Woodstock Manufacturing Company, a cor- 
poration having an authorized capital stock of large proportions, and, 
what was still better (for certain purposes), a shrewd manager named 
Samuel Ford, by whose persistent efforts a number of local capitalists 
were induced to make investments in the enterprise. This company 
erected the extensive brick factory building and others in the neighbor- 
hood, for the use of the company and its employees. The company, 
however, never developed manufactures to any great extent, but did suc- 
ceed in building up an indebtedness of splendid proportions, upon which 
the property was sold to Solomon Woodward in 1847 to be used as a 
woolen factory. Extensive alterations and repairs to the building and 
adjoining property were made, among which was the removal of the old 
saw and grist-mills, and the erection of more substantial structures in 
their places. Mr. Woodward continued business here until about the 
year 1877, but the returns were not particularly gratifying, especially 
during the later }ears of operations, and the property finally passed into 
the estate of the late A. T. Stewart, of New York, and then into the 
charge of Judge Hilton, and now the whole Stewart- Hilton property, 
here and elsewhere, is the subject of litigation, cannot be transferred or 
perfect title given. 

Near the site where now stands the extensive tannery buildings and 
works of B. F. Standish, Elder Jasper Harvey, in 1832, located the 
building formerly known as the West meeting-house, which he had pur- 
chased and moved here, and converted into a tannery. It was operated 
by Clement & Stillson for a few years, changed hands frequently, and 
finally became the property of Perkins & Standish. The buildings were 

^^^T-^-T^ dk^^i^^^ ClyL 


ViLLAGfi OF Woodstock. 26g 

destroyed by fire in September, 1873, but a new and more commodious 
tannery was soon afterwards built by Mr. Standish, who has carried on 
the business ever since. Concerning the Standish tannery, it may be 
said to be about the only present industry of the village, the product o^ 
which is shipped to and sold in other than local markets. 

T/ie Woodstock Gaslight Company, one of the two local improvement 
companies of the village, was chartered by an act of the Legislature on 
the 9th of November, 1855. During the succeeding year the company 
was in full operation, although a number of years passed before the 
street and service pipes were laid to their present extent. The first 
board of directors was composed of Thomas E. Powers, Solomon Wood- 
ward and George Mellish. Mr. Powers was chosen president of the 

Hotels. — The history of hotel life and business in Woodstock village 
commenced when Joab Hoisington procured an inn or tavern-keeper's 
license from the Cumberland County Court in 1772, and arranged his 
humble log cabin for the accommodation of the traveling public. This 
worthy resident must have recognized the necessity for such a house of 
entertainment and rest for the wayfarer, but just how long he acted in 
the capacity of host or landlord is not known, but it was only for a short 
time, a few years, perhaps. 

In 1787 Captain Richardson erected a tavern on the park tract, but 
the building was afterwards moved to a location further north, off the 
common, and is still standing, next east of the Hatch House. Its use 
for tavern purposes was discontinued about 1822. In 1793 two hotel 
buildings were put up in the village, one on the corner where now stands 
the Churchill dwelling, but which was only used as a tavern for a short 
time, and the other on the site of the present Eagle Hotel ; in fact, the 
same building, although during the nearly hundred years of its exist- 
ence it has been so frequently repaired and remodeled as to have lost 
all of its original appearance. It was built by Captain Richardson, and 
was a plain, two-story frame building with a single story extension. It 
afterward became the property of Titus Richardson, who, in 1822, built 
the brick addition on the east end of the house. In 1830 Cutting & 
Phillips were proprietors, under whom the piazzas were built and the 
house enlarged by building a third story. Under their ownership, also, 

±y6 History of Windsor County. 

the house was christened " Eagle Hotel," and a gilded eagle " hung 
out" for a sign. In 1867 another story was added to the main part of 
the house. In 1848 the brick addition on the east was sold to the Sons 
of Temperance for a hall, and was so used until the early part of 1885, 
when it was destroyed by fire. Mr. F. B. Merrill then bought the 
property, rebuilt the burned part, and made it a part of the hotel. He 
retired from the proprietorship of the hotel in 1889, being succeeded by 
Arthur B. Wilder, who is now its proprietor. 

Another of the old hotel buildings of the village was that which was 
erected at the corner of Elm and Central streets, by Elisha Taylor in 
1796, and known as the Village Hotel. In 18 19 this became the prop- 
erty of Robert Barker, and was one of the most popular resorts in the 
town. In 1835 it was sold to Samuel Whitney, and by the latter, in 
1856, to Oilman Henry, both of whom were proprietors of the hotel 
during the periods of their ownership. The old building experienced 
nearly as many changes as did the rival house, the Eagle, for one land- 
lord seldom allows himself to be outdone by a competitor. But, un 
fortunately for the old Village Hotel, and possibly for its owner, too, the 
whole concern was, in March, 1867, destroyed by fire, and in its place 
there was erected the present substantial business block. 

The "Park Cottage" Hotel, now owned and managed by "Landlord" 
Pales, is one of the later-day institutions of the village, having been 
made over into a hotel in 1884. The old building here has been vari- 
ously used: was erected early in the century, and occupied as a store, 
saddler's shop, school-house, dwelling, and finally put to its present 
occupancy by Mr. Fales in 1884. 

The Woodstock Acquediict Company. — The subject of supplying the 
village of Woodstock with pure and wholesome water from some of the 
outlying streams of the town began to be agitated about the year 
1878, and the matter was made the subject of consideration at the vil- 
lage meeting held in January, 1879. At that meeting Oliver P. Chand- 
ler, Justin F. Mackenzie and Charles Chapman were chosen a commit- 
tee to " inquire as to the feasibility of obtaining a supply of water from 
Blake Hill, or other hills of the vicinity." The committee made diligent 
examination into the matter of their duty, and on January 5, 1880, re- 
ported to the meeting the results of their investigations, together with 

Village of Woodstock. 271 

an estimate of the probable expense of the entire enterprise, which they 
placed at seventeen thousand dollars. The report was accepted and 
ordered to lie on the table. It may be stated, further, that the report 
remained on the table, and the village made no further discussion of the 

In the year 1880 a number of enterprising citizens of the village pro- 
cured from the Legislature an act of incorporation of fhe Woodstock 
Acqueduct Company, having a capital stock of $36,000, in shares of 
$50 each. The company, however, did nothing in the matter of carry- 
ing out the object of its incorporation until the year 1887, when a reser- 
voir was built on Thomas Brook, and water mains laid from that point 
to and through the streets of the village, imder the management and 
direction of the following persons : J. J. Randall, designing engineer ; 
T. William Harris, constructing engineer and subcontractor; con- 
tractors, R. D. Wood & Co. The main pipe from the reservoir is 
of eight-inch iron, while the street pipes are six and four inches in diam- 
eter, the latter size predominating. The company now has about seven 
miles of main laid, and is patronized by about one hundred and sixty 
water takers. The village is supplied with twenty-eight hydrants, located 
at convenient points, ready for instant use in case of fire. 

The company is under the following management : President, Frank 
N. Billings; vice-president, Frank S. Mackenzie; secretary, H. C. 
Phillips ; treasurer, Frederick W. Wilder. 

The Windsor County Agricjiltnral Society. — While this organization 
may be, perhaps, one of the institutions of the county rather than of the 
village, it has always had its chief seat of operation and its location for 
annual exhibitions in or near Woodstock, and has come to be regarded 
as one of the established institutions of the locality; and, so being, it is 
proper that some mention be made of it in this connection. 

As far back as the year 1820 there was organized what was known 
as the Agricultural Society for the County of Windsor ; and in that 
year officers were chosen as follows : President, William Jarvis ; vice- 
presidents, Zebina Curtis, Jabez Proctor and Titus Hutchinson ; secretary, 
Norman Williams. The first exhibition given under the direction of the 
society was that of September 20, 1821. The society held one or two 
annual exhibitions and then quietly passed out of existence. 

272 History of Windsor County. 

In 1846 a new society, the present one, was organized, and from that 
time to the present has given an annual exhibition. In 1855 the present 
"fair grounds" were purchased, and here the society have erected 
buildings sufficient for the accommodation of all stock and other exhibits, 
of every character, that may be offered. It has been the great aim of 
the gentlemen that comprise the society to offer to exhibitors as good 
inducements by way of accommodations and premiums as does any 
similar organization in the State ; and that their efforts in this direction 
have been entirely successful is attested by the fact that the attendance 
and display at the annual meetings of the society are not inferior to those 
of any other county. The premises and buildings, too, are kept in the 
best condition possible, and premiums are paid in full, without con- 
ditions. During the year 1889 various improvements were made, at an 
expense to the society of three or four thousand dollars. The officers 
of the society are as follows : President, Joseph C. Parker of Hartford ; 
first vice-president, Edwin C. Emmons of Woodstock ; second vice- 
president. Homer W. Vail of Pomfret ; secretary, Henry B. Reed of 
Woodstock; treasurer, Norman Paul of Woodstock. 

Masonic. — The first Masonic organization that found a resting place 
in Woodstock is understood as having been Warren Lodge, which was 
instituted in the year 1804; and of which Alexander Hutchinson was 
master; Benjamin Emmons, senior warden; William Perry, junior war- 
den; Benjamin Swan, treasurer; and William Strong, secretary. The 
lodge dissolved its organization and surrendered its charter in the year 
1827. This was followed by another similar organization which has 
been called " Washington Mark Master's Lodge," and which was in 
existence for some ten or fifteen years prior to 1829. 

Woodstock Lodge, No. ^i, F. and A. M., was granted a dispensation 
by the Grand Lodge on the 13th of January, 1853, and was chartered on 
the 1st of January, 1854. The lodge was organized under the dispen- 
sation, and the following were its first officers: Lubcn Putnam, W. M.; 
O. H. McKenzie, S. W.; Eben Tracey, J. W.; John A. Pratt, secretary ; 
Joel Eaton, treasurer; Augustus Palmer, S. D.; Daniel Taft, jr., J. D. 

Past Masters. — Luben Putnam, O. H. McKenzie, Ebenezer Tracey, 
Augustus Palmer, Edwin Hutchinson, Edwin Hazen, Joseph S. Rich- 
mond, OwenT. Marsh, Robert S. Southgate, Jc^hn S. Eaton, Orlando VV. 

Town of Woodstock. * 273 

Sherwin, Ezra H. Lovell, Joseph S. Richmond, Charles M. Marsh, E. P. 
Tewksbury, George H. Moss, James VV. Hazen, J. K. Hoadley. 

Present Officers.— C. R. Montague, W. M.; George W. Marble, S. VV.; 
George Aitken, J. W.; VV. S. Hewitt, treasurer; E. R. Jewett, secretary; 
C. F. Merrill, S. D.; F. B. Dana, J. D.; M. E. Hapgood, S. S.; VV. H. 
Brown, J. S.; A. B. Jaquith. tyler. 

Ottaiiqiiechee Chapter, No. 31, R. A. M. — An application for a dispen- 
sation for a chapter of Royal Arch Masons was made to the Grand 
Lodge of this State in March, 1867 ; and on the i8th of October follow- 
ing a charter was granted that established Ottauquechee Chapter, No. 2i- 
The petition was signed by D. L. Howe, Nathan Gushing, Edwin Hazen, 
J. S. Richmond, Ira Wood, Nathan Woodbury, O. E. Ross, Norman 
Williams, Julius Converse and Lyman Mower. The first officers were 
J. S. Richmond, H. P.; Edvvin Hazen, K.; O. E. Ross, scribe; Luben 
Putnam, C. H ; D. L. Howe, P. S.; Nathan Gushing, R. A. C; Lyman 
Mower, M. 3d V.; Ira Wood, M. 2d V.; Daniel Taft, M. ist V.; Julius 
Converse, treasurer; Nathan Woodbury, secretary; Joseph Churchill, 

Past High Priests. — Joseph S. Richmond, Edwin Hazen, Owen T. 
Marsh, O. W. Sherwin, VV. J. Boyce. Officers for 1889: VV. J. Boyce, 
H. P.; E. P. Tewksbury, king; O. L. Richmond, scribe; C. W. Say- 
ward, treasurer; G. H. Mass, secretary; A. N. Logan, C. H.; C. R. 
Montague, P. S.; O. L. Seaver, R. A. C; W. H. Seaver, M. 3d V.; 
George Aitken, M. 2d V.; W. F. Jones, M. ist V.; I. C. Mower, senti- 
nel. Present membership, 70. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — The first steps in the matter of organ- 
izing a post in Woodstock were taken during or about the year 1881, and 
the result was the granting of a charter by the State Department, G. A. R., 
to Sheridan Post, of Woodstock. This post was at one time a flourish- 
ing organization, at least so far as membership was concerned; but on ac- 
count of certain regulations that required too much time, it was thought 
to become a full member, (passing through the several degrees — recruits, 
soldiers, and veterans,) the post became unpopular, lost its organization, 
and finally passed out of existence. 

George C. Randall Post, No. 82, Department of Vermont, G. A. R., 
was organized at Woodstock, December 15, 1884, with the following of- 


274 History of Windsor County. 

ficers: Colonel Thomas O. Seaver, commander; William C. Whipple, 
S. V. C; P^dwin C. Emmons, J. V. C; Dr. Henry Boynton, surgeon; 
John S. Eaton, officer of the day ; Lucius W. Wilson, officer of guard ; 
Henry H. Woodbury, adjutant; John Oilman, O. M ; George W. Paul, 
Sergt.-Maj.; Charles H. English, Q. M.-Sergt; Rev. H. A. Van Dusen, 
chaplain (appt. January, 1885). 

Randall Post has a present membership of one hundred and sixteen 
persons, which includes nearly every ex-soldier of the village and vicin- 
ity. Regular meetings are held each month, on the Saturday before the 
"moon fulls." An annual camp-fire is held on the 226. of February, 
and Memorial Day is regularly observed. 

Present Officers. — Henry Boynton, M. D., commander; E. C. Em- 
mons, S. V. C; W. C. Vaughn, J. V. C; H. H. Woodbury, Adjt.; Na- 
than Cutting, O. M ; Lucius W. Wilson, O. D.; Andrew McKain, O. G.; 
Henry B. Reed, surgeon; George W. Paul, Sergt. -Major ; Charles H. 
English, O. M.-Sergt. 

Connected with the post is a Relief Corps known as " Randall W. R, 
C, No. 26," comprising about forty ladies of Woodstock and adjoining 

T/ie Toiv7i Representatives. — The position of Representative in the 
General Assembly is without doubt the principal town office ; and as 
other chapters have contained the succession of incumbents of this office, 
it is proper that the same be given in this connection, that is, the names of 
the several persons who have been elected to the General Assembly from 
the town of Woodstock, as follows: 1778, (March) John Strong, Joseph 
Safford ; 1778, (October) John Strong, Phineas Williams ; 1779, Phineas 
Williams, John Strong; 1780, John Strong, Warren Cottle; 1 781, Jesse 
Safford, Warren Cottle; 1782, John Strong, Jabez Cottle ; 1783, Jesse 
Safford, Phineas Thomas ; 1784, Jabez Cottle, Jesse Safford ; 1785, Jesse 
Safford; 1786-7, Benjamin Emmons ; 1788, Jesse Safford ; 1789, War- 
ren Cottle; 1790, Jesse Safford; 1791, Jesse Safford (January), Benja- 
min Emmons (October); 1792-94, Benjamin Emmons; 1795, Jabez 
Cottle; 1796, Benjamin Emmons ; 1897-8, Jesse Williams ; 1799, Jabez 
Bennett; 1800-1803, Benjamin Emmons; 1804, Titus Hutchinson; 
1805, Jabez Cottle ; 1806-10, Titus Hutchinson; 1 811, Joseph Wood ; 
18 1 2, Titus Hutchinson; 1813-15, Henry C. Denison ; 1816-17, Ste- 

Town of Windsor. 275 

phen Farnsworth ; 1818-19, Daniel Dana; 1820, Rowland Simmons; 
1 82 1, Titus Hutchinson; 1822-3, Jasper Hazen ; 1824-5, Titus Hutch- 
inson; 1826, Richard M. Ransom; 1827, Billy Brown; 1828, Richard 
M.Ransom; 1829, Sylvester Edson ; 1830, Lysander Raymond ; 1831, 
Billy Brown ; 1832-33, Jason Kendall; 1834, Daniel Taft ; 1835, Lysan- 
der Raymond; 1836, Tracy Brigham ; 1837-8, John Moulton ; 1839- 
41, Oliver P. Chandler; 1842-4, Andrew Tracy; 1845-6, Nathan T. 
Churchill; 1847-9, Julius Converse; 1850-52, Thomas E. Powers; 
1853-4, Peter T. Washburn; 1855-6, Thomas E. Powers; 1857-9, 
George R. Chapman; 1860-61, Eliakim Johnson; 1862-3, Oliver P. 
Chandler; 1864-5, Lewis Pratt ; 1866, Charles Marsh; 1867-8, Julius 
Converse; 1869-71, Lorenzo Richmond; 1872-5, Henry Boynton ; 
1876-7, Warren C. French; 1878-9, Horace C. Lockwood ; 1880-81, 
Justin F. Mackenzie; 1882-3, Larnard C. Kendall ; 1884-5, George B. 
French; 1886-90, Charles P. Marsh. 



DURING that period of our country's history that has ah^ays been 
referred to as the period of the early French wars, the valley of the 
Connecticut River was a prominent and frequently traveled thoroughfare 
for the passage of troops and other smaller bodies of armed men be- 
tween the New England colonies on the south and the upper Connecti- 
cut country, the Canadas, and the Champlain region on the north and 
northwest. Thus the vicinity wherein is situate the present town of 
Windsor became known to the pioneers of New England long before 
any settlement was made in the locality, and before any provincial Gov- 
ernor had assumed to make grants of towns in the region of Vermont 
east of the Green Mountains. 

In 1724 the New England colonies had become sufficiently large to 
warrant an extension of settlement in various localities, to the northward, 
and some of the venturesome spirits moved up the valley of the Connec- 

276 History of Windsor County. 

ticut and planted a settlement and built a fortress, which they called Fort 
Dummer, under the belief that the location lay within the provincial 
boundaries of Massachusetts. This action opened anew a controversy 
that had previously existed between the authorities of the provinces of 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts relative to the boundary lines be- 
tween them ; and this dispute was finally terminated by the royal decree 
of 1740, by which the north line of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
as it was called, was fixed upon as being somewhat to the southward of 
the Dummerston settlement, and the Litter was therefore brought within 
the jurisdiction of New Hampshire, and has ever since been conspicuous 
in history as the first civilized settlement within the borders of what 
afterward became the State of Vermont. 

In the year 1741 Benning Wentworth became governor of the prov- 
ince of New Hampshire. He must have known of the controversy be- 
tween his own province and Massachusetts, and of its determination the 
year before his appointment ; and there are very good reasons for the 
belief that he understood the provincial government of New York to 
claim the right of jurisdiction over the lands north of the Massachusetts 
north line, and eastward as far as the Connecticut River, although the 
governor of New York had made no considerable grants in this territory, 
and therefore, not being occupied, no direct acts of jurisdictional exercise 
could well be made. But Benning Wentworth, if his biographers' state- 
ments are to be relied upon, loved gain as he loved power ; performed 
acts sometimes questionable in character and took the chances of results, 
and made grants of towns for consideration and reserved to himself 
considerable tracts in each for his own personal emolument. But it 
must in no manner be assumed that his grantees were parties to his 
methods, for such was not the case ; but that he enriched himself at 
their expense cannot be disputed. 

On the 3d of January, 1749, Governor Wentworth made a grant of a 
town of land on the extreme western boundary of what he assumed 
to be his territory, making a contmuation of the Massachusetts west line 
the western boundary of the tract, and this he named " Bennington," in 
allusion to his Christian name. This being done, he acquainted the 
governor of New York with his action, asking that officer in brief what 
he thought about it. This was followed by a controversy between these 

■'■'H^'-iy^}i H'.tcl^.lf 

^J^-^£^^d ^ (^rh^.xj>uzj McJ)^ 

Town of Windsor. 277 

provinces that was continued until the year 1764, at which time the 
decree of the king fixed the eastern boundary of the province of New 
York at the west bank of the Connecticut River; and from, that time 
forth Benning Wentworth took no part in the controversy that ensued 
between the actual settlers under his charters and the aggressive prov- 
ince of New York. He offered them no protection or assistance ; gave 
them no advice nor comforting assurance ; but left them to work out 
their own salvation as best they could After the charter of Bennington 
town, Governor Wentworth made occasional grants of other towns, 
but not many until about 1760 or 1761, when, fearing the influ- 
ence of New York with the king, he went boldly and rapidly into this 
business, chartering towns right and left, despite the protests from New 
York, so that, by the time the king's order of 1764 was promulgated, 
nearly all the then inhabitable lands west of the Connecticut had been 
granted by him. 

CJiarter of Windsor. — On the 6th of July, 176 1, Governor Wentworth 
issued charters for three towns of land on what was then and for 
years afterward known by the general name of New Hampshire Grants, 
which three towns were respectively named Windsor, Reading and 
Saltash, the name of the latter, however, being subsequently changed to 
Plymouth. These towns embraced a strip of land approximately six 
miles wide, north and south, and extended from the west bank of the 
Connecticut River to the mountainous region of the interior, for of such 
is the charter of Plymouth. 

The charter by which the town of Windsor was brought into exist- 
ence was not materially different from the great majority of the towns 
granted by Governor Wentworth, and contained the customary reserva- 
tions of land: the five hundred acres for the use of the grantor himself, 
which was to be accounted two shares; one whole share for the incor- 
porated society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts ; one 
whole share for the first settled minister of the gospel ; one share for a 
glebe for the Church of England as by k\w established ; and one share 
for the benefit of a public school in said town. In the charter fifty-nine 
grantees were named, and the lands of the town were to be divided into 
sixty-five shares, inclusive of those reserved for the purposes set forth 
above. Another provision of the charter was to the effect that the first 

278 History of Windsor County. 

meeting of the proprietors " for the choice of town officers, agreeable to 
the laws of our said province, shall be held on the first Wednesday of 
August (1761), which said meeting shall be notified by Samuel Ashley, 
esq., who' also is appointed moderator of the first meeting," etc. 

The first movement on the part of the worthy proprietors after re- 
ceiving their charter was to meet and organize and choose town officers 
according to the grant; but it is hardly thought that the first meeting 
was held as directed by the charter, for there is no record of such meet- 
ing, and the general tenor of the records of a meeting held in September, 
1761, would lead to the impression that this was the first meeting. And 
these old prorietors had a rather loose manner of recording the trans- 
actions of their meetings, the minutes being made on any sheet or scrap 
of paper that happened to be most convenient, and it was not until the 
year 1 769, or about that time, that the proprietors made any move in 
the matter of procuring a record book in which to enter their proceed- 
ings ; and it was not procured then, apparently, as the minutes are found 
on pieces of paper until the year 1771, after which and well on toward 
1789 no records of proprietors' or tcnvn meetings are to be found. 

The first meeting of the proprietors, just referred to, was held at the 
house of Hilikiah Grout, innholder, in Winchester, New Hampshire, 
" agreeable to an act passed in said province of New Hampshire, em- 
powering proprietors to call meetings." Upon this occasion the as- 
sembled proprietors chose Colonel Josiah Willard, moderator ; Dr. 
Thomas Frink, proprietors' clerk; Lieutenant Joshua Lyman, Lieuten- 
ant Samuel Ashley and Dr. Thomas Frink, assessors ; Colonel Josiah 
Willard, collector; and Lieutenant Samuel Ashley, treasurer. Also, 
Colonel Josiah Willard, Captain Zedekiah Stone, Lieutenant Samuel 
Ashley, Philip Mattoon. Josiah Willard, jr., Josiah Willard, Samuel 
Stone and Simeon Alexander were chosen a committee " to view and lot 
out said town." And it was voted to pay Colonel Josiah Willard three 
dollars on each right to defray tlie charges of the charter and plan ; 
also voted to raise three dollars on each right to defray the charges of 
" lotting out said land and other incident charges." 

The next meeting of the proprietors was held at the house of landlord 
Hilikiah Grout on the I2th of April, 1762, at which time Lieutenant 
Samuel Ashley was chosen moderator. From the fact that it was then 

Town of Windsor. 279 

voted "to draw house lots and meadow lots as laid out on the plan," it 
is to be assumed that the committee chosen at the former meeting had 
completed the work of viewing and laying out the town, at least far 
enough to permit the first drawing of lots. But at this meeting Captain 
Zedekiah Stone and David Page were added to the committee " for the 
building of mills and laying out roads," which committee was the same 
referred to as authorized to view and lay out the first division of town 
lots. At a meeting held August 24, 1763, at Hilikiah Grout's house. 
Seth Field was chosen moderator. The principal business of this meet- 
ing was the proceeding by which it was voted " to grant Israel Curtis 
fifty acres of land adjoining the Mill Brook, so called, in the town ol 
Windsor, in what form he thinks best, leaving the common land in good 
form ; and leaving ten acres between said brook and house lot number 
forty-one for a meeting-house place, training field and burying yard ; 
reserving suitable roads in said land for the use of the town, six rods 
wide. Said ten acres to be left adjoining the south side of the house lot 
number forty-one. This done in case the above named Israel Curtis 
shall give a bond to the committee to see that mills are built, of one 
hundred pounds sterling money of Great Britain, to build a saw-mill in 
said town of Windsor by the ist day of August, 1764, and to build a 
grist mill as soon as there shall be twenty inhabitants that shall raise 
one acre of grain apiece in said town ; and that said Curtis shall have 
the privilege of said Mill stream, so called." 

Thus the reader will observe that the proprietors were industriously 
engaged in preparing the way for settlement in the lands of the town, 
by laying out lots, cutting roads, constructing bridges and building 
mills, even before there was a single occupant upon the soil, holding 
under color of title. During this and the preceding year these pre- 
liminary measures were arranged for, and the work of carrying them , 
into effect was performed as soon as practicable. In 1764 the first set- 
tlement in the town is generally understood as having begun ; and that 
by the arrival of Captain Steele Smith and his family. This is accord- 
ing to the statements of nearly all past writers of the town's history ; 
and since the most recent publication on the subject no new facts are de- 
veloped that would incline to a different view of the matter. It may be 
remarked, however, that a recent authority has stated that Captain Steele 

28o History of Windsor County. 

Smith was accompanied by two other pioneers, one of whom was Joab 
Hoisington and the other Solomon Emmons, and that their coming here 
was in company ; that on arriving, Captain Smith did leap from the 
canoe and cut the proverbial first tree in the town. But it is quite 
questionable whether the honor, if such it be, of cutting the first tree 
properly belonged to the worthy captain, for the proceedings of the 
proprietors' meetings would tend to show that the committee must have 
made some improvements before 1764, that in their performance would 
have necessitated the cutting of a number of trees. But the tradition 
of Captain Smith having cut the first tree is so long established that it is 
come to be looke.l upon as a fixed fact, and we are not disposed to de- 
stroy so romantic and pleasant an allusion by the advocacy of an oppos- 
ing theory, however strong may be the facts in support thereof 

On the subject of pioneer settlement Zadock Thompson, a recognized 
authority, says: "The first permanent settlement in the town was com- 
menced by Captain Steele Smith, who removed his family from Farm- 
ington, Conn., to this town, in August, 1764. At that time there was 
no road north of Charlestown, N. H. The next season Major Elisha 
Hawley, Captain Israel Curtis, Deacon Hezekiah Thompson, Deacon 
Thomas Cooper, and some others, came on and began improvements. 
There was, however, a man by the name of Solomon Emmons, and his 
wife, who had erected a hut, and were living here when Captain Smith 
arrived, But had not purchased the land, or made any improvements 
with a view to a permanent settlement. Mrs. Emmons was the first and 
for some time the only white woman who resided in the town." 

Whether or not Joab Hoisington and Solomon Emmons weie with 
Captain Smith when he came to the town is a question that cannot be 
settled at this time ; nor is it a matter of any considerable importance. 
Joab Hoisington, whenever his coming may have been, was at all events 
a pioneer, and as such one of the foremost of the town and county. 
During his stay in the town, it is said, there occurred an unfortunate ac- 
cident, in this manner : He and a companion named Bartlett were hunt- 
ing in the forest, and for the purpose of covering as much ground as pos 
sible they separated. After a time Hoisington heard a rustling among 
the leaves and branches in the dense woods, and saw what he supposed 
was a bear, at which he fired with fatal result, but the victim of his shot 


<l/ri<-^^'-^ ^^V^JUC^t^->^ 

Town of Windsor. 281 

was his companion, Bartlett. About the year 1771 Joab Hoisington 
left Windsor and took up his abode in Woodstock, where he purchased 
lands to the extent of something hke a thousand acres, and on which the 
pleasant village of Woodstock is now situated. His log house stood on 
the corner at the east end of the park, where is now the large white 
dwelling known as the Major Nathan Churchill house. Hoisington was 
an officer of the upper regiment of militia, and stationed at Newbury, 
where, in 1777, he died. Returning briefly to the proprietors' proceed- 
ings relating to the town, it is found that on the 25th of July, 1764, 
a meeting was held at the house of Samuel Stevens, in Charlestown, N. H., 
at which time nothing of importance was done, and the meeting ad- 
journed until the 28th of August, of the same year, then to assemble at 
the house of Captain Israel Wyman, innholder, at Keene. But it ap- 
pears that on the 29th of July another meeting was held, at which time 
Dr. David Taylor was chosen proprietors' collector, and Lieutenant Sam- 
uel Hunt, Steele Smith and Enos Stevens, assessors. 

A Change of Jurisdiction. — As is already very well understood, the 
town of Windsor was brought into existence by the charter of Governor 
Wentworth, of date the 6th of July, 1761 ; and under the authority and 
power of that charter the proprietors acted and did all that has been re- 
ferred to and narrated on the preceding pages. But at the time that 
charter was made, and prior and subsequent thereto, the province of New 
York had claimed the ownership in and right to jurisdiction over all the 
lands and territory of the Green Mountain region west of the Connecti- 
cut River. This claim was of course disputed and contested by the pro- 
vincial authorities of New Hampshire, and the result was a long and bit- 
ter controversy, a war of words between the governors of the respective 
provinces, with the final result of an appeal to the king by the governor 
of NewYork, which proceeding was consented to and acquiesced in by the 
governor of New Hampshire. As far as these provinces were concerned 
the controversy was terminated by the royal decree of July 20, 1764, by 
which the west bank of the Connecticut River was determined upon as 
the eastern boundary of the province of New York. 

This action of itself would have worked no injury to the proprietors of 
Windsor, for it could not be a matter of much importance to them 
whether they belonged to the jurisdiction of New Hampshire or to that 


282 History of Windsor County. 

of NewYork, but had the preferences been consulted they unquestionably 
would have preierred remaining a part of the former province, as they 
were largely from that locaHty, accustomed to its forms of government, 
and bound to its people by the ties of relationship and affection. But, 
upon the receipt of the royal determination, the governing authorities of 
NewYork took it upon themselves to attempt to annul and set aside the 
New Hampshire charters, and to make new grants and patents of the 
lands to parties allied to the New York interest, without any offer even 
of compensation to the original proprietors, without consulting their 
wishes or inclinations, and having not the slightest regard for them, or 
for their grantees, in actual possession of the chartered lands. 

This extraordinary procedure it was that led to that famous organiza- 
tion known as the Green Mountain Boys — a band of determined men, 
who refused to yield to the New York authority and allow themselves to 
be dispossessed of their lands without payment therefor, or for the im- 
provements put upon them at the expense of years of toil and hardships. 
But we have little or nothing of the deeds of those men to record as 
transpiring within the limits of this town. That was a part of the his- 
tory of the region of the State west of the mountains, for the locality of 
the Connecticut valley country was so far removed from the scenes of 
actual strife and contention that its inhabitants were not called upon to 
participate in the events then transpiring, nor were the people here di- 
rectly attacked in their possessions. Be it said, however, to the honor of 
the proprietors of the town of Windsor, that they were in full sympathy 
with the cause for which the Green Mountain Boys were battling, al- 
though they were powerless to render that cause any substantial assist- 
ance; and being so singularly situated, they were compelled to resort to 
more peaceful methods in order to secure to themselves and their grant- 
ees the quiet and peaceable possession and enjoyment of the lands of the 

For the purpose of accomplishing this object some of the leaders of 
the proprietors at once began to bestir themselves, with the result that 
on the 29th of October, 1765, a petition signed by Zedekiah Stone, 
Nathan Stone and David Stone, in " behalf of themselves and twenty 
other persons," says Governor Tryon's charter, was " presented unto our 
trusty and well-beloved Cadwallader Golden, Esquire, our Lieutenant- 

Town of Windsor. 283 

Governor, and then our commander-in-chief of our said province of New 
York, and read in our council for our said province of New York, on the 
29th day of October, which was in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and sixty-five," etc. And further this formidable docu- 
ment, relating to the matter of the petition, says : " That the petitioners 
and their associates held the same by the said pretended grant of the 
government of New Hampshire, and thinking their title good, settled 
about sixteen families thereon. That they were willing and desirous to 
secure their property, possessions and improvements, by holding the 
same under the government of our said province of New York, and make 
further settlements upon the said tract ; and therefore the petitioners did, 
in behalf of themselves and associates, humbly pray that our said Lieut.- 
Governor would be probably pleased by our Letters Patent to grant to 
the petitioners and their associates, their heirs and assigns, the said tract 
of land containing upwards of 23,600 acres, and that the same might be 
erected into a township by the name of Windsor, and vested with the 
same powers and privileges as other towns in our said province of New 
York had and did enjoy. Which petition having been thus referred to 
the committee of our council for our said province of New York, our same 
council did, afterwards, on the same day, in pursuance of the report of 
the said committee, humbly advise our consent that our said Lieut-Gov- 
ernor should by our Letters Patent, grant to the said petitioners, associ- 
ates and their heirs, the tract of land aforesaid, under the Quit- rent pro- 
visos, limitations and restrictions prescribed by our royal institutions." 
But it appears that letters patent were not issued to Zedekiah, Nathan 
and David Stone, in behalf of themselves and their associates, as contem- 
plated by the petition presented on the 29th of October, 1765 ; nor were 
any letters patent granted, that became operative, until the 28th of March, 
1772. By an indenture deed bearing date the 9th day of October, 1776, 
the lands of the town of Windsor were conveyed by the associated pro- 
prietors and their grantees to Nathan Stone, which conveyance, it is un- 
derstood, was in the nature of a deed in trust to Nathan Stone, that he 
might act as sole owner of all except the reserved rights in the town, in 
the matter of procuring the charter from the provincial governor of New 
York ; but nowhere in the body of the instrument does it appear that 
Colonel Stone became vested with a title other than one in fee simple 

284 History of Windsor County. 

absolute. This deed was signed and sealed by Enos Stevens, Martha 
Stone, Willard Stevens, David Stone, Joshua Willard, Samuel Hunt, 
Israel Curtis, Zedekiah Stone, Samuel Stone, Thomas Cooper, Joab Hois- 
ington, Joel Stone and Steele Smith ; and it purports to have been signed, 
sealed and delivered in the presence of Andrew Norton, John Evarts, 
John Benjamin, Benjamin Wait and Caleb Stone. The deed was ac- 
knowledged by John Benjamin, one of the subscribing witnesses before 
Joseph Lord, one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the 
county of Cumberland, and one of his majesty's justices of the peace. 
Martha Stone and Willard Stevens signed the deed, but are not named 
in the acknowledgment. 

In addition to the conveyance itself the receipt of the consideration 
money, ten pounds, is acknowledged to have been paid by Colonel Stone 
to the persons following, each signing for himself, or herself, viz.: Andrew 
Norton, John Evarts, John Benjamin, Benjamin Wait, Caleb Stone, Will- 
iam Shepard, Thomas Sargeants, Samuel Stone, Joel Stone, Joab Hois- 
ington, Israel Curtis, Zedekiah Stone, Steele Smith, Samuel Hunt, Martha 
Stone, David Stone, Joshua Willard, Enos Stevens and Willard Stevens. 

Thus clothed with a deed in fee simple of all of the town's lands. Col- 
onel Nathan Stone again paid court to the government of New York, 
joined hands with William Swan and others, and finally succeeded in ob 
taining letters patent for the township of Windsor, which bore the date 
of March 28th, 1772, and were issued to said Nathan Stone and William 
Swan, and their associates, as follows : " Waldron Blair, John Abel, Will- 
iam Puntine, Michael Nan, John McGinnis, Richard McGinnis, Robert 
McGinnis, Patrick Walsh, James Abel, Edward Collum, Marinus Low, 
Edward Patten, Andries Reigher, George Klein, Thomas Lupton, Dun- 
can Robertson, Samuel Stevens, John Pessenger, George Luncom, Fran- 
cis Groome and James Cobham." 

The area of the town as mentioned in Governor Wentworth's charter 
was 23,500 acres, while according to the New York charter the entire 
area was placed at 24,500 acres, or 23,000 acers exclusive of all allow- 
ances and reservations. Subsequently in making a survey of the town, 
in order to acquire the prescribed acreage, it was found necessary to 
overlap the lands of the town of Reading on the west. This led to a 
dispute between the respective proprietors, which was finally terminated 



Original in the Possession of Mrs. W. M. EvarLs, New York. 

Town of Windsor. 285 

in the acquisition to Windsor of a considerable tract of Reading's ter- 

The charter granted by Governor Tryon reserved what was known as 
"the Governor's lot," a parcel of five hundred acres, wliich was distin- 
guished by the name of the "first lot" ; also a lot "for the use of the 
incorporated society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts," 
known as the "second lot," containing three hundred acres of land with 
the usual allowances ; also a lot " for a glebe for the use of the minister 
of the Gospel," to be known as the " third lot," containing three hundred 
acres and allowances ; also a lot to be known as the " fourth lot," for the 
use of a school-master, but the poor pedagogue was cut off with a 
single hundred acres, with allowances ; also a lot for the first settled 
minister, the " fifth lot," having an area of three hundred acres. These 
public rights were designed to be chosen from the average lands of the 
town, but there came a time when one plan or survey was missing, and 
another substituted in its place; and on the latter the reserved tracts 
were found to be located on the almost inaccessible heights, Ascutney 
Mountain, in a locality noted for the general worthlessness of its lands. 

On the 31st of March, 1772, three days later than the date of Gov- 
ernor Tryon's letters patent of the town, Colonel Stone secured a deed 
of conveyance of the interests held by his associates under the charter, 
all of whom were residents of the city of New York. The moving con- 
sideration of this conveyance was the sum of ten shillings paid by Stone 
to each of the grantors. And on the 19th of April, 1774, Goldsboro 
Banyar executed to Nathan Stone a lease of a tract of land in the north- 
west corner of the town, embracing eleven hundred and forty-five acres. 
This lease is believed to have been in the nature of a contract for the 
sale of the land to Stone, for the rental consideration was but a nominal 
sum, five shillings and one pepper-corn, the latter if demanded. On 
the next day, April 20th, Goldsboro Banyar deeded this rented tract to 
Nathan Stone, the consideration of the conveyance as expressed in the 
indenture being the sum of four hundred and thirty- five pounds. 

It will be seen that the conveyance from .the New York proprietors 
to Nathan Stone vested in the grantee the greater part of the lands of 
the town of Windsor, the same lands that had been previously deeded 
to Colonel Stone by the associated proprietors under the New Hamp- 

286 History of Windsor County. 

shire charter ; which last named conveyance was understood as being a 
trust deed for the benefit of the grantors therein ; in fact an instrument 
that virtually made Colonel Stone the trustee or agent of the proprietors 
for the purpose of enabling him the better to obtain the New York 
patent, which was finally executed and issued on the 28th of March, 
1772. Then, true to the trust reposed in him, Nathan Stone reconveyed 
to those interested in the lands of the town, either as proprietors or as 
grantees of the proprietors, and to others, actual settlers on the lands of 
the town, various parcels according to the several and respective inter- 
ests of each in the lands. These conveyances were made during the 
month of November, 1772, and the names of the persons to whom the 
deeds were executed were as follows : 

Caleb Benjamin, Jeremiah Bishop, Samuel Patrick, Joseph Woodruft", 
Benjamin Bishop, Levi Stevens, Samuel Seers, Peter Levens, Isaiah Burk, 
Ebenezer Curtis, Solomon Burk, Samuel Root, Watts Hubbard, George 
Sto(\v)e, Andrew Blant, Lazarus Bannister, John Benjamin, Samuel 
Chase, Rev. James Wellman, Dudley Chase. Piiineas J^ean. Benjamin 
Wait, Ebtnezer Hoisington, Captain William Dean, Elnathan Storey, 
Hezekiah Thompson, Benjamin Spaldwin (or Spaulding), Elisha Haw- 
ley, jr., Timothy Stanley, Thomas Wilson, Elisha Hawley, sr., Asa 
Smeed, Ebenezer Davis, Elihu Burk, Nehemiah Lincoln, William Smeed, 
sr., William Smeed, jr., Joseph Barrett, Jacob Hastings, Asaph Butler, 
Nathan Atkins, Joseph Patterson, Thomas Cooper, John Chandler, 
Andrew Norton, Alexander Parmley, Steele Smith, Mary Hubbard, 
Elisha Hubbard, David Cook, Samuel Cook, Samuel Stone, Dr. David 
Hale,, Elizabeth Curtis, Solomon Emmons, Ebenezer Hayward, Fisher 
Gay, Joseph Bull, Thomas Pearsall, Goldsboro Banyar (of New York), 
Henry Crieger (of New York), Dr. David Taylor, Colonel Nathan Stone, 
Willard Dean, Isabel Patrick, Zedekiah Stone, esq., and Barnabas 

As has already been stated, the deed from the proprietors and set- 
tlers of the town of Windsor to Nathan Stone bore the date of October 
9, 1766, and by that conveyance the grantee became vested with all and 
singular of the right, title and interest therein of the grantors ; but not- 
withstanding that, the proprietors seemed to have moved right along in 
clearing, developing and improving the lands of the town, in the same 

Town of Windsor. 287 

manner as if the title still remained in their respective selves. There 
appears to be no record of the proceedings of the proprietors for the 
years 1765 and 1766, and for that loss there can be no comment in this 
chapter upon what was done during those years, although it is quite 
probable that the first meeting within the town was held in one or 
the other of them. Certainly would the settlers have been entitled to 
have the meetings held here if the statement in proprietors' petition to 
New York's governor was correct, for it was there stated that under the 
New Hampshire charter there were settled in the town "about sixteen 
families," while had there been the representatives of the sixteenth part 
of the original shares of the town, that would have been sufficient to 
warrant the hcHding of meetings in the territory. 

The first record evidence of a meeting in the town (which can be 
found) is that contained in the proprietors' minutes for 1767, when, on 
the 3d day of November, a meeting was held at the house of Thomas 
Cooper, at which time Mr. Cooper was chosen clerk. The business of 
the occasion was not of special importance, relating to the laying out 
of lots in the town. Another meeting during the same year was held, 
also at Thomas Cooper's, on the 17th of December, when Benjamin Wait 
was chosen moderator; Captain Samuel Stone, Israel Curtis, and Ser- 
geant Andrew North, assessors; Thomas Cooper, treasurer; and 
Colonel Nathan Stone, collector. At this time it was voted to give 
Joseph King twenty pounds, to be paid in day's labor, to build a bridge 
across " Mill Stream," between the dam of the grist-mill and saw-mill. 
The building of this bridge was not done, Apparently, by Mr. King, for the 
proceedings of a meeting held October 3, 1768, show that Andrew Nor- 
ton and Joab Hoisington were appointed a committee to build the 
bridge over Mill Brook. One fact is established by the above " vote," 
and that, that a saw-mill and a grist mill were built in the town as early 
at least as the year 1768; and earlier extracts from the proprietors' pro- 
proceedings show that in August, 1763, Israel Curtis was appointed to 
build the saw and grist-mills, and was obliged to give a bond for the 
faithful performance of the work. 

In 1769, at a meeting held April 6, the proprietors voted "to buy a 
book " in which to record the proceedings of their meetings ; and they 
charged Israel Curtis with the duty of procuring the book, he to take 

288 History of Windsor County. 

pay in a lot of land, the price of the book to apply on his contract of 
purchase, and he to pay the difference, which the minutes recorded as 
" boot money." Whether or not the worthy settler, Israel Curtis, ever 
procured tlie book is not known ; neither is it known whether the pro- 
prietors ever obtained one from any source. The records, such as now 
exist, of the transactions of the proprietors, even down to and including 
the year 1771, are written upon separate sheets of paper, and are tied 
in a single small package; and they are so old and worn as to make 
their ready handling almost impossible. They stop with the year 1771 ; 
and subsequent to that time, and until 1786, there appears to be no 
records of the proprietors' or inhabitants' meetings of any kind that throw 
any light on the proceedings had during the interval. 'The record of 
conveyances, however, of the town are exceedingly well kept and pre- 

The most interesting period in the history of the town of Windsor 
was that in which occurred the Revolutionary war, and the struggle, 
during the same time, on the part of the people living on the so-called 
New Hampshire Grants to establish for themselves an independent gov- 
ernment or State, that eventually became known by the name of Ver- 
mont. But it was not that the citizens of this particular locality took a 
more active part in the occurring events of that period than did any 
other towns of the State, for such is not understood to have been the 
case ; but, at the same time, the town of Windsor was destined to be- 
come prominent in the affairs of the State, and to occup}^ a position of 
singular notoriety, the result of circumstances alone, and not that the 
town possessed political leaders and statesmen of distinguished ability, 
although she was not whoUj' destitute of men of that mark. 

The town of Windsor first began to attract attention from the other 
regions of the grants when the petition was made and presented that re- 
sulted in the New York charter; and that action was presumed to be 
prima facie evidence, in some minds, at least, that the people of the town 
considered themselves allied to the interests of New York. It was so 
looked upon in certain quarters, but it was an altogether mistaken belief, 
for there was no town east of the mountains whose people were more in- 
terested in the cause for which the Green Mountain Boys were contend- 
ing than those of Windsor, but from this remote locality it was not ex- 

Town of Windsor. 289 

pected that the people of the town would become active participants in 
the struggles then enacting, and what was more to the point, the peti- 
tioners did not receive their charter until after many of the more impor- 
tant events had occurred. But when it became an understood fact that 
the people on the grants were organizing with the intention of forming a 
new and independent State, the residents of Windsor joined with the 
move and actively participated in all that occurred tending to the end 
sought to be accomplished. 

At the convention held at Dorset on the 26th of July, 1775, and on 
the 1 6th of January and the 24th of July, 1776, the town of Windsor does 
not appear to have been represented, but at the adjourned session held 
at Doi:set on the 25th of September, 1776, Ebenezer Hoisington appeared 
as a delegate from the town ; and as such he is found to be upon the com- 
mittee appointed to prepare the covenant or compact by which the dele- 
gates pledged themselves and their constituents for the " security of their 
common liberties and properties in conjunction with the free and inde- 
pendent States of America." Besides this Ebenezer Hoisington was on 
other important committees, among them one chosen for the purpose of 
preparing a "citation to send to the State of New York to know if they 
have any objection against our being a separate State from them." And 
at the Westminster conventions of October 30, 1776, and January 15, 
1777, Mr. Hoisington was present representing his town ; and on the 
latter occasion was chairman of the committee appointed to examine and 
report the feeling in the towns east of the mountains relative to the for- 
mation of the new State, which report was that " We find by examina- 
tion that more than three-fourths of the people in Cumberland and 
Gloucester counties, that have acted, are for a new State ; the rest we view 
as neuters." More than this, the town was honored by having its rep- 
resentative on the committee chosen " to prepare a draught for a decla- 
ration for a new and separate State." When the business of this con- 
vention was finished, it was adjourned to meet at the meeting-house in 
Windsor on the 4th day of June, 1777. 

That the reader may have a clear understanding of the sentiment that 
prevailed in the town relative to the subject of forming a new and inde- 
pendent State, it is quite proper that a slight digression be made from 
the general narrative in order to sufficiently explain the situation at that 

290 History of Windsor County. 

time. It is well known that this town, in 1777, and even prior thereto, 
formed apart of Cumberland county under the jurisdiction ofNewYork; 
that there was not an entire unanimity of sentiment in this region gen- 
erally, in favor of the new State ; and that New York was using her every 
art to induce the people of the region to oppose the measures then being 
taken looking to the new formation, and, as a part of the New York pro- 
ceeding, the inhabitants of all the towns had been warned the 
participation in the conventions of the people on the grants. The duty 
of keeping the people "straight " toward New York was incumbent upon 
the Cumberland County Committee. How well this committee suc- 
ceeded in inducing the people of Windsor to be faithful to New York 
will be observed from the following : 

" At an Annual Town Meeting held at the Town house in Windsor on 
the twentieth Day of May past, (1777) after the Choice of a Moderator 
it was put to Vote whether the Town would proceed to Act according to 
the Orders from the State of New York ; Voted in the Negative by a 
great Majority. 

" Ebenezer Curtis, Tozv7i Clark. 
"To the Chearman of the County Committee." 

And further : "Whereas I the Subscriber are the member of the County 
Committee of Cumberland to represent the town of Windsor in Conven- 
tion this third day of instant, June, Do now in behalf of sd town Enter 
my protest against any proceeding under the State of New York either 
directly or indirectly as to any Jurisdiction over sd town. 

" Ebenezer Hoisington." 

At the meeting-house in Windsor on the 4th of June, 1777, the ad- 
journed convention assembled, as provided by the resolution previously 
adopted. From the records that exist, it appears that Ebenezer Hois- 
ington represented the town in the capacity of delegate, but it is entirely 
probable that the greater part of the townspeople were also present as 
interested spectators on this most auspicious occasion. The principal 
business of this convention was to revise the declaration of State inde- 
pendence, adopted at Westminster, setting forth " the reasons which im- 
pelled the inhabitants to such separation," (omitted from the former 
declaration,) and changing the name of the new State from New CON- 
NECTICUT to Vermont, Further than this it is said, on the authority 

Town of Windsor. 291 

of the Vermont Historical Society's collection, that a committee was 
appointed to make a draft of a constitution. 

At this convention the new State, by its representatives assembled, as- 
sumed exclusive jurisdiction over the entire territory of the New Hamp- 
shire Grants, and, as a part of that proceeding, resolved that the Com- 
mittees of Safety of the counties of Cumberland and Gloucester desist 
from the further exercise of their authority under the direction of the 
State of New York. The chairman of this convention was Joseph Bow- 
ker of Rutland, and the secretary was Dr. Jonas Fay of Bennington. 
Lieutenant Martin Powel of Manchester was the assistant clerk. 

This convention of June 4th, according to the resolution adopted at 
Westminster, was appointed to reconvene at the " meeting-house " in 
Windsor, the published account in the Connecticut Coiirant of April 14, 
1777, stating to that effect ; but the proceedings of the convention itself, 
as published in the " Governor and Council," referred to the meeting as 
" being all convened at the toivn house in Windsor." This may be ex- 
plained by the fact that it was usual to refer to the meeting-house as 
the town house, as the first meeting-house in nearly all the towns was 
erected at the public expense, and instead of being the property of any 
church or other society, it was the property of the town; and therefore 
its designation as town house was entirely natural and proper, it being a 
town house as well as meeting-house. But the resolution of the June 
convention that provided for the next assembling of a similar body, 
said : " That it is hereby recommended to the freeholders and inhabit- 
ants of each town in this State to meet at some convenient place in each 
town on the 23d day of this instant June and choose delegates to attend 
a general convention at the meeting-Jioiise in Windsor, within the said 
State, on the 2d day of July next, to choose delegates to attend the gen- 
eral Congress, a Committee of Safety, and to form a Constitution for 
the State." 

In accordance with the resolution the delegates assembled at Windsor 
on the 2d of July, 1777, and upon that occasion the first constitution of 
the State was adopted ; but not without some interruption, for while the 
convention was considering the provisions of that important subject, 
news was received of the evacuation of Ticonderoga and the threaten- 
ing invasion of the British army under General Burgoyne. This intel- 

^92 History of Windsor County. 

ligence threw the convention into complete disorder, and many of the 
delegates, especially those from the western towns, were for instantly set- 
ting out for their homes before completing the business in hand. But 
the intervention of a severe thunder-storm prevented their departure, 
thus giving them time to reflect upon their hasty determination. They 
then resumed consideration of the constitution, discussed it, " paragraph 
by paragraph," says Ira Allen, " for the last time." Then, after the ap- 
pointment of a Council of Safety to administer the affairs of the State 
for the time being, the convention adjourned. In this memorable as- 
sembly Ebenezer Hoisington is understood as having represented the 
town of Windsor. 

Thus was the town of Windsor prominently associated with some of 
the most interesting and important events connected with the early his- 
tory of the State of Vermont. But it was not that the town or its rep- 
resentatives were more forward in this business than other towns, but 
rather that those events happened to be enacted in the town. This con- 
stitutional convention was appointed to be held in the meeting-house at 
Windsor, but it is conceded to have been assembled in the building that 
stood at the corner of what is now Main and Depot streets. And the 
old building still stands, though moved a few rods eastward of its origi- 
nal location, and to this day is known as the " Constitution House." 
Some of the older residents of the present day are of the opinion that it 
was built for a hotel, and was completed in time to receive the conven- 
tion, or at least the delegates; that the convention was held within its 
walls, from which fact it was christened the "Constitution House." 
But there appears to be a lack of positive understanding concerning the 
true origin and purpose of the building. Can it be that this was the 
" meeting-house," or the " town house," referred to in the resolutions 
quoted heretofore ? Can it be a fact that its lumber was sawed at the 
old mill built by Israel Curtis in pursuance of the contract made with 
the proprietors in 1763 ? Who knows? 

While the subject of the old Constitution House is one of no great im- 
portance, and one that needs no extended comment in this chapter, it is 
proper to say that it was a hotel building, and was for a number of 
years, and during this particular period, under the management of Elijah 
West. The early legislative sessions were held here, and as late as 1786 




Town of Windsor. 293 

there appears on record an order for payment for its use by the State, 
viz.: " Resolved that the Treasurer be and he is hereby directed to pay 
Mr. EUjah West of Windsor for the use of his room, firewood, etc., for 
the use of Council this Session, the sum of one pound out of the hard 
Money Taxes." Perhaps an impertinent inquiry, but what can the 
above " etc." refer to ? 

After Elijah West, the next landlord was worthy Samuel Patrick, and 
the latter was succeeded by his son, also Samuel by name, but better 
known as the " Captain." Then, about 1840, Captain Patrick retired 
and Thomas Boynton became host. Subsequent to his turn other land- 
lords succeeded to its management, but the old building as a hotel be- 
came unprofitable ; was put to use for various mercantile and mechani- 
cal purposes; and, finally, was moved to the rear of the lot, now being 
occupied for tenements. 

It can hardly be considered essentially within the province of this 
chapter to discuss at length the proceedings of the various executive and 
legislative bodies of the State that held their sessions at Windsor. Those 
were affairs of general rather than local history. The reader must 
therefore be content with a mere mention of the dates upon which those 
assemblages were called together at the town. Prior to 1808 the execu- 
tive and legislative bodies of the State had no fixed habitation, and it 
was customary for them to meet at such places as best suited the gen - 
eral convenience, most frequently, however, at Windsor and Bennington. 
In 1808 Montpelier became the State capital, since which the seat of 
government has been at that place. Other than upon the occasions al- 
ready mentioned, the sessions of the Governor and Council with the 
General Assembly of Vermont have been held in Windsor as follows : 
In 1778, on March 12th and October 8th; 1779, June 2d ; 1781, Feb- 
ruary 8th and April 4th ; 1782, June 13th ; 1783, February 13th ; 1785, 
October 13th; 1786, March 25th; 1791, October 13th; 1793, Octo- 
ber loth ; 1795, October 8th; 1797, October 12th; 1799, Octo- 
ber loth ; 1804, January 26th. 

Dicring the Revolution. — The part taken by the people of Windsor 
during that period of its history that was known as the Revolutionary 
war, was an important one, but the records are so meager that nothing 
of value can be found by which the names of the soldiers of the town 

:>94 History of Windsor County. 

can be accurately ascertained. That there were men of the town, and a 
good number of them, too, who were actively identified with the mili- 
tary history of the period cannot be questioned, but nothing appears of 
record by which they can be singled out and mentioned. For the pur- 
pose of bringing the names of some at least of them to mind, the writer 
makes free to copy from the historical address of Rev. Dr. Cutting, de- 
livered upon the occasion of the Windsor centennial celebration of the 
4th of July, 1876, as follows : 

"The military history of Windsor belongs among the essential themes 
of this day. The fame of Seth Warner's regiment was shared by men 
of this town. After the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, after the 
capture of Ticonderoga by Allen, Captain John Grant of that regiment 
came in the summer of 1775 to Windsor for recruits. Among those 
who enlisted under him were Asahel Smith, John Heath, Zenas Lull, 
Joshua Slayton, and William Hunter, the last named enlisting as a ser- 
geant, and becoming the orderly of the company. Laying down their 
sickles, — for an old narrative says it was 'reaping time,' — they proceeded 
to join their regiment at Crown Point, and descending the Lake to Can- 
ada, look part in the brilliant operations which resulted in the capture 
of St. John's and Montreal, and in the flight of Carlton to Quebec. 
Young fhinter, then twenty-one years of age, was attached to the per- 
son of General Montgomery, and for his good conduct at the siege of 
St. John's received a commission as first lieutenant. The time for 
which the men had enlisted having expired. Hunter came back to Wind- 
sor in December of that year for more recruits. There were already 
militia companies in the town, and there is a record of the drill of one of 
them by Lieutenant Hunter after his return at that time. His mission 
was successful. Early in January, 1776, on the broad easte.n slope of 
'the Hill,' of the West Parish, then at the house of Samuel Root, Hunter 
mustered his recruits, of whom are preserved the names of Ebenezer 
Hoisington, Phineas Killam, John Heath, Joel Butler, Asa Smead, Jona- 
than Hodgman, and 'an elderly man named Emmons.' These, with 
perhaps as many more, he marched away on snow-shoes to Skenes- 
borough, now Whitehall, whence descending the lake on the ice, they 
reached the army destined to Quebec, and finally encamped on the Plains 
of Abraham. In the disastrous retreat of the ensuing spring, Warner's 

Town of Windsor. 295 

regiment was the last on the field, and kept the rear. It was on this re- 
treat that Lieutenant Hunter, discovering a sick Cornish soldier who had 
laid down to die, inspired with hope the despairing man's heart, and lift- 
ing him on his back, carried him three miles to the bateaux and saved 
his life. During the remainder of the war the militia of Windsor were 
perpetually on the alert, and were frequently called into service. Under 
Captain Benjamin Wait and Major Joab Hoisington they were of the 
troops who kept back the English and Indians from the northern towns, 
and when Royalton was attacked and burned, marched in such numbers 
as to repel and punish the invasion, that most of the women of Windsor, 
left unprotected, fled with their children to Cornish until the return of 
the men. Declining a captaincy in the Continental service. Hunter be- 
came lieutenant of the Windsor company, under Captain Samuel Stow 
Savage, and succeeded him as captain in the year 1789." 

Windsor as a Cou7ity Seat. — In this connection it will not be consid- 
ered necessary to refer more than incidentally to the erection into coun- 
ties of the territory of the new State, which erection was made one of 
the first duties of the General Assembly at its early meeting at Windsor, 
as such proceeding had no special relation to the town's history. But 
in February, 1 78 1, at a session of the Governor and Council with the 
General Assembly at Windsor, the counties which were created in 1778 
were divided, and out of old Cumberland were erected Windham, Wind- 
sor, and Orange counties. Each of these was soon thereafter organized 
by the election of county officers ; and by virtue of an act passed at the 
same session, Windsor was designated as the shire town of Windsor 
county. But this designation was intended to be more for temporary 
purposes than otherwise. At that particular time there was considerable 
agitation and discussion concerning the formation of a union with certain 
towns of New Hampshire, which, should it be consummated, would 
place the town of Windsor in a nearly central position in case the towns 
east were annexed to tlie county. This was done subsequently. As 
the lines of the county then stood, Windsor could justly lay claim to the 
county buildings. But this union was soon dissolved, and then this was 
a border town ; and so being, the chances of its being designated as the 
permanent shire town were decidedly lessened. All this time Woodstock, 
through its leading men, and it had not a few of them, was claiming the 

296 History of Windsor County. 

county buildings, and upon good grounds, too, for it was near the geo- 
graphical center of the county, and a town of considerable population 
and importance. The result of this was the division of the county into 
half shires, and Windsor and Woodstock the half shire towns. But in 
1786 the latter town was designated as the county seat; and in 1787 
the Legislature enacted " that the court should sit alternately at Wind- 
sor and Woodstock." In 1791 the Legislature passed another act by 
which the half-shire character of Windsor should be continued in force 
for three years from that time. 

The court-house in Windsor was built during the year 1784, although 
the town as a shire was then three years old. And it was built at the 
expense of the townspeople and not a charge against the county. The 
old building still stands on State street, having been moved from its 
original location near where the high school building now is ; and it does 
duty to-day as a place of residence. 

Tozvn Organization. — It is a lamentable fact, but nevertheless a truth, 
that the first record book of the tovvn, that which should contain the 
proceedings of the town and freemen's meetings, is missing from the 
clerk's office, and no person appears to be able to account for its where- 
abouts. And it is no more than probable that this record has been out 
of the office for many )-ears. This loss renders it quite impossible to 
determine the date of town organization. The town must, however, 
have been organized about the time of the granting the letters patent 
from New York, which was in 1772. It is a fact, too, that the old 
records and documents of the town were loosely and carelessly kept, 
without any system. This is shown by the fact that in the oldest 
record now in existence, that commencing with the year 1786, there are 
proceedings on the part of the inhabitants by which committees were 
chosen to wait on certain persons and treat with them relative to the 
return to the clerk's office of books and papers that properly belonged 

The first tovvn meeting of which there is any record was held on the 
17th of February, 1786, and was warned by Briant Brown, then the town 
clerk. The officers chosen at that meeting were as follows : Moderator, 
Stephen Jacobs ; town deck, Briant Brown ; selectmen, Briant Brown, 
Colonel Benjamin Wait, Stephen Jacobs, esq.. Lieutenant Charles Leav- 

Town of Windsor. 297 

ens, and Thomas Cooper, esq.; treasurer, Briant 'Brown ; constables, 
Benjamin Cady, Oliver Barrett; collectors, Benjamin Cady, Oliver Bar- 
rett; listers, Briant Brown, Benjamin Wait, Stephen Jacobs, Charles 
Leavens, Thomas Cooper; grand jurors, Joel Ely and Alden SpoonerJ 
tithingmen, Stephen Cady, Josiah Hawley, George Hough and Asahel 
Smith; leather sealer, Colonel Nathan Stone; sealer- of weights and 
measures. Deacon Joseph Farnsworth ; brander of horses, Captain Jerahl 
Cumings; hay wards, David Lombard, Samuel Bayley, Abijah Capron, 
Jonathan Hall, Captain Steele Smith, Isaiah Burke, and Captain Asahel 
Smith ; surveyors of highways, Nathan Stone, Caleb Stone, Thomas 
Wilson, Captain Matthew Patrick, Solomon Emmons, Daniel Thurston, 
Deacon Richard Wait, Colonel Benjamin Wait, Charles Leavens, Will- 
iam White, William Slack, William Lazell, John Capron, and Israel 
Aiken ; fence viewers, Solomon Emmons, Isaiah Burke, Richard Wait, 
Lazarus Banister; deer reefs, Ebenezer Hoisington, jr., and Samuel 
Fletcher ; key keepers, Benjamin Cady and Captain Asahel Smith. 

It will be seen from the above record that the officers of the town for 
this time were chosen in accordance with the laws of the State of Ver- 
mont; and it is probably a fact that they were so chosen from and after 
the formation of the State and the adoption of the constitution. But it 
is also probably a fact that the officers elected at the organization meet- 
ing of the town were chosen as provided by the laws and customs of 
New York, as the last named was the organizing and then controlling 
jurisdiction, and i.t would be only natural that the customs of that prov- 
ince should prevail, at least for the time being. In that case, instead of 
selectmen, the town would have elected a supervisor ; in place of listers 
were assessors, a difference only in name, but there would have been 
but one supervisor and three assessors elected. 

Now, for the purpose of bringing to the attention of the reader the 
names of as many as possible of the ancient inhabitants of the town for 
the purpose of making the names of the pioneers of Windsor as conspic- 
uous as possible, it has been deemed appropriate in this connection to 
place on these pages a record — a list — showing who were the taxable 
inhabitants of the jurisdiction during its pioneer period. And, in ex- 
planation of the list here given, it may be said' that from the very earliest 
settlement of the town there was a practical division of the town, or at 

298 History of Windsor County. 

least of its people (a subject that will be discussed hereafter), into what 
was known as the East and West Parishes, meaning the east and west 
portions of the town, which were separated by a considerable mountain 
elevation ; and it was the practice of the authorities to divide the people, 
in making lists, at that early day, although the entire town was one juris- 
diction and elected a single set of officers. The list here copied is headed 
as follows: " A Tax of three pence half penny on the pound, made on 
the list for the year 1785, for the purpose of schools in the several school 
districts in said town, agreeable to a vote of said town, passed March 7, 
1786." (The names of taxable inhabitants only, and not the list and rate, 
are copied.) 

East Parish. — David Atkins, Perez Antizzle, Israel Aiken, Ebenezer 
Burnham, Joseph Barrett, jr., Solomon Burke, Isaiah Burke, Benjamin 
Bishop, Briant Brown, Moses Barrett, Stephen Conant, John Cady, Zebe- 
diah Coburn, Peter Currier, Benjamin Cady, Zebina Curtis, Ebenezer 
Curtis, Manassah Cady, Thomas H. Cady, John Curtis, Willard Dean, 
John Drew, Solomon Emmons, Clark Eastman, John Gill, David Hilton, 
Daniel Hastings, Jacob Hastings, Ebenezer Hoisington, Ebenezer Hois- 
ington, jr., Elias Hoisington, Matthias Hammond, Jonathan Hammond, 
David Hammond, William Hilton, Jonathan Hall, Jonathan Hodgman, 
Elisha Hubbard, Eldad Hubbard, Darius Houghton, George Hough, 
Josiah Hawley, Elisha Hawley, William Harlow, David Hall, William 
Jewett, Stephen Jacob, Daniel King, James Langworthy, Isaac Ma.son, 
John Marcy, John Marcy, jr., Samuel Messer, Alexander Parmalee, Sam- 
uel Patrick, Clothier Prior, Elijah Payne, John Packard, Matthew Patrick, 
Elisha Perkins, Samuel Ruggles, Eleaser Spaulding, Leonard Spaulding^ 
Zedekiah Stone, Caleb Stone, Elnathan Storey, Jacob Stowell, Jonathan 
Shepard, Seth Sabin, Ephraim Stone, Simeon Stoddard, Zephaniah 
Spicer, Joel Smead, Alden Spnoner, Steele Smith, Reuben Smith, Nathan 
Stone, Nathan Stone, jr., Samuel Stone, Nichenor Temple, Hezekiah 
Thompson, Joseph Thompson, Hezekiah Thompson, jr., Seth Tinkham, 
Daniel Thurston, Elisha Turner, Nahum Trask, Joseph Willis, Thomas 
Wilson, Joshua Wilson, Jacob Wilson, Silvanus Watriss, Elijah West, 
Paul Wood, William Wood, Robert Grandy, David Orvis, Jonathan 
Russell, James Wilson. Nathaniel Weeks, Tyler Spafford, Joseph Grandy, 
Robert Whitcomb. 

Town of Windsor. 299 

West Parish. — Thomas Adams, Abel Adams, William Abbott, Joseph 
Barrett, Oliver Barrett, Silas Banister, Lazarus Banister, Caleb Blood, 
John Blood, John Bishop, Jeremiah Bishop, Levi Bishop, Jeremiah 
Bishop, jr., Frederick Burnham, Elihu Beach, Stephen Beach, Jonathan 
Burt, John Brown, Andrew Blunt, Joshua Bayley, William Bean, Ed- 
mund Capron, John Capron, Abijah Capron, Jerahmeel Cummings, Silva- 
nus Chapin, Zebulon Chandler, Thomas Cooper, Stephen Cooper, John 
Dake, Joseph Dake, Benjamin Dake, Samuel Danforth, Joel Ely, Joel 
Ely, jr., James Fletcher, Samuel Fletcher, Joseph Fuller, Nathan Fish, 
Elnathan Hubbard, Ephraim Hubbard, Jesse Hawley, Silas Hale, Benja- 
min Hale, David Hale, Israel Hale, Thomas Hunter, William Hunter^ 
David Hunter, Abijah Hurd, Ezekiel Hawley, Phineas Hemenway, John 
Hulett, Ichabod Hatch, John Lumbard, John Lombard, jr., Stephen 
Lumbard, Solomon Lumbard, David Lumbard, Charles Leavens, Will- 
iam Lazell, Zenas Lazell, Nehemiah Lincoln, Joseph Moulton, Aaron 
Miner, Israel Meacham, Obediah Noble, John Neil, Joseph Powers, Jo- 
seph Powers, jr., William Porter, William Parson, William Parson, jr., 
Samuel Parson, Samuel Parson, jr., Joseph Parmeter, Benoni Patrick^ 
Samuel Root, Rufus Root, Henry Rumrill, Simeon Rumrill, Bela Rogers, 
Abiah Rice, Jesse Slack, William Slack, George Stow, John Smead, Asa 
Smead, Samuel Savage, Nathan Savage, Benjamin Stone, Samuel Sawin. 
Ashel Smith, Roswell Smith, Thomas Sherman, Andrew Spaulding, 
Elihu Smead, George Stow, jr., Joseph Sawyer, Jonas Taylor, Simeon 
Taylor, Leonard Taylor, Abraham Taylor, Josiah Fooley, Archibald 
White, jr., William White, Asa Worcester, Joseph Woodruff, Benjamin 
Wait, Joseph Wakefield, Scottaway Whitcomb, Oliver Willard, Daniel 

The above list appears in the books of record of the town during the 
clerkship of Briant Brown, and in the clear and distinct handwriting of 
that most worthy citizen. But clerk Brown did more ; he prepared and 
entered on the record a statement of the condition of the town, by 
parishes, showing the number of taxable inhabitants, extent of lands 
cultivated, and the aggregate of stock, for the year 1786, as follows: 
East Parish, polls, 112; horses, 72; oxen, 79; cows, 153; three year 
olds, 5 ; two year olds, 59; one year olds, 80 ; swine, 59; acres in land, 
1,704^ ; faculty, 240. West Parish, polls, 132 ; horses, 58 ; oxen, 64; 

300 History of Windsor County. 

cows, 175 ; three year olds, 17 ; two year olds, 86 ; swine, 34; acres in 
land, 1,303 ; faculty, 20. 

Division of the Tozvn. — The town of Windsor as described in its sev- 
eral charters possessed decidedly singular topographical characteristics. 
Through the central portion of the town, running nearly north and 
south, was and is a considerable range of mountains, and by it the east 
and west portions of the territory to all practical intents and purposes 
were separated and divided. During the pioneer period of course incom- 
ing settlers preferred to purchase lands in the more level or bottom re- 
gions, and naturally avoided the more elevated or mountain districts. 
The legitimate result was that the eastern and western sections of the town 
were occupied and settled, while the central part was a comparativel)'- un- 
broken forest ; but, as a matter of course, with the rapid increase of popu- 
lation there came a time when even the less desirable lands were settled 
and cleared for agricultural purposes so far as they were susceptible of 
settlement and cultivation. 

But this singular formation had the effect of dividing and separating 
the people of the east and west parts of the town, and occasioned much 
inconvenience, especially in regard to some of the early public and town 
institutions. As is well known, it was the custom in early days for the 
town to erect and maintain a meeting-house for public worship on Sun- 
day and other occasions ; and it was also the custom to make this erec- 
tion, as nearly as practicable, in the center of the town, that the people 
in all parts might equally enjoy the benefits offered by such meeting- 
house. In Windsor, however, the people in the east part of the town 
were desirous of having the meeting-house in their locality, while those 
on the west side naturally desired the same erection in their locality. 
Neither party, it appears, favored its erection on the ridge lands, for by 
that action both sides would have been placed at inconvenience. The 
result was an appeal to the Legislature, at the June session of 1785, at 
Norwich, and that body passed an act, which was concurred in by the 
Governor and Council, entitled, "An Act for the establishing Two Eccle- 
siastical societies in the Town of Windsor." 

This was a division of the town only for the purpose of establishing 
and maintaining two meeting-houses in the town, and not such a divis- 
ion of the territory as would contemplate the election of the two sets of 

Dr. Dyer Story. 


Town of Windsor. 301 

town officers. The division of the latter character was a subsequent 
creation, brought about in part by the remote location of the west 
from the east district or parish, and in part by the fact of there 
having been bred a sentiment of discord and jealousy growing out of 
the selection of town officers, the one parish claiming they were not re- 
ceiving their share of local offices. The subject of dividing the lands 
of the district into two towns was one of frequent discussion, but it 
was not formally brought before the people until the year 18 14, at 
which time, in a "warning" dated September 14th, the following ap- 
peared as one of the articles: "To see if the town will agree to divide 
the same into two separate towns." 

In accordance with the warning a meeting was held in the West Par- 
ish on the loth day of October, 18 14, at which time the subject of di- 
vision was made paramount, and what the result was will be best told 
by the following : 

" In Town meeting, October 10. 18 14. 
"Resolved, that the town of Windsor is satisfied with its present 
boundaries, and that the inhabitants of said town in meeting assembled 
consider every attempt to divide it as derogating from the best good 
and interest of the same. 

"Resolved, that the Representative from this town (Oliver Farns- 
worth) be presented with a copy of the proceedings of this meeting, 
with instructions to lay them before the Legislature, together with the 
accompanying remonstrance, if the petition which produced it should 
be presented and acted upon by the Legislature." 

But, despite "the 'will of the majority in meeting assembled," the 
proposition to divide the town seems to have found favor in the legisla- 
tive mind, and the result was an act passed at the session of that year, 
by which the old historic town of Windsor, the home of the very name 
Vermont, and the birthplace of the constitution, was divided in twain, 
and of its territory on the west there was erected the new town of West 
Windsor. The opponents to the division, while they by no means were 
satisfied with the determination of the question, they were nevertheless 
resigned and reconciled to the inevitable, and, at a meeting at the court- 
house in Windsor, on the 25th of January, 181 5, expressed themselves 
after this manner : " Resolved by the freemen of the East and West 

302 History of Windsor County. 

]^arishes of the town of Windsor, legally assembled in town meeting at 
the court-house in said town this 25th day of January, 181 5 : That not- 
withstanding we still continue to regard the act of the Legislature en- 
titled, An Act to divide the East and West Parishes in two separate and 
distinct towns, with concern and deep regret, we hereby recommend to 
the individuals of each parish respectively to organize as towns in the 
month of March ensuing, agreeably to what appears to have been the 
intention of the Legislature as implied by said act." 

The act of 18 14 that divided the town took from its lands about the 
same territory that is included by the bounds of the present town of 
West Windsor. But this separation from the mother town proved to 
be of but temporary duration, for no sooner had the new district become 
organized than a movement was formed looking to a union. By the 
latter part of the summer, or the early part of the fall of 1815, the dif- 
ferences that led to the separation were adjusted, and there were circu- 
lated petitions asking for legislative action and a consolidation of the dis- 
tricts into a single town. But this proposition had many opponents, 
and the result was another meeting at the court-house on the 25th day 
of October, 18 15, at which a number of resolutions were offered, to the 
effect that, whereas petitions from Windsor and West Windsor were cir- 
culating in the interest of consolidation ; that the town of Windsor was 
satisfied with its present limits and extent; that hills intervening be- 
tween the towns rendered union impracticable ; that the distance be- 
tween the places at which elections were alternately held was an objec- 
tion to the union ; that said union was taking from the peo[)le of 
Windsor their just rights and privileges; that the petition was contrary 
to the voice and will of the town, and was calculated to injure the peace 
and happiness of said town; therefore, "Resolved, that the town of 
Windsor would deem an act of incorporating the towns of Windsor 
and West Windsor into one town a violation of the rights and 
privileges of the inhabitants of the town of Windsor, and a subversion 
of the laws and constitution of the State." 

These resolutions were adopted by the meeting, and in addition thereto 
there was chosen a committee, consisting of William Hunter, Jabez 
Delano and Joel Lull, to represent the meeting and the opponents to 
union at the succeeding session of the Legislature. But, notwithstand- 

Town of Windsor. 303 

ing the "sense " of the meeting, so clearly expressed, and the presence 
of the chosen committee, the Legislature in 1815 passed an act re- 
uniting the parishes into one town. 

Following this the next annual town meeting was held at Hubbard's 
Hall, in "West Parish." on the 19th of March, 1816, at which time 
officers were chosen for the whole district, the town was united in fact, 
and the differences and animosifies of the period were buried, and passed 
into history. With the reunion there came a renewal of all the incon- 
veniences that had formerly attended the holding of elections. It was 
the custom of the time to hold the meetings alternately, first at W^indsor 
and next over in the West Parish The journey from Windsor village 
and the river region to Sheddsville was one of nine miles, and when an 
election was held at the latter place but comparatively few of the people 
of the East Parish generally attended. And the same may be said of 
the occasions on which the meetings were held in the East Parish, that 
the people from the west side seldom attended in considerable numbers. 
This led to another division of the town, by an act of the Legislature 
passed and approved October 26, 1848, by which the town or Windsor 
was reduced to its present limits. The act of division, should the reader 
desire to peruse its provisions, will be found in the chapter that relates 
to the history of the town of West Windsor. 

War of 1812-15. — This was npt an eventful period in the history of 
the town ; neither did the town occupy a different position at the time 
from other similar districts. The events of the war, so far as the town 
is concerned, are briefly stated, and most aptly, too, in Dr. Cutting's ad- 
dress, thus : "In the War of 1812 this town contributed its share of 
officers and men to the armies who fought our battles. Churchill, already 
referred to, and Matthew Patrick remained in the public service to the 
end of their lives. . . . The Jefferson Artillery, significant, politi- 
cally, by its name, came into being in 18 10, amid the omens of the com- 
ing war. Its organization was not. however, complete till the ensuing 
year. William Tileston was its first captain. My father's commission 
as lieutenant bears the date of 181 i. About 1820 there were four com- 
panies in the town, one of artillery, one of light infantry, and two un- 
uniformed, reproachfully termed ' floodwood.' Harry White was one of 
the village captains, the brilliant and popular merchant whom Windsor 

304 History of Windsor County. 

lost by a sudden calamity. Captain Black commanded the light in- 
fantry of the West Parish. Training days were holidays, and general 
musters were i^reat events. The boys caught the military infection of 
the time, and under the command of John A. Spooner, now (1876) a 
venerable and honored clergyman, marched beneath a banner which 
bore a patriotic and impressive legend." 

The War of 1861-65. — The part taken b)' the town of Windsor dur- 
ing the war of the Rebellion was certainly a prominent and important 
one; but one which requires no. mention in this connection, having been 
discussed and presented at length in an earlier chapter of the volume. 
The volunteers of Windsor formed a part of the great body of soldiers 
sent out from this section during the war, and there was scarcely a regi- 
ment raised in the State but had at least a few of Windsor's recruits 
among its numbers. In the chapter referred to will be found a com- 
plete roster of the officers of the town, in connection with those of the 
county ; a record of the services of each command that had any con- 
siderable complement of troops from the town, together with a com- 
plete roll of the volunteers enlisted or recruited here. 

Schools of the Toivn. — Of the schools and other like institutions of 
the town of Windsor there cannot be much said. Their beginning was 
quite as humble as that of any other of the institutions of the district, 
but gradually have they advanced from their primitive condition to a 
degree of excellence that places them on an equal level with those of 
any other town in the county, and far in advance of many. The sub- 
ject of organizing the town of Windsor into school districts appears to 
have been first presented and discussed at the annual town meeting held 
on the 7th of March, 1786, although the same question may have been 
agitated and acted upon at an earlier date, the loss of the town 
records of years prior to that named making the subject of what pre- 
viously occurred one wholly of speculation. But, from the general 
character of the proceedings had at that time, it is fair to assume that 
the occasion referred to was the first on which the matter of schools 
throughout was the subject of general discussion and town action. 

At the March meeting of 1786 it was voted by the inhabitants to raise 
the sum of eighty pounds for the benefit of schools in the town, to be 
paid, the record says, " in money, or good wheat at five shillings per 

Town of Windsor. 305 

bushel " ; the fund thus created to be divided in as many equal parts as 
there were districts in the town. About the same time the town was 
divided into school districts, eleven in all, by a committee appointed 
for that purpose. And at the meeting above, the inhabitants elected 
trustees for the several districts respectively, as follows; First district. 
Amasa Paine ; second district, Benjamin Bishop ; third district, Stephen 
Jacob ; fourth district, Samuel Patrick ; fifth district, Jacob Stowell ; sixth 
district, Deacon Joseph Thomson; seventh district, Stephen Cady ; eighth 
district, George Stowe; ninth district, Simon Rumrill; tenth district, Cal- 
vin Chapin ; eleventh district, Oliver Barrett. 

This was practically an organization of the schools of the districts on 
what was known as the town plan; that is, the schools receiving their 
support at the general expense of the town, and not each district main- 
taining its separate school at its own cost, as is now the custom. Nor 
was it an unusual proceeding at that period for the schools in many towns 
in the State to be established, as were those of Windsor, from the gen- 
eral fund raised by tax upon the whole territory of the town. Tiie dif- 
ferent custom, that by which each district provided for its own school and 
maintained it at the district expense, was a later creation, and one that 
soon became popular ; and it is a fact, too, that a great majority of the 
towns of this State have accepted and are working under the provisions 
of the district system. 

But it would be a thing next to impossible to furnish a complete and 
rehable record of the several changes made in the school districts of the 
town from the first creation of them until the present day. Changes in 
boundaries, and changes in the number of districts, have occasionally 
been made, though these have not been frequent. The final division of 
the town, that by which West Windsor was set off, in 1848, necessitated 
something of a change in the district government of Windsor as it then 
remained ; and other than this such alteration in district boundaries, and 
such increase and decrease in number of districts, has been made as was 
best calculated to suit the convenience of the people, or as circumstances 

The present operating school districts, or schools, of the town of Wind- 
sor are seven in number, although in number four no school has been kept 
regularly for several years ; and one district of the town proper is annexed 

3o6 History of Windsor County. 

to the town of West Windsor for the convenience of the few famiUes resid 
ing in the same. The report of the superintendent of schools of the town 
for the last fiscal year show that in District No. i school was kept for 
twenty-eight weeks; number of pupils, 15; expense for the year, 
$143.30. In District No. 2 school was kept for thirty-two weeks; 
number of pupils, 24; expense, $200. District No. 3, village of Wind- 
sor, weeks of school, ^6; total expense, $3,754.42. District No. 4, no 
school. District No. 5, number of pupils, 2 ; weeks of school, 24; ex- 
pense, $li6. District No. 6, number of pupils, 21 ; weeks of school, 32 ; 
expense, $240; District No. 7, number of pupils, 21 ; weeks of school, 
26; expense, $19078. 

Record of Old and Prouiinent Families. — It was one of the require- 
ments of the early as well as of a later period that there be kept in each 
town a record of the births, marriages and deaths of the members of the 
various families of each town. Such a record is found in the office of the 
clerk of the town of Windsor ; and in that record is to be found the names 
of many of the pioneers and their families, showing a compliance with the 
requirements referred to. From that record is taken whatever mention 
is made concerning the families hereafter named. But it cannot be stated 
that records are in each case complete, or altogether reliable, for some 
families were negligent in the matter, and possibly some clerks were re- 
miss in the performance of their duties. But, as disclosed by the record, 
and occasionally substantiated by other authority, so the following pur- 
ports to be. And it is designed to be a genealogical statement rather 
than biographical, and furnished for the purpose of bringing to the at- 
tention of the reader the names of some of the more prominent pioneer 
families of the town, and their immediate descendants as well. 

Dr. Joseph Whiting and Azubah Stow, both of Windsor, were married 
March 31, 1789, by Asaph Flitcher, esq. Children: Clary, born De- 
cember 29, 1790; Mirandy, born May 26, 1792 ; Abial, born May 26, 
1794; Salomy, born July 2, 1797. 

Briant Brown and Molly Dunbar married November 13, 1766, at Had- 
dam. Conn. Children: James, born August 9, 1767; Rebekah, born 
February 24, 1769; Lot, born April 8, 1771, died February 16, 1774; 
Prosper, born May i, 1773; Deliverance, born June 17, 1775 ; Return 
Briant, born September 23, 1777 ; Remember Molly, born July 1 1, 1780; 

Town of Windsor. 507 

Thankful, born December 28, 1782; Fanny, born July 24, 1786. Briant 
Brown died at Windsor, February 15, 1798, aged fifty-four years. Molly 
Brown, widow of Briant, died at Windsor, September 27, 1802. 

Colonel Nathan Stone and Mrs. Mary Spafford married at Charlestown» 
N. H., July 16, 1764. Children: Relief, born May 3, 1765 ; Polly, born 
at Windsor, April 26, 1767 ; Zedekiah, born July 17, 1769 ; Sarah, born 
August 21. 1 77 1 ; Dorotha, born August 26, 1773 ; Susanna, born May 
19, 1776 ; Hannah, born November 14, 1778 ; Elizabeth, born October 
16, 1781 ; Nathan, born June 4, 1784. Mary, wife of Colonel Stone, 
died May 27, 1785. Colonel Nathan Stone died October 27, 1795. 

Ebenezer Burnham and Betsey Packard, both of Windsor, married 
September 7, 1784. Children : John, born May 23, 1785 ; Samuel, born 
May II, 1787; Betsey, born February 24, 1789; Philander, born July 
18, 1 79 1 ; Ebenezer, born June 30, 1793; Allen, born July 11, 1796; 
Lyman, born August 17, 1798; Billy, born August 28, 1800; Cyntha, 
born September 20, 1803; Rosanna, born December 29, 1808. 

Joseph Woodruff and Phebe Norton married at Windsor, November 5, 
1772, b\- James Wellman. Children: Cyprian, born May 16, 1773, died 
March 13, 1776; Rebekah, born November 3, 1775, died September 18, 
1777; Andrew Norton, born January 14, 1778 ; Bela, March 22, 1780; 
Martha, January 14, 1782; Huldah, April 16, 1784; Anna, August 7, 
1786; Susanna, December 31, 1788 ; Rebekah, April 17, 1791 ; Alvan, 
January 14, 1794. 

Silas Banister and Thankful P21y married January 25, 1779. Children : 
Fanny, born January 25, 1780 ; Warren, July 26, 1781 ; Bathsheba, Oc- 
tober 28. 1782; Lucy, January 21, 1784; Osmond, February 7, 1786; 
Heman, May ii, 1788; Pliny, February 5, 1790; Roderick, December 
I5> 1791 ; Wayne, January 21, 1794; Theodosia, March 9, 1796; Anna, 
August 23, 1798 ; Roena, September 19, 1801. 

Alexander Parmele and Mary Davis married at Walpole, February 18, 
1766. Children : John, born August 14, 1767 ; Anna, January 14, 1769 ; 
Rosamond, February 18, 1771 ; Josiah, born at Windsor, April 18, 1773 ; 
Samuel, May 10, 1775; Sarah, December 18, 1777; David, July 27, 
1780; Phineas, February 13, 1783. Mary, wife of Alexander Parmele, 
died December 15, 1788. Alexander Parmele and Mrs. Elizabeth Dana 
married March, 1790. Alexander Parmele died April 20, 1798. 

3o8 History of Windsor County. 

Samuel Burnham and Lucy Hawley married December 4, 1788. Chil- 
dren : Riley, born August 24, 1789 ; Horace, March 25, 1791 ; Marnava, 
February 24, 1793 ; Polly, April 2, 1795 ; Ofen and Oren, sons, born 
July 12, 1797. 

John Blood and Asenath Powers, both of Windsor, married February 
28,1781. Children: Asenath, born July 8, 1782; Polly, March 25, 
1784 ; Samuel, March 3, 1787; Marshall, April 27, 1791 ; Marvin, Jan- 
uary 8, 1793; Sylvester, June 17, 1797. 

Thomes Cooper and Peace Dean married November 17, 1767. Chil- 
dren : Abigail, born September i, 1768 ; Sarah, February 3, 1770 ; Ruth, 
May 17,1772; Rhoda, January 22, 1775; Lucy, October 16, 1776; 
Thomas, August 13, 1778; Ebenezer, May 8, 1780; Jabez, January 25, 
1783, died January 28, 1785 ; Ezra, January 25, 1786. 

John Curtis and Patty Hannars married December 29, 1793. Chil- 
dren : Joseph, born November 20, 1794; Patty Ruggles, May 24, 1797 ; 
Simeon, September 23, 1799. 

Children of Jacob and Rosamond Choate : Mary Ann, born June 29, 
1800; Catharine, March 17, 1804; Harriet, December 30, 1805. 

" Be it remembered that at Windsor, in the county of Windsor, and 
State of Vermont, on the evening of the 20th of March, in the year of 
our Lord seventeen hundred and ninety- one, Nathan Coolidge of said 
Windsor, and Elizabeth Curtis of Windsor aforesaid, having produced a 
certificate from the clerk of said town, that their intention of marriage 
had been legally published, and receiving the consent of the mother of 
said Elizabeth, were legally joined in marriage by " — " Stephen Jacob, 
justice peace." The children of this union were Carlos Coolidge, born 
July 25, 1792; Mary Coolidge, born October 15, 1793 ; Betsey Coolidge, 
born November 17, j8oi. 

Children of Zebina and Martha Curtis: Lucia, born March 3, 1784, 
and died May 5, 1785; Israel, January 19, 1786; Lucia, March 10, 
1788; Joseph Wait, April 8, 1790; Charles, April 23, 1792; William, 
March 9, 1794; Isabella, March 3, 1796; Timothy, December 7, 1797; 
George, September 19, 1799 ; Edward, October 25, 1801 ; Susan, August 
I, 1805. 

Sylvester Churchill was born August 2, 1783 ; married Lucy Hunter, 
daughter of William and Mary. Children: Helen Susan, born at Fort 


* -0^^ 


Daniel Stearns. 


Town of Windsor. 309 

Columbus, on Governor's Island, May 29, 181 7, died September 27, 
1818; William Hunter, born on Bedloe's Island, N. Y., July 8, 1819; 
Mary Helen, born in Windsor, August 30, 1821 ; Franklin Hunter, born 
at Fort Lewis (Fort Hamilton), April 22, 1823; Charles C, born at 
Allegheny Arsenal (near Pittsburgh, Pa.), July. 1825. 

Sewall Cutting, son of Jonas and Sally Cutting, married Mary, daughter 
of William and Mary Hunter, on August 3, 1806. Children: William 
Jonas, born May 27, 1 807; Franklin Hunter, May 27, 1 809; Mar- 
sellas Trask, born June 14. 181 1, died December 25, 181 1 ; Sewall Syl- 
vester, born January 19, 18 13 ; Andrew Jackson, born March 14. 1815, 
died April 17, 1816; Wallace, born March 31, 1817; Mary Hunter. 
August 4, l8i8; Lucy Churchill, born May 5, 1820. died August 9, 
1828; Dan Smith, born May 23, 1823; Guy Hunter, born April 11, 
1826, died March 18, 1827; Guy Hunter, born P^ebruary 8. 1828. 

Children of Jabez and Anna Delano: Clarissa, born F'ebruary 25, 
1803; Laurenda, August 29, 1804; Albourn, September 4. 1808. 

Abner Forbes, son of Absalom and Martha, was born in Sutton, 
Mass., February 29, 1772. Elizabeth West, daughter of Elijah and 
Hannah, was born in Windsor, January 29, 1776. Abner Forbes mar- 
ried Elizabeth West September 24, 1797. Children: Cliarles, born 
November 24, 1798; Elizabeth West, born November 14, 1800. F!liza- 
beth, wife of Abner Forbes, died January i, iSoi. Abner Forbes 
married Sarah, daughter of Alden and Sarah Spooner, September 4, 
1805. Children: Sarah S., born March 20, 1807; Edward, October 
22, 1808; Martha Hall, April 23, 1810; Frances, June 24, 1812; Maria, 
June 7, 1814 ; Arabella, April 18, 1816 ; Spooner, May 26, 18 18; Susan, 
August 9, 1820; Abner, December 10, 1822. 

Page 214 of the first record book has this entry: "In memory of Mrs. 
hLlizabeth, wife of Capt. William Dean, died Dec. 22, 1764, in the 64th 
year of her age. The first death in Windsor." 

Dr. Isaac Green married Anna Barrett, January 17, 1792. Children: 
Samuel Barrett, born December 17, 1792; Eliza Salisbury, May 17, 
1794; Charlotte, May 17, 1796; George, April 14, 1798; Harriet, 
February 16, 1800; Charles, September i, 1803; Caroline, September 
26, 181 1. 

Elisha Hawley and Azubah Russell married November 19, 1767. 

3IO History of Windsor County. 

Children: Thomas, born September 28, 1768; Lucy, March 2, 1770; 
Erastus. December 26, 1772; Rebekah, March 8, 1774; Polly, Novem- 
ber 23, 1775. Azubah, wife of Elisha Hawley, died April i, 1777. 
Elisha Hawley and the widow Hannah Sayles married July, 1777. 
Children: Azubah, born May 26, 1778; Sayles, December 14, 1780; 
Elisha, August 30, 1781 ; Ira, January 5, 1783; George, February 17, 


William Hunter and Mary Newell married January 31, 1777. Chil- 
dren : Guy, born October 21, 1777; William, February 5, 1781 ; Mary, 
August 16, 1782; Jonathan. July 16, 1784; Lucy, July 17, 1786; 
Mary, February 27, 1788; Franklin, F'ebniary 11, 1790; Sally, Febru- 
ary 7, 1794; Rebekah, April 3, 1796; William Guy, September 27, 

Jabesh Hunter and Mary Savage married November i, 1795. Chil- 
dren: Horace F., born August 30, 1796; Galen, January 21, 1800; 
David, April i, 1803; John, August i. 1804; Emily, March 4, 1807; 
Mary, February 25. 1809; William, February 13, 181 2 

Thomas Hunter married Abigail Powers February 10, 1777. Chil- 
dren: I'homas, born September 13, 1777; Nabb}-, November 30. 1779; 
Rebekah, October 25, 1781 ; Richard, June 14. 1784; Thankful, Sep- 
tember 10, 1786; Millison, March 12, 1788. Abigail, wife of Thomas 
Hunter, died June 12, 1790. Thomas Hunter married Tryphena 
Thacher January 27, 1791. Children: Mary, October 13, 1794; Henry, 
March 14, 1795; Eli, August 22, 1796; Maria, December 20, 1798; 
George, February 13, 1801. 

Samuel Hedge married Miriam Parsons May 23, 1793. Children: 
Samuel, born July 30, 1794; Frank, July 5, 1795; William, July ii, 
1796; George, April 11, 1799; Lucy, June 2, 1800. 

Jeremiah Hubbard, son of Elnathan and Sybil Hubbard, married 
Nancy, daughter of Watts and Lois Hubbard, on December 6, 18 10. 
Their child, Harriet, was born December 6, 181 1. 

Children of Captain William and Lucretia Leverett : Mary, born July 
14, 1792; Elizabeth Hallam, July 10. 1796; Lucretia Ann Coit, April 
30, 1805. 

Children of Thomas and Susan Leverett : John, born March 31, 1792 ; 
Charles Johnson, October 12, 1793; William, July 6, 1797; Susan, 

Town of Windsor. 


March 8, 1800; George, January 17, 1802; Caroline Hallam, March 5, 
1804; Thomas, February 12, 1 806 

Joel Lull and Thankful Dodge married April 27, 1794. Children: 
Joel, born December 20, 1796; Laura, September 2, 1798; Lyman, 
March 4, 1801. 

" Captain Steele Smith, the settler of the town of Windsor, died 
April 5, 18 I 2, in the eighty third year of his age." 

Samuel Patrick and Anna Spicer, of Windsor, married April 15, 1773. 
Progeny: Isabel, born November 30, 1773; Sarah, November 5, 1775; 
Lemuel, July 24, 1779; Samuel, August lo, 1781 ; Freedom, May 21, 
1784; P^anny, August 22, 1786; Reuhama, March 4, 1789. Anna, 
wife of Samuel, died March 28, 1789. Samuel Patrick and Isabel Alex- 
ander married October 27, 1790. Children: Harriet, born June 5, 
1792; Matthew Alexander, April 13, 1794; Nancy, October 22, 1796; 
Sophia, March 15, 1799. 

Samuel Smith, the first male child, was born in Windsor, July 2, 1765, 
the son of Steele and " Louis " (Lois) Smith. Samuel Smith married 
Lucy Woods, September i. 1784. Children: John Spooner. born Au- 
gust 25, 1790; Betsey, March 18, 1792; CylHnda, September 15, 1794 ; 
Samuel Newell, October 30, 1796; Lucy, February 22. 1799; Sophia, 
February 14, 1801; Miry, December 25, 1802; Hart, October 14, 1804. 

Children of Samuel Stow Savage and Mary Cole Savage, his wife: 
Samuel Stow, born June 23, 1770; Cyprian, June 4, 1772; Mary, 
July 27, 1774; Lemuel, November 19, 1776; Ruth, December 13, 
1778 ; Prudence, January 25, 1781 ; Sally, May 26, 1783; Joseph, De- 
cember 28, 1785. 

Silvanus Watriss and Rhoda Field married August 2, 1780. Chil- 
dren: Asa, born June 10, 1781 ; Henry, October i, 1782; Martha and 
Rhoda, (twins) February 7, 1786; Charles. December 31, 1788. 

Children of John and Susanna (Powers) Dake : Sophia, born Febru- 
ary II, 1775 ; Susanna. October 26. 1777; John, September 23. 1779; 
Mary, December 16, 1782; Abig.iil, March 22, 1786; Keziah, Au- 
gust 22, 1790. John Dake, the pioneer, died March 22, 1791. 

Leonard Taylor and Eunice Parker married January 21, 1779. Chil- 
dren: Leonard, born October 31, 1779; Eunice, April 12, 1782; 
Eunice, 2d, May 14, 1784; Esther, March 29, 1789; Parker, Decern- 

312 History of Windsor County. 

ber 21, 1790; Peter, February 2, 1793 ; Polly, June 16, 1797; Sally, 
August 7, 1800; Laura, June 13, 1802. 

Children of Phineas and Elizabeth Hemenway: Betsey, born Septem- 
ber f, 1776; Phineas, January 23, 1781 ; Joshua, December 26, 1792. 

James Langworthy and Anna Dean married xA.pril 13, 1775 ; moved 
to Windsor, February 5, 1776. Children: Sarah, October 29, 1776 ; 
Stephen, October 4, 1777 ; James, April 20, 1779; Anna, October 3, 
1780; Phineas, F'ebruary 7, 1782; Jonathan, October 5, 1783; Han- 
nah, November 10, 1784; Laura, January 9, 1786; Reodolphus, July 12, 
1787; Augustus, November 29, 1788; Benjamm, January 27, 1790. 

Children of Stephen and Jane Cad}': Jane, born April i, 1781 ; 
Sarah, February 23, 1783 ; Anna, November 4, 1784; Matthew Patrick, 
October 16, 1786; Betsey, September 19, 1788; Polly, August 9, 1790; 
Lucy, November 24, 1792. Jane, wife of Stephen Cady, died Febru- 
ary 6, 1794. Stephen Cady married Esther Parker, September 23, 
1794. Children: Pluma, September 7, 1795; Esther, January 28, 
1797; Laura, April 16, 1798; Stephen P., January 10, 1805. 

Children of Jerahmeel and Deborah Cumings: Jane, born Febru- 
ary 28, 1777; Jerahmeel, January 24, 1779; Joseph, January 15, 1781 ; 
John, October 20, 1782; Asa, August 9, 1784; Bera, April 9, 1786; 
Hannah, November 15, 1787; Polly, August 17, 1789. 

Children of Solomon and Keziah Burke: Caleb, born May 7, 1773; 
Benjamin, February 21, 1775; Rachel. March 5, 1778; Jonathan, 
July 7, 1780; Solomon Wait, July 11, 1782; Alice; Moses; Nahum, 
July 13, 1789; Abel, March 27, 1792. 

Children of Solomon and Mary Emmons : Patty, born January 27, 
1770; Eunice, born May 9, 1774. 

Children of Joseph and Rhoda Thomson: Daughter, born Febru- 
ary 13, and died February 14, 1775; Joseph, June 26, 1776; Rhoda, 
May 25, 1778; Thurza, March 19, 1780; Sibbille, August 25, 1782; 
Seth, May 17, 1784; Samuel, June 18, 1786; Annas, July 25, 1788; 
Claria, February i, 1791 ; Hannah, October 31, 1792; Joseph, Janu- 
ary 17, 1796. 

Children of Charles and Lydia Leavens: Mary, born March 15, 1774; 
Penuel, April 25, 1777; Ira, February 28, 1779; Charles, March 13, 
1781 ; Calvin, August 18, 1784; Darius, June 17, 1786; John Grover, 

z?/-/^^ ytu^^jz/^ — -X 

Village of Windsor. 313 

March 2, 1788; Chloe, November 3, 1789; Jacob, January 7, 1792; 
Mason, December 8, 1793. 

The Village of Windsor. 

So much has already been said that pertains to the history of the vil- 
lage of Windsor, as well as to the town at large, that it appears exceed- 
ingly difficult to separate the municipality from the town for the purpose 
of further narrative. In fact, it cannot be told with certainty when the 
history of the town ceased and that of the village commenced. The 
latter cannot be assumed to have been in existence when Steele Smith 
and his handful of pioneer associates commenced their improvements 
during 1764 and 1765, but when the first convention of delegates from all 
parts of the New Hampshire Grants met in the town in June, 1777, there 
was a considerable settlement, a tavern, at least one store, and dwellings 
to the number of a score or more. At all events, it is nowhere recorded 
that the visiting delegates were permitted to suffer for want of accom- 
modations, or on account of any lack of generous hospitality on the part 
of the inhabitants of the village or town. 

And the location of the village seems to have been made with refer- 
ence to the greatest convenience of the people of the whole town, and 
upon lands especially suited to the purpose. The topographical situation 
of the land is somewhat peculiar, being a succession of elevations back 
to the westward from the Connecticut ; and each of these elevations has a 
considerable area, that farthest west being, perhaps, the most extensive, 
and any of them sufficiently large to accommodate buildings for a popu- 
lation of three or four hundred. When Windsor was fixed upon as the 
shire town of the county, soon after the latter was erected, there was a 
considerable influx of people, for that designation not only assured the 
erection of a court-house and other county buildings, but brought to 
the town a number of lawyers, who were, of course, desirous of locating 
at the county seat. By 1783 the population of the place had so in- 
creased that George Hough and Alden Spooner felt assured of success 
by the establishment of a newspaper at Windsor, the Vermont Journal; 
and this paper, although it has experienced all the vicissitudes known to 
journalism, is still in existence as one of the enduring institutions of the 
region. In 1787 the independent State of Vermont, knowing the neces- 

314 ' History of Windsor County. 

sity of having the means of ready communication between the more 
important points of the State, estabhshed therein several post-offices, 
one of which was at Windsor. 

But each of these, and other of the early institutions of the village, 
have been frequently and sufficiently alluded to in this and preceding 
chapters, therefore need no further presentation in these pages. With 
the close of the first score of years of the present century the village 
proper was estimated to contain a population of some five or six hundred 
souls, and had, besides, all the attributes and essential elements of a 
flourishing municipality of the lesser class, there then being, according 
to a statement in the Vermont Journal of March 17, 1823, " about eighty 
dwelling houses, mostly well built and commodious; and the shops, 
stores, etc., are many of them of brick, and large, so that the business 
part of the town has an air of dignity rarely met with in the country. 
Here are employed three physicians, eight attorneys, two printers, three 
booksellers, two book- binders, several merchants and druggists, three 
cabinet-makers, one chairmaker and painter, four boot and shoemakers, 
one hatter, one coach and chaisemaker, one wheelwright, two coopers, 
two tin-plate workers, one watchmaker, one jeweler, two tailors, one 
milliner and mantuamaker, two masons and brick-layers, one barber, 
one grist-mill, carding- machine and woolen manufactory." The churches 
then in the village are still here, with some added, as also may be said 
of other public buildings. But, while not wishing to invite comparison, 
let the citizen of Windsor of the present day look at the population, busi- 
ness enterprises, industries and other institutions of the place, compare 
records with the year 1823, and then observe how much Windsor is now 
in advance of the situation as it then existed. To be sure, in the south 
part of the village, along the stream Mill Brook, there stands a number 
of splendid, large buildings, but the noise of machinery is no longer 
heard in many, too many, of them ; they are mostly but " wrecks of 
former greatness." And their idleness is not by any means the fault of 
the people of Windsor, nor of the people of the locality ; but it is the re- 
sult of over-production and the vast extent of competition noticeable in 
almost every branch of trade and manufacture in the land. And Wind- 
sor, being unfortunately remote from large manufacturing centers, hav- 
ing no advantage in the way of cheap labor, having no ready shipping 

Village of Windsor. 


facilities without unwarrantable expense, cannot compete with the vil- 
lages in the southern New England States, nor with those in the eastern 
and middle Atlantic States. Therefore her factories have become un- 
profitable and are no longer operated. 

Windsor became and was of the character of a village when, in 1786, 
or thereabouts, the inhabitants in meeting laid out the territory of the 
town into school districts, under which proceeding the lands here were 
formed into district number three. This was for school purposes only, 
but the name District No. 3 was destined to play a prominent part in 
the affairs of the subsequent village. It so happened that during the 
early years of the present century this locality suffered seriously from 
the ravages of fire, and the inhabitants were powerless to resist the de- 
struction. Therefore, that the proper measures might be taken to pro- 
vide means and apparatus for fighting fire, the people of the hamlet had 
recourse to the Legislature, with the result of an act of incorporation, 
by which it was declared "That the freeholders and inhabitants within 
the present bounds of the Third School District, in Windsor, in the 
county of Windsor, and their successors forever, are hereby constituted 
and appointed a body politic and corporate, in name and in fact, by the 
name of the Windsor Village Corporation ; and by that name 
shall be capable, in law, of suing and being sued, pleading and being 
impleaded, answering and being answered unto, defending and being 
defended, in all courts and places whatever," etc. 

The same section and others subsequent provided for the property 
and government of the corporation, which was intended and understood 
as being a corporation for fire purposes only, but which was, in fact, a 
municipal corporation, with powers of electing officers and fully con- 
trolling the fire department. But the corporation was not clothed with 
the powers of government for all purposes, independent of the outside 
town, and from that body the village has never become entirely sepa- 
rate, although the act of 1884 increased the municipal power and regu- 
larly incorporated the village as such. The effect of the latter act was to 
permit the village to control itself, its schools, its highways, and its in- 
ternal institutions of every kind ; elect its own officers and make such 
improvements as the people were pleased to vote for ; but, at the same 
time, the village and town join in electing town officers. The electors 

3i6 History of Windsor County. 

of the village still retain the right to vote on town affairs in town and 
freemen's meetings, but the townspeople have not the right of a voice 
in village affairs. Under the corporate act of 1832 the power of the 
village was vested in its officers and nine fire wardens authorized to be 
elected, the wardens being the power, the legislative body of the mu- 
nicipality ; but under the act of 1884 the wardens have charge exclu- 
sively of the affairs of the fire department, and are in control at times of 
fire, and the legislative power of the village is vested in the board of 
trustees, the latter having, with the corporation officers, supreme control 
of the municipality and its government. 

In January, 1833, the village of Windsor was organized agreeable to 
the provisions of the act of incorporation, and the officers chosen at that 
time were these: President, Thomas Emerson; vice-president, Ed- 
ward R. Campbell ; secretary, Charles Hopkins ; treasurer, Caleb Ken- 
dall ; collector, William Colston ; wardens, Allen Wardner, Samuel 
Patrick, William Tileston, Francis E. Phelps, Isaac W. Hubbard, Darius 
Jones, John P. Skinner, Shubael Wardner, and Albert G. Hatch. 

These officers of the fire corporation immediately caused to be fur- 
nished a complete outfit of fire apparatus and other needful equipments 
for the extinguishing of fires, and organized a trained fire department, 
and one that showed its efficiency on more than one occasion. The en- 
gine-house was erected on Main street, about midway between what is 
termed the north and south villages. The south part of the village was 
the manufacturing district, while the north part was more used for mer- 
cantile and dwelling purposes. And the old fire department continued 
an active and useful organization until within a couple of years, when the 
village purchased the water supply company's property and rights, and 
so increased the system in efficiency that the necessity of hand-engines 
was no longer required, and they were therefore replaced with hose 
companies ; and these, with the hook and ladder company, comprise 
what there is of the present village fire department. 

Schools. — Whatever of causes may have had the effect of changing 
the municipal character of the old Third School District, so far as per- 
tains to village corporations, none of these have ever caused the district 
to lose its identity for the purposes of schools, although the limits of the 
district may have been enlarged or curtailed agreeable to the wishes of 







G. A. Davis. 

Village ok Windsor. 317 

the people. The old district was created by the committee appointed 
to divide the town about the year 1786, and soon after that time, but 
just when, from the loss of the records, we are unable to state, a school 
was built in the district, and at the village as the most central part. A 
fair description of the old building we have not, but it is known to have 
continued in use until about the year 18 10, when, the village having 
become too large for the school to accommodate the pupils of the place, 
it was necessary to erect another and larger building. This matter was 
the subject of considerable discussion in the school meetings, and the 
result was that Luther Mills was chosen agent of the prudential com- 
mittee, and of the district, to cause the new brick school -house to be 
erected. It was in time done, and stood on the site now occupied by 
the high school. The building was of brick, a plain though substan- 
tial structure, and cost the district something like twenty-five hundred 
dollars. Among the early teacliers in the old brick school the names 
of some are disclosed by the records. In 181 1 Eunice Hawley taught 
there ; in 18 12, and for a number of years, Mary Robinson ; in 18 16, 
Dr. J. Forbes; in 1817, John Smith; 1818, Richard M. Ely ; 1820, 
Harriet Fox, Laura Craige, Lydia A. Spooner, Mr. Edgerton, and prob- 
ably others. 

In 1 84 1 the town district voted to lease the brick school to Sweet & 
Jackman for two years, and in 1843 extended the term for three years 
more. In 1847 M""- Prouty kept singing school in the building, which 
some of the older citizens of the village will probably remember. In 1838 
it was found advisable to divide the schools of the district, that the 
younger pupils might be separated from the older. This led to the es- 
tablishment of what in later years has been known as the South Primary 
and the "West Primary schools of the district, both of which are among 
the present institutions of the village. 

But, at last, the day of usefulness of the old brick school house was at 
an end. The village had become of sufficient importance to justify the . 
erection of a larger and more pretentious school building ; one that would 
not only accommodate the probable school population for years to come, 
but one, as well, that would be an ornament and an honor to the place. 
During the early years of the present decade this subject was much dis- 
cussed, but it was not until the year 1885 that definite action was taken. 

3r8 History of Windsor County. 

At a meeting held October 6 a committee, consisting of Hiram Harlow, 
D wight Tuxbury, L. W. Stocker, Rev. Edward N. Goddard, H. P. Mc- 
Clary, Mrs. Abbie Butler and Mrs. Mary L. Paine, was appointed for the 
purpose of erecting or causing to be erected a high school building, sub- 
stantially in conformity with plans then adopted, and as the building now 
appears. That this committee performed well their part is evidenced by 
the large and elegant structure that now adorns the " common." Its pro- 
portions and appearance are so well known as to need no description in 
these pages ; and it is a common remark that Windsor has a high school 
which is not inferior to any in the State, though there may be others of 
greater size. Its entire cost, including furnishings, was about $17,000. 
It was built during the year 1886. 

The report of the district superintendent for the current year ending 
1789 shows the total expense of the district schools to have been $3,- 
754.42 ; that the attendance at the high school was 62 pupils ; the gram- 
mar, 59; intermediate, 81 ; Center Primary, 61 ; South Primary, 58 ; 
West Primary, 39. 

Village Water Supply. — For the purpose of supplying the village with 
pure and wholesome water a company was organized in pursuance of an 
act of the Legislature passed in 1849. The name of the Windsor Aque- 
duct Company was adopted, and of it Roswell Smith was chosen presi- 
dent, and Samuel R. Stocker, secretary. The company at once com- 
menced operations by constructing a reservoir and stopping the water of 
a small mountain stream, a short distance west of the village ; and from 
the reservoir a main pipe was laid to the village, and thence distributed 
through the principal streets. The first stream was found to afford an 
insufificient amount of water, to remedy which the company soon took 
measures to secure an additional supply from a reservoir on what was 
known as the Ely farm. 

In the year 1888 the village acquired the rights, property and inter- 
ests of the old company, and at once undertook and accomplished a com- 
plete re-organization of the whole system, under the immediate direction 
of commissioners appointed for the purpose. " The village voted to con- 
struct a distributing reservoir on the land of R. F. Ely, and also a stor- 
age reservoir on land of Thomas Sears, at the head of the Dudley Brook," 
from the combined capacity of which reservoirs an abundant supply of 

Village of Windsor. 319 

an excellent quality is asbured. The work of the comniissioneis has been 
by no means confined to establishing a source of supply, for additional 
street mains have been laid in various localities, and fire hydrants placed 
at convenient points, so that not only an ample water supply is secured 
for domestic uses, but the heavy gravity pressure affords excellent pro- 
tection in cases of fire. The work of the commissioners is not yet wholly 
completed, although enough is already done to assure the people of 
the village of the wisdom of their course in acquiring the franchise 
and property of the old company and holding the plant as one of the in- 
stitutions of the corporation. The expense of the enterprise when com- 
pleted is estimated at something like thirty-five thousand dollars, possi- 
bly a little more. 

The Tozvji Hall. — This building can hardly be considered as one of 
the public properties of the village, but it is within the corporation 
limits and was brought into existence largely through local influence and 
a tax upon local property. And, withal, it is an ornament to the place 
and a building to which the people may point with just pride. Prior to 
its erection the old court-house was made to answer the purpose of a 
town hall, besides being but to numerous other uses; but the old struct- 
ure was hardly a thing of beauty, nor was it suitable for the require- 
ments of the village and town. It was therefore sold and removed, and 
in its place was erected the town hall, — a beautiful structure, elegant 
in design and complete in finish. It is not over-large, nor yet too small ; 
admirably adapted for the uses of the town and village, and so arranged 
and provided as to afford an excellent hall for all classes of entertain- 
ment. The building rests upon a solid granite foundation, the latter in- 
closing a large, well ventilated and well lighted basement, while the 
superstructure is of brick with a slated roof. The rear portion of the 
basement is arranged admirably, and is used by the Windsor Library- 
Association. The upper part is divided so that the town officials have 
a convenient room for meetings, the room being thirteen by fourteen 
feet in size, while the general hall or auditorium is forty- five feet square, 
aud twenty-two feet in height. Besides, there is a spacious gallery at 
the west end, over the entrance. The stage is at the east end of the 
building, and is seventeen by twenty-two feet in size, with convenient 
rooms on either side. 

320 History of Windsor County. 

As is indicated by a tablet in the entrance, the " W'indsorTown Hall " 
was built during the years 1881-82; building committee, Charles C. 
Beaman, jr., Hiram Harlow, Henry D. Stone, Rohin Amsden, Horace 
Weston ; architects, Appleton & Stephenson ; builder, Hira R. Beck- 
with. The building complete cost the town the sum of twelve thousand 

The Windsor Library Association. — This institution of Windsor was 
organized under the general laws of Vermont, in December, 1882. At 
that time the remnant of the former social library known as the Athe- 
naeum was about to be dissolved. This coming to the knowledge of Hon. 
William M. Evarts and C. C. Beaman, esq., these gentlemen proposed 
that a new library be organized, to which should be sold at a low price 
the old Athenaeum books; and that a starting subscription of $1,000 be 
raised in the town, to which they would add another $1,000; and would 
also meet a yearly subscription of $100 with an equal sum, for five years. 
This generous proposal was accepted. The $2,000 was provided ; the 
Athenaeum books were bought for $100. There were about 1,800 vol- 
umes, of which 1,110 were United States public documents, mostly of 
little value, though some of them were very desirable. The town offi- 
cers allowed the use of a large light basement in the town hall. The 
town meeting voted the association the tax allowed by law for public 
library purposes, which vote has been annually repeated, conditioned on 
the free use of the library to all Windsor people. 

On the 23d of June, 1883, the library was opened to the public, then 
having on its shelves 3,235 volumes, all of which have been catalogued 
on the plan of Dewey's Decimal Classification, the work being done by 
Rev. E. N. Goddard. From that time to the present the library has 
been increased continuall)', so that its present number of volumes reaches 
5,670. The rooms are open for loaning books on Wednesdays and Sat- 
urdays, in all seven hours a week. The number of volumes loaned has 
averaged 8,500 yearly, four- fifths of which are fiction and juveniles In 
August, 1886, the trustees were advised that the late Hon. Hiram Har- 
low, then just deceased, had by his will bequeathed to the association, 
" for the purposes of said association," the sum of $20,000. Litigations 
and other complications of the estate have thus far prevented the trust- 
ees from receiving the benefits from this generous bequest. No ques- 

"^^^UJ^T^^^-t^ t^^ /^^f--t^ 

Village of Windsor. 321 

tion is raised, however, of the vahdity of the bequest, so that it will 
eventually come to the association. 

The present officers of the association are as follows: President, Mil- 
ton K. Paine ; vice-president, W. H. Fullerton ; secretary and treasurer, 
Horace P. McClary ; trustees, C. C. Beaman, E. N. Goddard, Arthur 
W. Harris, Horace P. McClary, Marsh O. Perkins, Charles Tuxbury, 
Luther C. White ; librarian, Edward N. Goddard ; assistant librarian, 
Miss F. G. Tuxbury. 

TJie State Prison. — This is by no means an institution of the village 
or town, but of the State, and being located within the corporate limits 
of the village, requires at least a brief mention in these pages. Be it 
said, however, to the credit of this locality that the population of the 
prison has been augmented but very little by reason of convictions and 
commitments from Windsor county. 

The act under which the State prison was erected was passed on the 
3d of November, 1807, and by it Ezra Butler, Samuel Shaw, John 
Cameron, Josiah Wright and Elihu Luce were constituted a commission 
to select a site and superintend the erection of the prison building, for 
which work of construction the commission was authorized to draw 
against the State treasury not exceeding $30,000. Windsor was desig- 
nated as the location for the building, and work was at once commenced 
and so far completed during 1809 that convicts to the number of twenty- 
four were sent here. The original prison, thirty-six by eighty-four feet 
in size, was built wholly of stone, and is a part of what is now known as the 
east wing. In 1809 a workshop and keeper's residence were built ; and 
subsequent to that year, there have twice been made extensive additions 
and enlargements, first in 1830, and again in 1882. As is the custom 
in many other States, so it is here, by which the services of the prisoners 
are sold to manufacturing contractors. In the W^indsor prison Messrs. 
Brackett & Co. of Boston employ the prisoners, paying the State fifty 
cents per day for the work of each inmate. The prison, however, has 
not a sufficient convict population to perform all the work of manufact- 
ure carried on by the firm, and this has necessitated the erection, by 
the firm, of a large frame building adjoining the prison, in which is 
employed a number of persons from the village. The entire prison 
institution is under the superintending charge of Mr. E. W. Oaks. 


322 History of Windsor County. 

The First Congregational Church of Windsor, or as more commonly 
known, The Old South Church, is by many years the senior of the re- 
Hgious societies of the village, its organization and origin dating back to 
the year 1768, at which time it was called the "Church of Cornish and 
Windsor." Of its early history the historical sketch published in the 
church manual says: "The Covenant was adopted at Windsor, Septem- 
ber 21,1 768, four years after the settlement of the town was commenced, 
and at Cornish one week later; at which time an Ecclesiastical Council 
publicly recognized the church according to Congregational usage, and 
installed Rev. James Wellman as its pastor. The church consisted of 
ten members, four of whom were residents of Windsor" — (Israel Curtis, 
Ebenezer Hoisington, Joab Hoisington, Hezekiah Thompson). 

" It was arranged that the pastor should preach one-third part of the 
time in Windsor, and the remainder in Cornish. He received as a set- 
tlement two hundred acres of land, and his annual salary was forty 
pounds, in the currency of New Hampshire, one- third part of which was 
to be paid by the people of Windsor. To secure the payment of this 
sum a bond was given to the pastor, signed by the citizens of Windsor. 
The payment was to be made in October, either in money or ' in Graine, 
or Pork, or Beef, or Day's Labor.' This engagement was to expire in 
five years. 

" On the third of April, 1774, eleven members of this church requested 
and received letters of dismission for the purpose of forming a church in 
Windsor. Two of these were original members ; the others had united 
with it subsequently. Soon afterward we find the church of Windsor in 
existence, but we have no record of its organization, and there is no 
evidence that a council was convened for that purpose. It is not 
improbable that it was assumed that the church of Cornish and Windsor 
had now become two distinct churches, and that no further organization 
was thought to be necessary." 

The year in which was erected the first church edifice, or meeting- 
house, for this county is not known ; neither does there appear to be any 
existing record to determine the time of building the first house of 
worship under authority of the town, which, whenever done, was 
probably in accordance with the then prevailing custom of building at 
the public expense. The first church, however, is believed to have been 

Village of Windsor. 


built prior to the year 1779. It was nearly square, with a pointed roof, 
and had no steeple. It was the only meeting-house in the East Parish 
for about twenty-five years. The present church building, that known 
as the Old South church, was erected in 1798, at an expense of about 
$5,000. In 1844 the building was substantially remodeled at an expense 
of about $3,000. Still further improvements, costing about $1,400, 
were made in 1852, among them the purchase of an organ for the church. 

The succession of pastors of the Congregational church has been as 
follows: James Wellman, David Tullar, Benjamin Bell, Bancroft Fowler, 
John Wheeler, George S. Wilson, Thomas Kidder, Franklin Butler, 
Ezra H. Byington, S. P. Cook, Rev. Searles, William Greenwood, S. S. 
Martyn, the latter being the present pastor. 

The First Baptist Church of Windsor. — The history of this church and 
its society carries back into the eighteenth century, having been organ- 
ized, according to best information obtainable, on the 3d of Decem- 
ber, 1785, by eleven persons who were members of the Woodstock Bap- 
tist Association, so called. But the society seems not to have acquired 
sufficient strength to build a church home before the year 1802, and this 
was u cd by it until 18 15, at which time the first building, a frame 
structure, was replaced by a more substantial one of brick, both being 
located on the General Forbes property, now a part of the Evarts prop- 
erty. But it appears that in 18 13, and the year following, the society 
of the Baptist church underwent a substantial and radical re-organization^ 
according to the society records, and the result was the signing by forty- 
two persons of articles of association, bearing date December 30, 1813, 
and taking th^ name, " First Baptist Society of the East Parish of Wind- 
sor." The society at this period became quite strong in point of mem- 
bers, so that the expense of the erection of the brick church was a burden 
easily borne. Its cost was nearly forty- four hundred dollars. The 
building committee was composed of Israel Tewksbury, Thomas Lever- 
ett and John C. Thompson. Rev. Leland Howard became first pastor 
of the new church in 18 16. Of the old church, Rev. Roswell Smith was 
first pastor. 

In 1874 the society built and occupied the handsome church edifice at 
the corner of Main and River streets, on land purchased from Dr. Edward 
Phelps. It cost $16,000. The new church was formally dedicated in 

324 History of Windsor County. 

July, 1874. Its seating capacity is about three hundred. The present 
pastor, Rev. William C. Carr, assumed charge as such on the first of June, 

St. Pauls CJiurcJi {Protestatit Episcopal). — The records of the town 
clerk of Windsor preserve a copy of a certificate, or rather a letter, dated 
22d of August, 1785, in which the Rev. Ranna Cossitt, " clerk by virtue 
of my ecclesiastical office which I hold by lineal succession from our 
Lord Christ," appointed Alexander Parmalee to be warden of the Church 
of England for the towns of Windsor and Reading. There are also sev- 
eral certificates that certain persons named in them are members of the 
Church of England. These were given, it is presumed, to protect the 
holders from taxation for supporting a minister or preacher and build- 
jug a meeting-house at the general expense. 

The first point of history of the Protestant Episcopal church in Wind- 
sor, of which there appears a record, is that in September, 1816, the 
biennial convention of the Eastern Diocese (including the whole of New 
England except Connecticut) was assembled here. Divine service was 
celebrated in the Baptist edifice, which then stood on what is a part of 
Senator Evarts's lawn, and the business sessions were held at Judge Hub- 
bard's residence. The acting members of the convention, representing 
the church in these five States, seem to have been eight besides Bishop 
Griswold. How the convention came to be here, where there was no 
church organization, rather than at Claremont, is not understood. 

Immediately after the close of this convention a correspondence was 
opened with the Rev. James Morss of Newburyport, Mass., by Mr. 
Thomas Thomas of Windsor, in behalf of himself and some of his fi lends, 
urging Mr. Morss to come to Windsor and inaugurate church work here, 
and make it his home. In response to these letters Mr. Morss did come 
and spend two Sundays, November 30 and December 6, 1816. During 
this time he baptized about thirty persons, celebrated the Holy Com- 
munion, and organized the parish of St. Paul's church, and arranged for 
continuing the services under the care of a lay-reader. Colonel Alexan- 
der Dunham. These services were had in the old court-house on Com- 
mon Hill, and the congregations assembled were large. 

The letters to Mr. Morss continued and urged his return, with sug- 
gestions that if he should do so they would be able to have Vermont 

Village of Windsor. 


and New Hampshire set off in a diocese by themselves, of which Mr. 
Morss would surely be the bishop. The letters contain curious notes of 
the " odiiDH theologiann which the new movement experienced from their 
neighbors of the 'Standing Order' " as well as of the newly invented 
stoves, and the cost of living in Windsor, etc. Though Mr. Morss was 
not persuaded to move here, yet he did spend two more Sundays here 
in August, 1 8 17, strengthening and encouraging the new parish. 

The Rev. G. Leonard was made the first minister of the parish in the 
fall of 18 17 or early in 1 81 8. During his ministry the church was built, 
and was consecrated by Bishop Griswold in November, 1822, and Mr. 
Leonard was formally instituted as its rector the next day The church 
is said to have cost about $7,000, a large part of which was contributed 
by the Hon. Jonathan H. Hubbard, who became the senior church 
warden and so continued to his death in 1848. Bishop Griswold, in his 
Episcopal address of the next year, on reporting the consecration of the 
church, adds : " We have rarely, if ever, seen more laudable efforts of 
pious liberality and united zeal than that which has added to the num- 
ber of our churches, this beautiful edifice." And it still remains a sub- 
stantial and venerable and respectable place of worship, though very 
plain and old fashioned. 

Mr. Leonard's rectorship extended to 1829, when he was succeeded 
by the Rev. W. Horton, since which time the succeeding rectors of St. 
Paul's have been as follows: W. Horton, 1829-35; Darius Barker, 
1836-38; O. H. Staples, 1838-41 ; W. D. Wilson, 1842-45 ; O. H. 
Staples officiated occasionally in 1845-46; Josiah Perry, 1848-51; 
W. R. Johnson, 1851-55 ; T. L. Randolph, 1856-58 ; Malcolm Doug- 
lass, 1859-72; J. B. Trevett, 1872-74; T. J. Taylor, 1874-78; E. N. 
Goddard, 1879, and now the officiating rector of the church. 

St. Francis's Chitrch [Roman Catholic). — The first missionary labors 
among the Roman Catholic families of this locality are believed to have 
been begun by the Rev. Father Daly, of Boston, who visited here every 
four or five months, and in a regular way, some forty or more years ago. 
Succeeding Father Daly's visits, Rev. Charles O'Reilley came to the 
locality, and after him the Rev. Father Pigeon. The latter was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Daniel O'Sullivan, during whose ministry the parish 
was fully organized and St. Francis's church built, the latter in 1882. 

326 History of Windsor County. 

Rev. Patrick Cunningham next came to the pastorate, and was in turn 
succeeded by the first resident priest, Father Robert F. Higgins. Father 
Higgins died June 23, 1888. The next resident priest, the present in- 
cumbent, the Rev. Father Wilham N. Lonergan, came to the parish 
January 20, 1888. 

There was a time when the congregation of St. Francis's parish was 
as strong in numbers as any of the church societies of the town or vil- 
lage, for, when the cotton-mills were in operation, a very large part of 
the employees were Catholics ; but with the decline of manufacturing 
in the village these persons have many of them been compelled to seek 
employment in other places. Thus has the strength of the parish been 
greatly reduced. At present it numbers between one hundred and fifty 
and two hundred persons. 

All Souls' CJuuxh. — Under the name just mentioned there was quite 
recently united the persons and families that formerly comprised the 
Unitarian and Universalist societies of the village and locality ; a union 
not of formal compact, but of common consent, and one organized upon 
a liberal basis of thought and action, for a common purpose — the spir- 
itual and moral welfare of all interested persons. It so happens that 
the more recent officiating ministers of this society and church have 
been Unitarians, but the services can be, and have been, so ordered as 
to be wholly acceptable to those who were formerly identified with what 
was known as the Universalist society. And the church building, too, 
which was erected in 1847 (^ still earlier one having been built in 1838), 
is the property of the Unitarian Association of Boston, having become 
so by transfer from the local society t^.at was too few in point of num- 
bers to maintain and support it and its minister. And the association 
also makes an annual donation of $350 for the support of services in the 
church, the balance of expense being borne by the resident congrega- 
tion. The present officiating minister is Rev. Joseph Wassail, who, in 
addition to his regular pastoral duties, also acts as chaplain at the State 

The Methodist Episcopal Church and society of Windsor was formed 
on April 25, 1870, and placed under the pastoral charge of Rev. David 
Megahy; and although the society at one time numbered one hundred 
members, it has never been strong enough to build a house of worship, 

Village of Windsor. 327 

but holds meetings in halls and such other places as can best be secured. 
For a time the society leased and occupied the Unitarian church 

Banking Institutions of Windsor. — " In 18 16," says Zadock Thomp- 
son's "Gazetteer," "applications were made from Burlington and Windsor 
for the incorporation of a bank in each of those towns. After consider- 
able discussion the matter was referred to the next session of the Legis- 
lature. At the session in 18 17 the subject was called up and an act 
passed incorporating a bank at Windsor ; but for some reason it did not 
go into operation, and at the session of the Legislature in 1818 a new 
act of incorporation was obtained for a bank in Windsor, and a bank 
was also incorporated in Burlington. The Bank of Windsor became in- 
solvent and failed." 

The foregoing extract refers to what was known in local banking cir- 
cles as the old Windsor Bank, which is understood as having continued 
in business until the year 1838, or about that time, before its affairs were 
finally wound up by the insolvency of the concern. Then for a period 
of neat-ly ten years Windsor had no banking institution of any kind, but 
in 1847 the Ascutney Bank was charted, with a capital stock of $50,000, 
and opened its doors for business early in 1848. Allen Wardner was 
president, and Jason Steele, cashier. The Ascutney Bank continued in 
operation, with a fair degree of success, until after the passage of the 
National banking act, when, in 1865, its officers at once accepted the 
provisions of the law, and procured for it an act of incorporation, under 
the style of The Ascutney National Bank of Windsor, with a capital 
stock of $100,000. 

The Ascutney National Bank was in all respects a profitable concern, 
and succeeded, by the year 1881, in piling up as surplus the splendid 
sum of $70,000, and that after paying large semi-annual dividends. But 
the bank never lived out the term of its charter ; and why, there appears 
to be no satisfactory explanation, unless it was that the stockholders 
were anxious to divide the accumulated surplus. However this may be 
is not a matter of much concern ; sufficient it is to say that the bank 
went into voluntary liquidation during the latter part of 1881. 

The Windsor National Bank was incorporated under the provisions 
of the National banking act, in the month of September, 1884. Its 

328 History of Windsor County. 

capital stock is $100,000. There has been but little change in the offi- 
cers or board of directors of the bank since its organization. On the 
death of Hiram Harlow, the first president, Ripley Clark, the then vice- 
president, was advanced to the vacancy, and the vice-presidency was 
filled by the election of H. P. McClary. L C. White succeeded at the 
same time to the vacancy in the board of directors. 

Although having been doing business only five years, the Windsor 
Bank has been a reasonably successful institution, from a financial stand- 
point, and now has an accumulated surplus of $3,600. The present 
officers are these: President, Ripley Clark; vice-president, H. P. Mc- 
Clary; cashier, J. S. Walker, jr. ; directors, H. P. McClary, Ripley Clark, 
RoUin Amsden, Alvin Weston, John S. Walker, S. N. Stone, and L. C. 

The Windsor Savings Bank. — This institution was incorporated by 
the Legislature of Vermont on the 13th of November, 1847, ^"^^ opened 
its doors for business in January, 1848 ; first in a building on Main street, 
which is not now in existence, but was moved some years ago to the 
present location on State street, the building and property belonging to 
the bank. The first officers of the Savings Bank were Shubael Wardner, 
president; Israel Hall, first vice president; S. H. Price, treasurer. 

The bank now shows a total deposit account of about $640,000, and 
has an accumulated surplus of $27,000. The rate of interest on paid de- 
posits is liable to vary, according to circumstances, but it averages about 
four and one-half per cent. The present officers are as follows: Henry 
D. Stone, president ; CD Penniman, first vice-president ; L C. White, 
treasurer; Alfred Hall, T. B. Winn, Henry D. Stone, Harvey Miller, 
Charles Stone, C. D. Penniman, E. C. Howard, E. W. Oaks and L. C. 
White, trustees. 

Mannfactnring Interests. — There was a time in the history of this lo- 
cality when Windsor enjoyed the honor of being one of the manufactur- 
ing centers of Vermont, but that time is now passed, and of the extensive 
industries that formerly had their place here but half a dozen, perhaps 
less, remain ; and where once were employed hundreds of men and 
women, there stand idle factory buildings; the employees now engaged 
in the manufactories of the village may almost be counted on one's fin- 
gers. The waters of Mill Brook have furnished the capitalists of this 

Village of Windsor. 329 

locality with one of the best and most powerful privileges in the county, 
but even that stream was taxed beyond its capacity by the press of 
factory enterprises thirty and less years ago, and steam-power was in- 
troduced into many of the buildings that continuous labor might not be 
retarded. The lower village of Windsor owed its existence to the manu- 
factories built up along the brook, but with the decline of industries 
there has been a corresponding loss of population in the locality. 

There undoubtedly still live in the village some persons who remem- 
ber the organization and incorporation of the Windsor Manufacturing 
Company, which occurred in November, 1823, and of which Jonathan 
H. Hubbard was an active member. Then there was the old Windsor 
Cotton and Woolen Manufacturing Company that was brought into ex- 
istence by an act of the Legislature passed October 30, 1828, and of 
which Abner Forbes, Jonathan H. Hubbard, Allen Wardner, and E. R. 
Campbell were proprietors. And another of the old industries of the 
village was the W^indsor Car and Rifle Company, afterwards known as 
the Robbins & Lawrence Company, the originators of the former being 
Samuel E. Robbins, Richard S. Lawrence, Shubael Wardner, Joseph D. 
Hatch, and Warren Currier. The first named company was incorpo- 
rated November 7, 1849, and its name changed to the Robbins & Law- 
rence Company November 6, 1850. This whole enterprise had its ori- 
gin in the industry established in 1845 by the firm of Robbins, Kendall 
& Lawrence, for the manufacture of fire-arms. But in 1859, in the vain 
attempt to enlarge the works and extent of manufacture, the company 
met with serious reverses and failed. 

In 1856 the plant passed by purchase to Lamson, Goodnow & Yale, 
who, about the time of the outbreak of the Rebellion, resumed the manu- 
facture of fire-arms, which business was carried on actively and with suc- 
cess. Li 1870 Jones, Lamson & Co. took the main building, put in new 
machinery, and commenced manufacturing cotton sheetings and other 
fabrics of cotton. The business of this firm was very extensive, furnish- 
ing employment to some four hundred persons; but, finally, reverses 
came, the business was no longer profitable, the firm suspended, and the 
machinery was sold and moved out of the village. The machine shops 
of Jones, Lamson & Co. were transferred to the Jones & Lamson Ma- 
chine Company, and were continued some time longer. However, in 

330 History of Windsor County. 

1888, some of the former employees of the shops, with the assistance of 
the local capitalists, organized the Windsor Machine Company, by which 
latter the business is at present conducted. 

Another of the operating industries of the village is that owned by 
George W. Hubbard and Horace P. McClary, the firm being Hubbard 
& McClary, and their manufactures, novelties, principal among which 
are glazers and drivers. The firm was established and commenced 
business in 1877. 

Atwood & Sons is the name of a firm that occupies the old Lamson 
& Co. fork shop, and which is engaged in the manufacture of chair 
stock. The old village grist-mill is still in operation, the property being 
owned by the Harlow estate, and managed by William Tandy. These 
that have been mentioned, together with the shoe manufacturing indus- 
try conducted by Brackett & Co. at the prison site, comprise substan- 
tially all there is of the manufactures of Windsor of the present day. 

Masonic Societies. — Vermont Lodge, No. 18, F. and A. M., was organ- 
ized under a charter of date January 10, 1850. It has now a member- 
ship of I 50 persons, and was ofificered in 1 889 as follows : Daniel Payson, 
W. M.; Deane Richmond, S. W.; George S. Blake, J. W.; Henry S. 
Williams, treasurer; J. C. Enright, secretary; J. Russell Brewster, S. D.; 
Charles E. Hoffman, J. D.; James Wassail, chaplain ; B. James Mullins, 
marshal; Frank E. Willis and Francis E. Monroe, stewards; Seymour S. 
Ashley, tyler. Regular meetings are held on each first Tuesday of the 

Windsor Chapter, No. 6, R. A. M., was chartered August 14, 185 1, 
and the charter members were as follows : Oliver C. Baker, William C. 
Dodge, Charles E. Colston, Calvin Spaulding, Seth Johnson, Josiah 
Perry, I. W. Hubbard, Jonathan Wood, Thomas Hammond, Charles 
Muns. The chapter has a present membership of 131, and was ofificered 
for the year 1889 as follows: J. S. Fairman, H. P.; W. H. Fullerton, 
king ; J. R. Brewster, scribe ; G. E. Williams, secretary and treasurer ; 
C. H. Ingalls, C. of H.; W. W. Jones, P. S.; C. E. Hoffman, R. A. 
captain ; George H. Sisson, M. 3d V.; F. F. Munroe, M. 2d V.; W. H. 
Bradley, M. ist V.; L. C Parkhurst. chaplain; S. S. Ashley, tyler. 

Windsor Council, No. 8, R. and S. Masons, was originated at Hart- 
land, but the main seat of the organization was subsequently moved to 
Windsor. The charter was dated March 17, 1856, and the original per- 

Village of Windsor. 331 

sons to whom it was granted were as follows : O. G. Woodbury, thrice 
illustrious G. M.; Samuel J. Allen, I. D. G. M.; Lewis Emmons, prin- 
cipal conductor. 

The present number of members is eighty- one, and the officers are as 
follows: J. R. Brewster, T. I. G. M.; W. H. Fullerton, Dep. M.; L. C. 
Parkhurst, P. C. of W.; G. E. Williams, treasurer and recorder; Daniel 
Payson, C. of G.; H. Gilchrist, conductor of council; S. R. Bryant, 
marshal; Deane Richmond, steward; S. S. Ashley, sentinel. 

Vcfiiiojit Commaiidery, No. 4, K. T., was chartered January 13, 1857. 
The membership of this organization numbers 130, and was officered for 
the year 1889 as follows: Sir Marsh O. Perkins, E. C; Sir H. S. Will- 
iams, generalissimo; W. H. Fullerton, C. G.; John H. Humphreys, P. 
Daniel Payson, S. W.; Deane Richmond, J.W.; Geo. E. Williams, treas 
urer; Joseph C. Enright, recorder; Samuel Putnam, standard bearer 
Charles H. Ingalls, sword bearer; Stanley Bryant, warder; Joseph S 
Fairman, J. Russell Brewster and Edgar H. Austin, captains of guard 
Seymour S. Ashley, sentinel. 

Windior Lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. Rite, was chartered August 18, 
1875. Its present membership numbers eighty-one persons. Stated 
meetings are held the last F'riday of July, October, January and April. 
Present officers : John H. Humphreys, T. P. G. M.; Orlando N. Logan, 
H. of T. D. G. M.; Hugh Gilchrist, V. S. G. W.; George F. Flanders! 
V. J. G. W.; J. S. Fairman, grand orator; James H. Kiniry, G. K. S.; 
Milton K. Paine, grand treasurer; Marsh O. Perkins, grand secretary; 
J. Russell Brewster, G. M. of C.; William W. Jones, G. C. of G.; S. S. 
Ashley, grand tyler. Past T. P. G. Masters, Milton K. Paine, Marsh O. 
Perkins, Charles J. Jones. 

Ascjitney Chapter, No. 2,0. E. S., has a membership of sixty- four, and 
is officered as follows : L. C. Parkhurst, worthy patron; Mrs. H. Mc- 
Cormick, worthy matron ; Mrs. Jane P. Palmer, assistant matron ; Mrs. 
P. K. Whitney, treasurer; W. W, Jones, secretary ; Mrs. W. W. Jones, 
conductress; Mrs. F. F. Munroe, assistant conductress ; H. McCormick, 
warder ; S. S. Ashley, sentinel ; Mrs. Emma Veasey, Ada ; Myrtie 
Hoffman, Ruth; Mrs. L. C. Parkhurst, Esther; Lizzie Chadbourne, 
Martha ; Mrs. J. C. Smith, Electa. 

332 History of Windsor County. 



HARTFORD is one of the few exceptional towns of the county of 
Windsor; and exceptional in this particular: it is one of the very- 
few towns in the locality that has shown an uninterrupted and continu- 
ous advancement in population, enterprise and development from the 
time of its first occupation and settlement to the present. This condi- 
tion does not arise from the fact that the town has a location in the 
county specially superior to a number of others, nor are its farming 
lands of any better quality than can be found in a number of the in- 
terior towns and some on the river ; but there has ever been shown on 
the part of the people of Hartford a spirit of enterprise, a spirit of 
progress, of which the majority of the towns cannot boast nor lay claim 
to possessing. 

At the same time Hartford does enjoy advantages of situation not 
possessed by some others of the county's sub-divisions, and this has 
been and still is an important factor in contributing to the building up 
and maintaining the large population and important industries with 
which the town is supplied. And the splendid water-courses — the Con- 
necticut, Otta Quechee and White Rivers — are auxiliaries that, too, have 
materially contributed to the town's wealth of resources, and brought 
affluence to the citizens in every quarter. All these elements combined 
have placed Hartford in the front rank of Windsor county's towns. 
How could it well be otherwise, with these streams crossing or border- 
ing on the town ? The Connecticut River forms the eastern boundary ; 
the White River enters at the northwest corner, flows thence southeast 
and east and discharges into the Connecticut at White River Junction ; 
and the Otta Quechee, or more commonly called Quechee, enters at the 
southwest corner, and thence flows an exceedingly tortuous course, 
draining the entire southwest section of the town, and finally leaves the 
same about midway the south town boundary. No town in the whole 
county, or even the State, possesses natural water privileges superior to 
Hartford, and but few, if any, utilize these resources to a greater extent 
or with better results. 

^ /^l -^-f,^' ^ ^/ <^ 


Town of Hartford. 333 

And no town in eastern Vermont has better or greater railroad facili- 
ties than has Hartford ; and to state that this has not been an element 
of prosperity in the town would indeed be an error. From White River 
Junction direct and speedy communication is had in every direction — 
north, south, east and west. This village is joined with the county seat 
by means of the Woodstock Railroad, and the Central Vermont likewise 
connects it with the State capital, Burlington and Lake Champlain. In 
the same manner, and by other railroads, the large cities of southern New 
England are reached, while northern and eastern routes and connections 
reach to northern Vermont, Canada and New Hampshire. In the light 
of all these facts it cannot be a thing surprising that the population of 
Hartford should increase from nine hundred and ninety-eight, as shown 
by the census of 1791, to twenty-nine hundred and fifty four, according 
to the census of 1880. 

Hartford was chartered in 1761. Ten years later, in 1771, under the 
authority of the province of New York, as a part of her claimed jurisdic- 
tional authority, a census enumeration of inhabitants was made by which 
this town was found to contain 190 souls. In 1791, the time of taking 
the first authorized census in the State, Hartford had a population of 
988 ; and from that time forth each succeeding enumeration has shown 
as follows : In 1800, 1,494; 1810, 1,881; 1820,2,010; 1830,2,044; 
1840, 2,194; 1850, 2,159; i860, 2,396; 1870,2,480; 1880,2,954, 
Allowing the subsequent population to have increased in the same ratio 
as shown during the last thirty years, it is safe to estimate that Hartford 
has a present population of from thirty- five to thirty-eight hundred. A 
glance at the census compilations of Vermont will show but few cases 
parallel with this. 

The town of Hartford is one of the few of the counties to enjoy the 
benefits and advantages of a thoroughly written history of its events in 
detail and at full length, and by a writer well prepared and equipped for 
that duty. In this volume, therefore, it will not be necessary, nor would 
it be expedient, to furnisli more than a synopsis of the events of the 
town's history, for the reason that the people of Hartford can find no new 
historical facts recorded here, and the great majority of the readers of 
this work, who live in other towns than Hartford, would hardly be ex- 
pected to find much interest in the minute detail of the history of a town, 
other than their own. 

334 History of Windsor County. 

Of the several towns that now form a part of Windsor county, Hart- 
ford was the second to be chartered under the authority of New Hamp- 
shire, the only previously granted town being Hamstead (now Chester), 
the original charter for which was made in 1754, about seven years ahead 
of Hartford. This town, Hartford, was brought into existence on the 
4th day of July, I76i,bya charter executed by Governor BenningWent- 
worth of the province of New Hampshire, to sixty-two proprietors, and 
the lands divided into sixty-eight shares. The conditions and provisions 
of the charter were substantially the same as those by which a majority 
of Governor Wentworth's grants of land west of the Connecticut were 
made ; but some of the conditions are of sufficient interest and import- 
ance to demand some comment or a reproduction in these pages, and are 
as follows : 

That every grantee, his heirs and assigns, shall plant and cultivate five 
acres of land within the term of five years, for every fifty acres contained 
in his share, and shall continue to cultivate and improve the same under 
a penalty of the forfeiture of his grant. The second provision had rela- 
tion to the preservation of all the white and other pine trees on the land 
of the town for use of masting the king's royal navy ; and any violation 
of this provision rendered the person so cutting or destroying the timber 
or trees so reserved amenable to any laws which Parliament might pre- 
scribe, together with a forfeiture of the destroyer's rights. The fourth 
and fifth conditions of the charter provided for the annual payment of 
the proverbial ear of Indian corn, and the shilling of proclamation money 
if lawfully demanded. 

In addition to the conditions of the charter were the usual other res- 
ervations of " rights " and shares for various purposes — one share 
for the society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts ; 
one share for a glebe for the Church of England, as by law established ; 
two shares for his excellency the governor ; one share for the first settled 
minister of the gosp.31 in the town; and one share for the benefit of a 
school in the town. 

Thus vested with the rightful ownership and proprietary control of the 
town of Hartford (for it was so named in the charter) were the grant- 
ees named therein, the recipients of the worthy governor of New Hamp- 
shire province. For more than a year prior to the date of this charter 

Town of Hartford. 335 

Governor Wentworth had made no grants or charters of towns on what 
was known as the New Hampshire Grants, the last preceding having 
been made January 8, 1760, by which the town of Pownal was created. 
In the order of their granting Hartford was the eighteenth of those of 
the entire district. 

No sooner had the proprietors become fully vested with authority 
over their town than they began to bestir themselves in the preliminary 
arrangements necessary to be completed before the town was ready for 
occupancy. To this end a proprietors' meeting was warned to be held 
at Windham, in the colony of Connecticut, on the 20th of August, 1761 ; 
which warning being duly published, the meeting was convened at the 
time and place stated above. The charter had provided for the meeting 
and had also designated John Baldwin as its moderator. Tlie proprie- 
tors chose Prince Tracy proprietors' clerk and treasurer; and further, 
voted that the selectmen. "William Clark, Prince Tracy and John Bald- 
win, be the assessors for the proprietors " ; also, chose Major Joseph 
Blanchard, Silas Phelps and Moses Hebard collectors of taxes ; also 
voted that they will choose "a committee to go and view said town, and 
lay the first division of land to each proprietor by lot, and that said 
committee shall consist of six men to be chosen for that purpose." This 
committee comprised " Captain William Clark, Lieutenant Prince Tracy, 
Silas Phelps, James Flint, Benjamin Wright and Elijah Bingham, who 
were directed to go and view the said town and lay out a town plot, or 
the land ordered in the charter to be laid out for town lots, and also to 
lay out convenient roads, or highways, so wide as said committee shall 
judge convenient, and so many as they shall judge necessary for the 
present use of said town; then to proceed to lay out as many lots. as 
there is (are) proprietors or equal shares, the least of which to contain 
fifty acres, and so to enlarge the quantity so as to make them as equal 
as they can ; having regard to the quality and situation of the land, and 
make a proper plan of their doings on good parchment, with the quan- 
tity, description and number of each lot therein contained." After vot- 
ing a tax of twenty shillings against each proprietor, to pay the charges 
of the committee, the meeting was adjourned to meet again on the third 
Tuesday (17th) of November, 1761. 

Without referring at any length to the proceedings of the committee 

336 History of Windsor County. 

charged with the duty of laying out the lots and lands, siififice it to say 
that the division was made and the shares awarded by lot, at a subse- 
quent proprietors' meeting. The lands of the town parceled out by this 
division amounted to slightly more than thirty-three hundred acres, 
whereas the town contained an aggregate of twenty- seven thousand acres; 
but subsequent divisions and allotments were made from time to time 
until the whole territory of the town was allotted. Proprietors' meetings, 
as distinct from town or freemen's meetings, continued to be held until 
well along into the first quarter of the present century ; but at a meet- 
ing held in Windham, Connecticut, on March 19, 1765, the proprietors 
voted to hold their future meetings in the town of Hartford, this town, 
in accordance with a request made by the settlers therein. This was a 
right to which the settlers became entitled at that time, by virtue of there 
being a sufficient number of them in the town to own or represent one- 
sixteenth part of the grantees under the charter of the town. 

It seems to be a generally conceded fact that the first settler to make 
his abode within the limits of this town was Benjamin Wright, and that 
he came to the locality during the year 1763. This question was the 
subject of considerable discussion at one time, but the patient research 
of a recent historian seems to have established the fact, beyond reasonable 
doubt, that to Benjamin Wright must be accorded the honor of having 
been the pioneer of Hartford. The same writer was at one time con- 
fronted with a statement purporting to be a part of a request of certain 
of the proprietors of the town upon the authorities of New York for the 
purpose of acquiring a charter of Hartford's lands from that province; 
and it was stated in that document that during the summer of 1763 there 
were ten persons who entered and labored in the town ; and that " in 
the year 1761 there were four persons (who) have moved on the said 
town with their families, and there dwelt ever since. And the said ten 
continue to improve the said second summer ; and others did enter on; 
and this present spring the men have gone on to improve, and about 
ten others intend to go immediately." This petition, however, contained 
so much that was known to be untrue that the whole of it is considered 
a "delusion and a snare," and absolutely discredited. 

But Benjamin Wright did not long remain the sole occupant of the 
town, for during the next year other settlers came to the locality, who 

^// f//^ //ri//t} f /Lj 

Town of Hartford. 337 

with their famihes are also entitled to the distinction of being called 
pioneers. Those of 1763 were Solomon Strong, Elijah Strong, Benajah 
Strong, Jonathan Marsh and Noah Dewey. It was upon the application 
of these settlers and Benjamin Wright that the New Hampshire justice 
called the meeting of proprietors, in December, 1764, in the town of 
Hartford, the first assemblage of that body in the town. From the 
proceedings of that meeting it is fair to assume that these men and their 
families comprised the whole colony of pioneers in the town, for no new 
names appear among the officers then chosen, and only one, Benjamin 
Wright, appears not to have been elevated to any office, while some 
were called upon to fill more than one position. This meeting was held 
at the house of Solomon Strong, on the 3d of December, 1764, and the 
officers elected were as follows : Moderator, Noah Dewey ; proprietors' 
clerk, Elijah Strong ; proprietors' treasurer, Solomon Strong ; collector, 
Elijah Strong ; proprietors' committee, Noah Dewey, Benajah Strong, 
Solomon Strong, Elijah Strong, Jonathan Marsh. 

Again, and in order to bring to the attention of the reader the names 
of as many as possible of those who were connected with the affairs of 
the town during the pioneerhood, the following extracts are taken from 
the ancient proprietors' records : Israel Gillett, John Gillett and Joshua 
Hazen were chosen (November 2d, 1772) a committee to size the fifty 
acre lots. On November 22, 1773, Abel Marsh, Joel Marsh and Amos 
Robinson were chosen " a committee to lay out in lots that bod}' of pine 
land that laid near the ' Pine Meadows,' one lot to each right." April 
18, 1774, Captain Joseph Marsh chosen moderator of proprietors' meet- 
ing ; and Captain Joseph Marsh, Stephen Tilden and Ehsha Marsh chosen 
a committee to settle the line between Hartford and Hertford (Hart- 
land). Meeting in November, 1776: " Voted to accept the return of 
pitches of acre lots made by Richard Hazen, Israel Gillett, Michael 
Clark, John Bennett, jr., Beckett Chapman, Joshua Hazen, Benjamin 
Wright, Joshua Gillett, Shephen Chapman, Stephen Tilden and Simon 

The reader will of course understand that the foregoing extracts are 
taken from the proprietors' proceedings, and cannot be presumed to have 
any direct relation to the proceedings of the freemen at the regular or 
customary town meetings, which were entirely separate and distinct from 


338 History of Windsor County. 

the above. It has been generally understood, and so presented by past 
writers, that the organization of Hartford was not effected prior to the 
year 1768, but it has remained for Mr. William H. Tucker to correct this 
error, and, at the same time, to bring to the town of Hartford the dis- 
tinction of having the first regular town organization of any of the civil 
districts on the New Hampshire Grants, Bennington, the first chartered 
town on the grants, not excepted. Had it been the custom of the pro- 
prietors to organize the town at or about the time they organized 
their own special body, there would, perhaps, have been nothing singu- 
lar or remarkable in this early town organization of Hartford ; but, gen- 
erally, and almost invariably, the town organization was not effected 
until some years after the proprietors' proceedings had been in progress, 
and until after the town itself had a sufficient population to justify in- 
ternal municipal organization. 

Thus it was a fact that the town organization of Hartford was effected 
before the town itself had a single rightful occupant; and this proceed- 
ing was had, not within the town, or on the " grants," but in the prov- 
ince of Connecticut, on the 26th of August, 1761, on the occasion of 
the first proprietors' meeting. Of the proceedings relating to the sub- 
ject, and the officers chosen at the time, the record says : " At a town 
meeting of the proprietors of the town of Hartford, in the province of 
New Hampshire, legally warned and holden at Windham, in the colony 
of Connecticut, August the 26th, 1761, pursuant to a charter of said 
town, dated July the 14th, 1761. In said charter Mr. John Baldwin was 
appointed moderator of said meeting. At the said meeting chosen 
Prince Tracy, town clerk; chosen Captain William Clark, Prince Tracy, 
and Mr. John Baldwin, selectmen for said town ; chosen Prince Tracy, 
town treasurer." 

Had this been the only organizing or preliminary proceeding on the 
part of the proprietors it might easily be construed into a regular pro- 
prietors' meeting and not intended to be a town organization within 
the usual meaning of the term. But it appears, and the fact was, that 
the proprietors conducted two separate proceedings, and made entries in 
separate books, the one entitled *' a book of town votes for the town of 
Hartford, in the province of New Hampshire," and the other entitled 
" Proprietors' Record." 

Town of Hartford. 339 

The next meeting at which town officers were chosen was held on the 
9th of March, 1762, at which time these officers were elected : Modera- 
tor, Elijah Brigham ; town clerk, Prince Tracy ; selectmen. Samuel Will- 
iams, Prince Tracy and James Flint. 

Officers elected in March, 1763: Moderator, William Clark; town 
clerk, Prince Tracy ; selectmen. Prince Tracy, William Clark and Sam- 
uel Teny. At this meeting it was voted " That for the future a warning 
in writing under the hands of the selectmen of said town, set upon the 
sign-posts in the towns of Windham and Lebanon, in the colony of, Con- 
necticut, ten days before any town meeting, appointing time, place and 
business of such meeting, shall be a warning to hold such meeting upon, 
until such town shall agree otherwise." 

The records relating to the next meeting state : At a town meeting of 
proprietors of the town of Hartford in the province of New Hampshire, 
legally warned and holden at Windham, in the colony of Connecticut, 
March the 13th, 1764, for the electing of town officers. The officers 
chosen were: Moderator, Jonathan Marsh; town clerk, Prince Tracy; 
selectmen, Elijah Strong, Jonathan Marsh and Prince Tracy ; constable, 
John Bennett; surveyor of highways, Benjamin Wright. 

The next town meeting was held March 12th, 1765, and these officers 
were chosen : Moderator, Jonathan Marsh ; town clerk, Benajah Strong; 
selectmen, Elijah Strong, Solomon Strong and Benjamin Wright ; con- 
stable, John Bennett ; surveyor of highways, Ebenezer Gillett. " Voted, 
that for the future the town meeting shall be held by the inhabitants of 
said Hartford, within said town, and that a warning in writing under 
the hands of the selectmen of said town, appointing time, place and busi- 
ness of such meetings set up in said town on the sign-post or some 
other public place six days before said meeting, shall be a legal warn- 
ing for to hold such meeting, until the town shall agree otherwise." 

The result, of course, of this " vote " was a transfer of the " town meet, 
ings " from Connecticut to the territory of this town, and they were 
subsequently, and for all time, held here. But, unfortunately, Benajah 
Strong, the worthy successor in the clerkship to Prince Tracy, did not 
exercise much care in keeping the records of the town meetings during 
the period of his incumbency, and from this neglect or omission we cannot 
give the names of the first town officers elected at a meeting held, or 

340 History of Windsor County. 

that should have been held, in the town in March, 1766 and 1767. But 
Benajah Strong was succeeded in the clerkship by Elijah Strong, prob- 
ably in March, 1768, and the latter made the proper entries in the town 
meeting books in due form and order. 

The omission to enter the names of officers elected in 1766, and the 
succeeding year, together with the oversight on the part of most writers, 
was the same that led to the understanding that the town organization 
of Hartford was not effected before the year 1768 ; and this might have 
been natural enough, for the records show only that the first town meet- 
ing held in the town was that recorded for the year named, while in fact 
the original meeting occurred in 1761, in Connecticut, and subsequently 
was held there until 1765, and then transferred to the town, the first to 
be held therein in 1766, of which there is no record. 

The minute book for the year 1768 shows as follows: At a town 
meeting warned and holden by the proprietors of the town of Hartford, 
March the 8th, A. D. 1768. Chosen, Benjamin Wright, moderator; 
Elijah Strong, town clerk; Christopher Pease, Solomon Strong and 
John Marsh, selectmen; Daniel Pinneo, constable; Abel Marsh and 
Solomon Strong, surveyors of highways ; Abel Marsh and Elijah Strong, 
tithingmen; John Marsh and Benjamin Wright, " Dear Reafs." 

In 1769 John Strong was elected clerk. The proceedings of the 
meeting held that year, on account of their unique grammatical and or- 
thographical construction, are copied literally : 

" Att a town meting Legally warned and Holden. Chosen Mr. John 
Marsh Moderator. Chosen John Strong Town Clerk. Chosen Christifer 
Peas John Marsh Israel Gillett Select Men. Chosen Liomy Udall Con- 
stable, Elezur Robenson Benjamen Burch (Burk) Benjah Strong survaors 
of the hiway, William Bramble John Bennet, Granjury men. 

" Voted to Bild a Brig over warter quechy river nere the sawmill and 
do it as hiway work, and voted that Abil Marsh should be oversere 
about giting the timber and bulding said Bryge." 

The town officers for the next year, 1770, were as follows : Moderator, 
John Marsh ; town clerk, John Strong ; selectmen, John Marsh, Christo- 
pher Pease and Elijah Strong ; constable, Eleazer Robinson ; surveyors 
of highways, Daniel Pinneo and John Marsh ; tithingmen, David Bliss 
and William Bramble. 

Town of Hartford. 341 

Extracts from minutes of town meeting, March 12, 1771 : Abel 
Marsh, moderator ; John Strong, town clerk ; Israel Gillett, Abel Marsh 
and Lionel Udall, selectmen ; Eleazer Robinson and Thomas Wood- 
ward, constables ; Thomas Savage, Thomas Miner, Henry Woodward 
and Lionel Udall, surveyors of highways; John Strong, Abel Marsh 
and Lionel Udall, " comite (committee) for to lay out an alter highways 
where theay (they) are wanted in said town of Hartford." 

At a town meeting legally warned and holden on the loth day of 
March, 1772. at the dwelling house of Elijah Strong, in Hartford, in the 
'' county of Citviberland and province of Neiu York.'' Officers: Daniel 
Pinneo, moderator; John Strong, town clerk; Daniel Pinneo, Lionel 
Udall and Elisha Marsh, towns men (selectmen) ; Daniel Pinneo and 
William Bramble, constables; John Strong, Daniel Pinneo and Benja- 
min Burch, commissioners of highways ; Israel Gillett, Daniel Pinneo, 
Jonathan Burch and Abel Marsh, surveyors of highways. 

It will be observed from the foregoing extracts that the meeting was 
held in Hartford in the " county of Cumberland, and province of New 
York," thus recognizing and acknowledging the authority of that 
province, and its right to divide the territory of the " New Hampshire 
Grants," as it was then called, into counties. In this same year the 
county of Cumberland was newly erected, and Hartford formed a part 
thereof But this was not all. The freemen of the town, in recogni- 
tion of the authority above referred to, on the third Tuesday of May, 
1772, called another meeting, at which officers were chosen in accord- 
ance with the laws and custom of New York. They were as follows : 
Moderator, Benjamin Wright ; town clerk, John Strong; supervisors, 
Stephen Tilden and Lionel Udall ; collectors, Samuel Pease and Amos 
Robinson ; overseers of the poor, Benjamin Wright and Elisha Marsh; 
commissioners of highways, Abel Marsh, Elijah Strong and Daniel 
Pinneo; path masters, Abel Marsh, John Marsh, Thomas Richardson, 
Israel Gillett and Daniel Pinneo ; fence viewers, Elisha Marsh and Ben- 
jamin Wright; constables, Daniel Pinneo, Israel Gillett, Joel Marsh 
and Thomas Richardson. 

But it must be stated, in this connection, that it was not that the peo- 
ple then residing and owning lands in Hartford were particularly friendly 
to the New York interests, or that they had any special desire to become 

342 History of Windsor County. 

a part of that province. They held their lands under and by virtue of 
a charter granted by the governor of New Hampshire, the latter acting 
under the belief that the lands and jurisdiction of his province carried 
west to a line twenty miles east from the Hudson River, and that he had 
perfect authority to grant them at his pleasure. But this right was dis- 
puted by the provincial authorities of New York, and that dispute was 
the subject of a deal of correspondence between the two governors ; 
and, in order to reach an understanding, was finally referred to the royal 
authority. With this power New York happened to hold the greater in- 
fluence, which, re-enforced by forged documents, purporting, however, 
to be signed by numerous residents on the disputed territory and ex- 
pressing a desire to be a part of that province, the royal decree of 1764 
was issued in favor of New York. This was followed, even as it had 
been preceded, by the granting of lands and towns on the disputed 
strip, some of them east of the mountains. Thus threatend with evic- 
tion were the settlers in this town and others in the region. Here had 
they made their homes, and here were all their worldly possessions. 
How else then, in the name of reason, could they hope to remain in 
quiet possession and peaceful enjoyment of their lands, than by seeking 
a confirmation of their charter privileges, or the granting of another, at 
the hands of the New York authorities ? But the efforts of the settlers 
in this direction were of earlier origin than would appear from the records 
of the meeting of May, 1772, for no sooner had the royal determination 
become known than steps were taken in this matter of procuring a char- 
ter from New York, and agents even had been sent to treat and arrange 
for the same; and the meeting referred to, and subsequent and prior 
ones as well, were but a part, it is believed, of the diplomatic or strategic 
measures employed by the settlers in bringing about the desired con- 
summation. To be sure there was a well organized and determined 
opposition to New York on the part of a large number of settlers under 
the New Hampshire charters, but the power of that famous band — 
the Green Mountain Boys — did not extend east of the mountains, and 
had it reached to this region the settlers hereabouts had no thought that 
such few numbers would prevail against so great a power as New York 
was supposed to wield, nor would it have been so but for the fortunate 
(for Vermont) interference of the war for American independence, by 


Town of Hartford. 343 

which local strifes were laid aside, and all joined in the common cause 
against Great Britain. 

But it can hardly be considered essentially within the province of this 
chapter to discuss this subject, however important it may have been, at 
greater length. Although the controlling influence of the town pushed 
the matter of obtaining a charter from New York to a reasonable ex- 
tent, the document itself was never granted ; but the labors in that di- 
rection had the effect of leading New York to the belief that this people 
were wholly devoted to her interests, that they considered themselves 
her subjects, were submissive to her authority, and, as a consequence, 
the lands of the town were never granted to another set of proprietors. 

But it required no great effort on the part of the inhabitants of Hart- 
ford to throw off whatever allegiance they owed the province of New 
York, and this they did as soon as the policy of the " new State " be- 
came fixed, and even before that time, during the progress of the first 
Dorset convention, although the town was not represented there, nor in 
any similar gathering prior to that held at Westminster on January 15, 
1777. And even before the independence of Vermont was declared, the 
delegates assembled in the Dorset convention became desirous of learn- 
ing something of the sentiment existing in the towns cast of the mount- 
ains relative to the State organization ; and in order to obtain an ex- 
pression from those towns the subject was arranged to be brought before 
the people in town meeting. The result in Hartford was largely in favor 
of the new State. 

In the convention at Westminster on January 15, 1777, Stephen Til- 
den was a delegate from Hartford. At this time the independence of 
the State of Vermont was declared. And at the adjourned session held 
at Windsor, June 4, 1777, upon the occasion of changing the name of 
the State from New Connecticut to Vermont, this town was represented 
by Colonel Joseph Marsh and Mr. Stephen Tilden, both of whose names 
were signed to the revised declaration there adopted. Also, in the 
Windsor convention of July 2-8, 1777, the occasion upon which the sub- 
ject of the first constitution was being discussed. Colonel Marsh repre- 
sented the town of Hartford. It was during the progress of this con- 
vention that the disastrous news of the evacuation of Ticonderoga by 
the American forces was received, and was followed by the information 


344 History of Windsor County. 

that Burgoyne was invading the northern and western frontier of the 
State, all of which had the effect of disconcerting the convention almost 
before the constitution was adopted ; but the friendly intervention of a 
tiuinder-storm gave tiie delegates the opportunity of regaining their 
composure sufficiently to complete the business in band, after which they 
adjourned and hastened to their homes. 

During the period of the Revolutionary war the part taken by the 
local authorities of Hartford was much similar to that of the other large 
and comparatively well settled towns in the region of the State west of 
the mountains. At that time the military authority and power was 
mainly vested in the Committees of Safety of the counties organized by 
New York, viz.: Cumberland and Gloucester; and the military supplies, 
arms and ammunition, were largely furnished by the province or State 
last named. In this town the men most prominently identified with the 
military organization, especially during the early part of the war, were 
Thomas Hazen, Stephen Tilden, Joel Marsh, Joseph Marsh, Joshua Ha- 
zen and others, perhaps of less prominence, but whose services were no 
less valuable. 

Prior and subsequent to the year 1777 the region of the town was a 
frontier, and it was necessary to have an established force ready for any 
emergency of war, whether in aggressive or defensive operations; and 
upon occasion the troops were called into other fields for service. In 
the organization offerees Joseph Marsh was made colonel of one of the 
regiments, and other men of the town were likewise chosen to offices of 
rank. In the year named the town had a number of men in the service, 
among whom were known to be these : Asa Emerson, Jonathan and 
Eddy Burch, Becket Chapman, Mitchel Clark, William Curtis, Barry 
Damon, Hezekiah Hazen, Jonathan Hill, Abel Marsh, Elisha Perkins, 
Phineas Strong, Seth Savage, Elkanah Sprague, Stephen Tilden, An- 
drew Tracy, Josiah Tilden, William Udall, Benjamin Wright and possi- 
bly others. But, as the years of the war progressed, nearly every man 
in every town, capable of "bearing arms," or subject to militia duty, 
was in some manner connected with a military company, but their serv- 
ice was mainly confined to guarding the frontier outposts on the north. 
Once, however, they were threatened with service of a more active char- 
acter, and that the occasion of the Indian invasion of the neighboring 


Town of Hartford. 345 

town of Royalton, the call to arms in this town being sounded through 
the medium of Landlord Stephen Tilden's famous " Queen's Arm " gun. 
The militia were quickly assembled, and at once started in pursuit of the 
already retreating savages and English soldiers that accompanied them. 
But, on account of the threatened murder of the captives, prisoners of 
the Indians, Colonel House, the commander of the mititia forces, did not 
force an engagement, and soon afterward gave the order to return. 
Among the militia that participated in that "campaign" was Captain 
Joshua Hazen's Hartford company, comprised as follows: Joshua Ha- 
zen, captain ; William Bramble, lieutenant ; Elkanah Sp rague, ensign ; 
Elias Chapman, Asa Hazen, Andrew Tracy, David Wright, sergeants; 
William Dunham, John Gillett, Hezekiah Hazen, Stephen Tilden, cor- 
porals ; and privates : Elnathan and William Allen, Jonathan Bennett, 
David Bliss, William Burch, Erastus, Joseph and Simon Chapman, John 
Cheney, Daniel Clark, Nehemiah Closson, Simeon Curtis, Barjom and 
Levi Damon, John Dutton, Enoch Eaton, Enoch Emerson, Daniel O., 
Ezekiel and Israel Gillett, Jacob, Jonathan and Willis Hall, Daniel, Sol- 
omon, Thomas, jr., and Thomas Hazen, Thomas Holbrook, Timothy 
Johnson, Abel, Samuel, John, Joseph, Joseph, jr., and Roger Marsh, 
Elijah Mason, David Newton, Christopher and Daniel Pease, Samuel 
Pinneo, Elliott Porter, Calvin Luther, Rowland, jr., and Rowland Pow- 
ell, Jonathan Reynolds, Jehial Robbins, Francis W. and Seth Savage, 
Solomon Sitzel, Ashbel Smith, Ignatius Sprague, Benajah, Phineas, 
Solomon, jr., and Solomon Strong, Josiah Terry, Josiah and Stephen 
Tilden, Barnabas Tisdell, James and Thomas Tracy, Lemuel White, 
Joseph Williams, Benjamin and Jonathan Wright. 

These militiamen with those who were in other commands, notably 
Captain Hodge's company, must have comprised nearly the whole able- 
bodied male population of Hartford at that time. Captain Hodge's 
company formed a part of Colonel Joseph Safford's regiment. 

As has already been stated, the principal service of the companies in 
which this town was represented was along the northern and western 
frontier, sometimes at stockade forts, such as Fort Fortitude on the site 
of the flourishing little village of Bethel ; but the men were not infre- 
quently called to march to the relief of some distressed settlement in 
New Hampshire, and in this State to the northward as well. As often 


346 History of Windsor County. 

as their services were demanded, so often did they respond, but their 
service was more a continuous marching campaign than of actual war- 
fare. But there were men, and a number of them, from the town who 
were with the armies on the western borders of Vermont and elsewhere, 
and engaged in actual strife. 

The war with Great Britain was practically at an end during the year 
1782, but it was not until the fall of 1783 that the treaty of peace was 
signed. Then the people of the towns of Vermont were at full liberty 
to return to the peaceful arts of agriculture and manufacture, the genera 
building up of homes and villages throughout the length and breadth of 
the entire State. But, during the period of the war, and especially dur- 
ing its later years, this State had been shaping a political policy with a 
view of obtaining admission to the federal Union. This, of course, New 
York opposed, strenuously and bitterly. The subject was an absorbing 
one, and in it the people of Hartford took the greatest interest, for it 
was practically a renewal of the old and long existing controversy be- 
tween the two States. While this was an interesting and important pe- 
riod for this State, and its several towns, it is hardly a proper matter for 
comment in this place, being fully presented in the earlier chapters of 
this volume, to which the attention of the reader is directed. 

The second war with Great Britain, that known among Americans as 
the War of 18 12-15, ^^s another period of agitation and discussion 
among the people of this town, for there did not exist, at that time, the 
greatest possible unanimity of sentiment among the townsmen regard- 
ing the policy of waging a second conflict against the mother country. 
There were the Loyalists and Federalists who championed the cause of 
their respective representatives in Congress, but in this locality the former 
were in the ascendency. During the war the town was again called 
upon to furnish troops for the service, and responded nobly. Some 
went to the front who never returned, but of the whole body we have 
no reliable record upon which to make a statement of individual or com- 
pany service, nor would such a recital if made be considered of much 
interest at the present day. 

The next event of importance in the military history of the town was 
the war of 1861-65, but more commonly known as the war of the Re- 
bellion. A preceding chapter of this work has recorded at length the 

Town of Hartford. 


various regiments and commands that were, in whole or in part, raised 
and recruited in the towns of this county ; and has, furthermore, given 
the individual names of company members, by towns, who entered the 
service during that war. Therefore it will not be necessary in this chap- 
ter to furnish more than a general summary of the number of men en- 
listed in the town under the several calls, and for the various branches 
of service. 

According to the reports of the adjutant-general of the State for the 
years 1864 and 1865, it is found that the town of Hartford stands credited 
with having contributed the aggregate number of two hundred and 
twenty-four men, exclusive of those who were in service for three months 
under the President's call for 75,000 men in April, 1861 ; and making no 
account of the " enrolled men who furnished substitutes," of whom there 
were three; nor of the men who were " furnished under draft and paid 
commutation," of whom there were three; nor of those who procured 
substitutes, of whom there were twenty- five. Of the aggregate number 
mentioned, one hundred and twenty-seven were enlisted for three years' 
service, eighty- three of whom were enrolled prior to the call of October 
17, 1863, forty-two under that call and subsequent calls, while two more 
were enlisted for the same term, but for whom no designation is given. 
For the one year service there were twenty-eight recruits ; for nine 
months' service there were forty-four; in the naval service, seventeen ; 
volunteers re-enlisted, eleven ; entered service, two ; in Veteran Reserve 
Corps, two. Added to these were thirteen men, not named, who were 
credited to the town miscellaneously. 

Churches of Hartford. — The charter by which the town of Hartford 
was brought into existence made all the necessary and customary pro- 
visions for setting apart lands for the first settled minister of the gospel 
in the town; and in 1762, in providing for the second division of the 
lands, it was directed by the proprietors that a hundred-acre lot be re- 
served for the first settled minister, all of which was accordingly done. 
The first recorded disclosure of any steps looking to the erection of a 
meeting-house in the town is found in the proceedings of a proprietors' 
meeting held May 17, 1774, at which time it was voted " to build a meet- 
ing-house as near the center of the town as is convenient for a building 
spot, and the dimensions of the house to be 35 feet by 50, and two-story 

348 History of Windsor County. 

high " ; also Darius Sessions was chosen to make a survey and find tlie 
center of the town ; and further, Darius Sessions, Captain Joseph Marsh 
and Amos Robinson were made a committee " to set down the stake 
where the meeting-house shall be." This being done, the sum of one 
hundred and fifty pounds was voted by the town for the purpose of erect- 
ing the edifice, and Joseph Marsh, Jonathan Burch and Amos Robinson 
were made a building committee to superintend the construction of the 
building, which was to be completed by the ist of September, 1775. but 
which was not done ; nor was there a meeting-house erected in the town 
until a number of years later. But, notwithstanding that, church serv- 
ices, or preaching, was had in the town soon after the year I774. Rev. 
Aaron Hutchinson appears to have been the first minister to officiate, 
although the minister's lot seems to have fallen to Rev. Thomas Gross, 
who was said to have been ordained somewhere about the year 1786. 
Both of these clergymen were ministers of the Congregational church, 
and were hired and supported at the public expense. Also the Congre- 
gational society was the first to be formed in the town, at what was known 
as the Center. In 1812 Rev. Austin became its settled pastor and so 
continued until 1829. 

The second society of the Congregational church was formed during 
the year 1827, and a church home was built very soon thereafter at 
White River village. This society virtually superceded the first organi- 
zation and the members of the latter became united with the second soci- 
ety, under invitation, in January, 1829. The White River society first 
took the name of the Congregational Society of White River village ; but 
upon the accession of the former members of the old church the consoli- 
dation resulted in changing the name to the Second Congregational 
Society. Rev. Austin Hazen was the first employed minister, but his 
relation with the church ceased after about three months. Rev. John K. 
Lord became pastor in 1841, and in 1847 was dismissed, after which, 
March ist, 1848, Rev. Josiah Merrill was ordained. The latter resigned 
in 1856, and was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin F. Ray, who continued 
pastor from February, i860, to July, 1870. Five years later Rev. S. In- 
gersoll Briant was called and ordained. 

The next church society of this denomination was the result of pre- 
liminary meetings commenced in 1829, although it was not until the sue- 



Town of Hartford. 349 

ceeding year that a permanent organization was effected. The result 
was the formation of the society known as the Congregational church of 
West Hartford, located, as its name implies, in the western part of the 
town. Notwithstanding the fact that this society has had an existence 
covering a period of sixty years, there has been but one regularly or- 
dained pastor. Rev. William Claggett, whose ministerial labors com- 
menced in 1846 and ceased in 1859. Prior and subsequent to the period 
of Rev. Claggett's pastorate the church has been presided over by a sup- 
ply minister. 

The First Congregational Society in Quechee village was a creation 
of the year 1 830, but never developed into a regular organization. Two 
years later, in 1832, the Quechee Village Meeting-House Society was or- 
ganized as a superceding society, also of the Congregational denomina 
tion, and continued for~sT5me twelve years. In this time a church building 
was erected, but this was afterward put into use as a school-house, and is 
now so maintained. Subsequently in 1871 another society of the same 
name was organized by residents of Quechee and vicinity, and a church 
building for it erected in 1872-73. This last society is still in existence. 

In January, 1831, the society of the First Congregational church of 
Quechee village was organized. The church remained the state of amis- 
sion until 1835, ^t which time Rev. Luke Wood was called to the pas- 
torate, but continued only two years. The pulpit was afterward supplied 
until 1866, when Rev. J. W. Kingsbury was installed as pastor, but in 
1869 he retired. Rev. Melvin Ray succeeded to the pastorate in 1874, 
and remained but one year. Rev. A. B. Chase was ordained in 1876, and 
continued until succeeded by Rev. N. F. Carter, the latter preaching here 
several months before he became pastor. He was installed in 1880, 
and dismissed in 1887 

The formation of the society known as the United Church of Christ, at 
Olcott, is the latest movement in Congregationalism in Hartford, and this 
was the creation of certain Dartmonth theological students, aided by 
some of the clergymen of the town and vicinity. The society was formed 
some time during the year 1887. 

The seed of Presbyterianism in Hartford was planted as early as the 
year 1 77 1 , by the formation of a society of that denomination at or about 
that time, having its chief seat of location in the north part of the town 

350 History of Windsor County. 

in the neighborhood of Dothan, in regard for which the society was 
named. After experiencing all the vicissitudes which a church society 
can well endure, the church passed out of existence in 1844. 

It has been said that the home of the Episcopal church in Vermont is 
in Arlington, Bennington county. Whether absolutely correct or not 
matters but little, but it is true that however old this church may have 
been in other localities, it was not planted in Hartford until a compara- 
tively recent date. St. Paul's church, the only one of this denomina- 
tion in this town, was organized in 1868. Rev. James Houghton was its 
first rector. The seat of the parish is at White River Junction, where 
was erected a comfortable church edifice in the year 1874. 

The first Universalist Society of White River Junction dates back in 
organization only to the year 1878. The church building of the society 
was commenced in that same year, and completed in 1879. During the 
few years of its existence the society has had four pastors: Revs. J. C. 
Farnsworth, William E. Copeland, George W. Barnes and Walter Dole. 

The society of St. Anthony's Roman Catholic church of White River 
Junction was formed in this town during the j'ear 1870, although for a 
few years preceding that missionary work had been done among the 
Catholic- Irish residents of the locality, of whom there were not a few. 
The first missionary priest in the town was Rev. Father Pigeon, who 
commenced his labors in some convenient room, occasionally in a dwell- 
ing, but in 1870 he purchased what was known as the Moseley house, 
which was temporarily used for church services, and until the pres- 
ent edifice was built, in. 1873. In connection with St. Anthony's parish 
there is an established and prosperous parochial school, which has now 
some sixty scholars. The succession of pastors in charge of St. Antho- 
ny's parish has been as follows: Rev. M. Pigeon, Rev. Daniel Sullivan, 
Rev. Dennis Lynch, Rev. James Booth Whitaker. The congregation 
of St. Anthony's is the largest in the town of Hartford. 

The teachings and doctrines of Methodism were advocated in Hartford 
as far back as the early years of the present century, but it was not until 
the year 1845 that the people of this faith were provided with a church 
home. This building was a plain frame structure, and was erected at 
the place called Jericho ; but in 1874 the building was sold and moved 
from the town, and the society became practically extinct. It was 

Town of Hartford. 351 

revived, however, in or soon after the year 1877, having its seat of loca- 
tion at White River Junction, where a temporary place of meeting was 
secured. During the next year, 1878, the present church was erected 
and its society is now numbered among the flourshing institutions of that 
village and of the town. 

Among the number of church or religious societies that have had a 
past existence in Hartford was that known as the Covenant Baptists* 
connected with which at one time were some of the prominent families 
of the town. Another society was that known as Second Adventists, 
which was brought into existence through the teachings of William 
Miller. From his name some of the societies of this denomination have 
been called Millerites. The society in this town has no regular church 
home, except as their camp-meeting grounds may be so called. The 
present society was formed in 1887, under the name of White River 
Junction Camp- Meeting Association. 

Educational InstitiUions. — The charter of the town of Hartford made 
provision as ample for the support of a public school as was made for 
any town similarly granted ; and this provision was enhanced by the 
subsequent action of the proprietors in setting apart lots for the benefit 
of town schools. But there appears to be no record of the establish- 
ment of a school in the town prior to 1795, when the house of Reuben 
Hazen, at West Hartford, was used for the purpose. In 1796 Lionel 
Udall taught school in the same locality. After this time, as the popu- 
lation of the town increased, other schools were established in various 
localities as occasion demanded, and in 1807 the town was divided into 
school districts, and schools were established in each as soon as the 
people felt inclined or able to do so. The districts were seventeen in 
number; there are but sixteen at present. The schools of the town 
have ever been supported on the district system, although of late years 
an effort has been made to adopt the town plan. 

One of the most prominent among the comparatively early educa- 
tional institutions of the town was that known and incorporated under 
the name of Hartford Academy, at White River village, in the year 1839. 
Its career was " brief but eventful," — brief because it proved an unsuc- 
cessful enterprise, and failed to draw the attendance and consequent 
support its proprietors had hoped for, and eventful because every effort 

352 History of Windsor County. 

was made to make it successful. In 1848 its ownership passed to the 
district in which it was situated, number seventeen. 

IndusU'ics. — Manufacturing has been one of the most productive in- 
dustries of the town of Hartford during the present century ; but had it 
required the effort to estabhsh each that has been in operation during 
the last three-quarters of a century, as was necessary to bring into life 
the first saw and grist-mills on the Quechee prior to 1770, the whole 
people of the town would have been resolved into a vast board of trade, 
and all the lands of the town would have been donated to influence 
milling operations. But the never failing waters of the Quechee and 
White Rivers have fortunately been a sufficient inducement for manu- 
facturers to locate in the town without asking for public donations either 
of lands or money. 

Hartford is known to-day as one of the leading manufacturing towns 
of Vermont, and this branch of business is as much and more a source 
of profit and benefit to the whole town, as well as to the several propri- 
etors, as is agriculture or any other calling. The construction of the 
several railroads across the town has greatly facilitated manufacture, and 
products can now be transported to market in less than a tenth of the 
time formerly consumed in shipment, and is attended with far less haz- 
ard and expense. 

To enter into a detailed description of each and all the manufacturing 
enterprises that have so marked the growth and prosperity of Hartford, 
during the past century, would require more space than is deemed 
expedient to devote to the subject. Moreover, it is a subject that has 
been written upon at considerable length, and with much care, by the 
author of a recent history of the town, which work being, it is hoped, 
in every family in the town they have the means of sufficient enlighten- 
ment upon the matter. The present record will therefore show only 
the names of proprietors and location of the present and more recent 
manufacturing industries of the town as a part of the description of 
present villages. 

Of the villages of Hartford, White River Junction is by far the most 
important, having the larger population, the greater diversity of business 
enterprises, and is, in all respects, the metropolis of the locality. It has 
come into existence, substantially, since the building of the first line of 


Town of Hartford. 353 

railroad along the Connecticut River; and when diverging or branching 
roads were built the name, White River Junction, was given the place. 
The village in fact owes its very existence to these railway enterprises. 
It is a commercial and railway center, distinctively, and in no sense a 
manufacturing village ; nor can it well become so as long as exist in 
other portions of the town the desirable water privileges now used as 
a motive power for driving machinery. And whatever of aspirations 
the people of the Junction may have to make theirs a manufacturing as 
well as a railroad center, that consummation must be reached by the 
application of steam-power, for the waterways of the locality are ill- 
adapted for such purposes. 

In the village proper are four church edifices — Episcopal, Roman 
Catholic, Methodist and Universalist, all comfortable and commodious 
buildings, each of which, with the societies that own them, are fully 
mentioned in an earlier portion of this chapter. The village also has 
one national bank — the National Bank of White River Junction ; one 
savings bank — the White River Savings Bank ; a steam grist-mill ; the 
confectionery and baking establishment of G. W. Smith ; one large and 
excellent hotel — the Junction House; besides which are two printing 
establishments and numerous other business and mercantile houses and 
offices, to the number of thirty-five or forty ; to all of which must be 
added the representatives of the several professions, of which there are 
several. All of these combined truly give the Junction the appearance 
of a prosperous, enterprising little municipality, although this distin- 
guishing character is not yet come to the place. 

While unquestionably second to the Junction in point of population, 
but not second in point of importance as a manufacturing center, is the 
village of Quechee, situate on the line of Woodstock Railroad and mid- 
way between the Junction and the county seat. Incredible though it 
may appear, it is nevertheless a fact, that manufacturing has been car- 
ried on, possibly with brief intervals, at this point for a period of almost 
one hundred and twenty-five years ; for here a saw-mill was erected as 
early if not before the year 1769, and in the course of a few more years 
a grist-mill was put in operation at the same place. 

The power for propelling machinery is derived by diverting the waters 
of the Otta Quechee River, from which stream the town received its 

354 History of Windsor County. 

name. Common consent, however, has dropped the first part of the 
name — Otta — and the stream and village are called simply Ouechee. 
And the village, besides having considerable prominence as a factory 
place, has been in the past and is now the home of some of the most 
distinguished and u^ealthy men that have been known to the town of 
Hartford. Enterprise and progress have been the watchwords of the 
people here from the first settlement to the present day. 

The village, too, has its church societies and buildings, the Methodist 
and Congregational. Its leading manufacturing industries are the 
Dewey mills, established in 1836 by Strong & Co., for the manufacture 
of satin goods, and succeeded by A. G. Dewey in 1840, who commenced 
making woolen goods, sometimes called " shoddy." Here, too, are the 
extensive woolen-mills of J. C. Parker & Co., a large enterprise that 
had its origin in the saw-mill established by Abel and Elisha Marsh, 
Benjamin Burch and Joshua Dewey, as far back as the year 1771. 
From that until the presentday the "privilege" and property have changed 
ownership many times, and almost as frequently have there been 
changes in the character of business done here. This same firm also 
operates a tannery at Quechee, and what is known as a wool- pulling fac- 
tory as well. The saw-mill here is the property of O. H. Chamberlain. 
Besides these are the customary stores and other business enterprises 
found in small but flourishing villages such as Quechee. The popula- 
tion of the village proper is something like five or six hundred. 

The A. G. Deivey Company. — The woolen factory now occupied by 
this corporation is situated on the Otta Ouechee River, one mile south of 
Quechee village. It was erected and opened in 1836 by Messrs. J. P, 
and C. Strong and Dewey for the manufacture of fine satinets. This 
firm was in existence from 1836 to 1842, but owing to the financial 
crisis of 1837 this company suspended operations and the factory re- 
mained unoccupied until 1840, when it was leased by A. G. Dewey. 
About the year 1840 Reuben Daniel, of Woodstock, conceived the idea 
of converting or reducing soft woolen rags to fibres denominated rag 
wool. Following up this idea, Mr. Daniel invented a machine for pick- 
ing rags into fibre and the first machine was put into operation in the 
woolen factory at Quechee village in 1840. This was the first inaugu- 
ration of shoddy in the United States. In 1841 Mr. Dewey leased the 



Town of Hartford. 355 

lower factory and commenced the manufacture of rag- cloth, now desig- 
nated as shoddy. At this time he employed a force of from thirty to 
sixty operators, and continued in business alone until April 11, 1848, 
when Urial Spalding became partner, under firm name of Dewey & 
Spalding. This partnership lasted until October 10, 1854. On April i, 
1858, the firm of A. G. Dewey & Co. was formed by the association 
with Mr. Dewey of Justin F. Mackenzie and William S. Carter. In 
1873 Mr. Carter died. On the first of January, 1874, John J. Dewey 
purchased his interest in the firm and on January i, 1876, William S. 
Dewey was admitted to equal partnership. The elder Dewey and Mr. 
Mackenzie retained their partnership till their death. The present cor- 
poration was organized under the general laws of the State of Vermont, 
January i, 1890, the following being its officers: John J. Dewey, presi- 
dent; F. S. Mackenzie, vice-president; William S. Dewey, treasurer. 
In 1858 the mill contained only two sets of machinery, producing about 
450 yards of textile fabric daily. This capacity was increased in 1863 
to 1,300 yards. In 1870 the firm bought the mill, enlarged it, substi- 
tuted new and improved machinery, continued improvements have been 
made, and their present production is now not far from 2,500 yards 
daily. They have six sets in operation and employ eighty hands. 
They manufacture two varieties of cloth, one from tailor clippings, the 
other from soft woolen rags of every description. Their fabrics are 
made from the same kind of stock used by Mr. Dewey in 1841, and 
have a reputation in the markets for general excellency, the varieties 
being known throughout the country as " Dewey's Grays." The motive 
power of the factory is a Hercules wheel of 150 horse-power, under a 
fall of twenty-five feet of water. The location of this factory is a very 
romantic one, being at the head of the celebrated Quechee Gulf, which 
has become a popular resort for tourists and pleasure seekers. 

The village of Hartford, or, as formerly known, White River Village 
(from its location on the stream so named), is a manufacturing point of 
considerable importance. The chief power for this purpose is obtained 
from White River. The place, also, is accessible from two railroads, 
the Vermont Central and the Woodstock, but the latter is little used. 
The first mill was erected here in or about the year 1795. The village 
has all the business enterprises usual to such hamlets: a church, — the 

356 History of Windsor County. 

Congregational, — a school, and a number of factories, among them the 
Hartford Woolen Company, manufacturers of woolen goods and satinets; 
French, Watson & Co. and W. L. Bugbee, agricultural implements ; 
Isaac Gates, shipping chairs, etc.; Moore & Madden, flour and grist-mill ; 
E. Johnson, furniture ; J. Bugbee, carriages and sleighs ; French, Wat- 
son & Co., saw-mill, and others perhaps of less importance. 

West Hartford is a hamlet still smaller than any heretofore mentioned, 
and is located in the extreme northwest part of the town, on what has 
been termed the Hazen Grant. This name came from the fact of the 
proprietors having conveyed the land to Thomas Hazen, the pioneer, in 
consideration of services performed for the proprietors by Joshua Ha- 
zen, the son of Thomas. The extent of the grant included a thousand 
acres, but the owner afterward acquired several hundred acres more, 
and at his death divided it among his children. 

West Hartford, too, has its contingent of distinguished names of 
former residents, among them Chief Ofhcer William B. Hazen of the 
signal service, and who, also, was a brigadier- general during the war of 
1861-65 ; Joel Marsh, who was a captain and subsequently colonel during 
the Revolutionary period ; David M.Camp, who was lieutenant-governor 
in 1836. 

This is more of an agricultural than manufacturing locality, notwith- 
standing the fact of its location on the White River and the Central 
Vermont Railroad; still the village has a saw- mill, two stores, — F. M. 
Holt and C. M. Hazen, — and a few other enterprises of less importance. 
It has, also, a Congregational church and a school-house. 

The little hamlet called Olcott, or Olcott Falls, is the latest creation in 
the town in the way of village settlement, although the locality was 
known for very many years as White River Falls, and was utilized for 
mill purposes as early as 1785. The village is located on the Connecti- 
cut River, about two and one-half miles north of the Junction. In 1882 
a dam across the river was commenced, and afterward completed, thus 
diverting the waters on both sides for mill privileges. This is the enter- 
prise of the Olcott Falls Company, manufacturers of printers' news 
paper. At this village is the United Church in Christ Society, mentioned 
in preceding pages. 

Centerville is the only other hamlet in the town that can boast of 

Town of Hartford. 357 

much more than a distinguished name. It is located, as its name im- 
phes, near the geographical center of the town, on the White River, and 
also on the line of the Central Vermont Railroad. Its business and 
other institutions are few, comprising a school-house, a few dwellings, a 
saw-mill and grist-mill. 

Other localities that are honored with names, but scarcely anything 
else, are Jericho and Dothan, understood as having been so named by 
Rev. Aaron Hutchinson very many years ago. Both are located in the 
north part of the town. 

Russtown is a name, hardly more, applied to the neighborhood in the 
southeast part of the town, in district number twelve, where dwell 
several families named Russ. Christian Street is a name applied to a lo- 
cality in the northeast part of the town, the neighborhood of the Gillett 

There is perhaps no town in the county of Windsor that has been 
more productive of prominent men in the executive and legislative 
branches of National and State governments than has Hartford; and in 
closing this chapter it is proper that there be furnished the names at least 
of those who have been the leaders of the town in its civil and political 
affairs, and who have been exalted to positions of trust and responsi- 
bility, and who, by faithfully performing each and ever}^ of their duties, 
brought credit and honor not only to themselves, but also to the town 
in which they had lived. 

The town of Hartford has furnished the successful candidate for 
the office of Representative in Congress from this district as follows: 
William Strong, from 1 810 to 181 5 ; William Strong, from 1 819 to 1821; 
George E. Wales, 1825 to 1829; Andrew Tracy, 1854 to 1856. 

In the State government the town has furnished officers as follows : 
Governor, Samuel E. Pingree, 1885-86; lieutenant-governors, Joseph 
Marsh, 1778-79, and from 1787 to 1 790; David M. Camp, 1 836-41 ; 
Samuel E. Pingree, 1883-84; secretary of state, Charles W. Porter, 

As members of the Council of Censors the town was represented in 
1785 by Joseph Marsh; 1806 by Thomas Gross ; 18 13 by Elijah Strong; 
and in 1834 by William Strong. 

Members of the several constitutional conventions: 1793, John Clark; 

358 History of Windsor County. 

1 8 14, Frederick Mather; 1822, George E. Wales; 1828, Wyllys Ly- 
man ; 1836, Andrew Tracy; 1843, Andrew Tracy; 1850, John L. Lov- 
ering; 1870, B. F. Ray. 

State Senate: 1839, Andrew Tracy; 1842-43, John Porter; 1861, 
Daniel Needham ; 1869 to 1871, Albert G. Dewey ; 1874-75, Joseph C. 
Parker ; 1886-87, Daniel L. Gushing. 

Representatives in State General Assembly: 1778, Stephen Tilden : 
1779, Amos Robinson; 1780-81, Elkanah Sprague ; 1782, Joseph 
Marsh and Joshua Hazen ; 1783, Stephen Tilden; 1784, Joshua Hazen 
and Stephen Tilden ; 1785, Stephen Tilden ; 1786-87, Joshua Hazen ; 
1788, Joshua Hazen; 1789, Elisha Marsh; 1790-91. Joshua Hazen; 
1792, Elisha Marsh ; 1793, Joshua Hazen ; 1794-97, John Clark ; 1798- 
99, William Strong; 1800, Benjamin Russ ; 1 801-02, William Strong; 
1 803-04, William Perry ; 1805-09, Sherman Dewey ; 1810, Elijah Mason ; 
1811-12, Nathan Gere; 1813-14, Abel Barron; 1815-18, William 
Strong; 1819-20, James Udall ; 1821-24, George E. Wales ; 1825-32, 
Wyllys Lyman; 1833-37, Andrew Tracy; 1838-41, John Porter; 
1842-43, Shubael Russ; 1844, John Porter; 1845-46, Allen Hazen ; 
1847-48, John Porter ; 1849, Allen Hazen ; 1850-5 i, Albert G. Dewey ; 
1852-53. George Lyman ; 1854, Lucius Hazen ; 1855-56, Daniel Smith ; 
1857-58, Daniel Needham; 1859-60, Edward P. Sprague ; 1861-62, 
Benjamin Porter; 1863-64, Albert G. Dewey; 1865-66, William G. 
Chandler; 1867-68, Joseph C. Parker; 1869-71, Noah B. Safford ; 
1872-73, Stephen N. Pingree; 1874-75, Edwin C. Watson; 1876-77, 
William Lindsey ; 1878-79, Noah B. Hazen; 1 880-8 1, Samuel J. Allen; 
1882-83, Daniel L. Gushing; 1884-85, A. L. Pease; 1886-87, W. S. 
Dewey; 1888-89, Charles B. Stone. 



HARTLAND is counted among the largest and more important 
towns of Windsor county, and its proximity to the town of Wind- 
sor has likewise placed it among the more historic towns of the county. 
It was the home and place of death of Doctor Paul Spooner, than whom 
the whole county produced no one man more prominently identified 

Town of Hartland. 359 

with the early history of this State ; and although a physician by pro- 
fession, he became a statesman by virtue of his intellectual attainments, 
and the deep interest he took in the cause of the people on the New- 
Hampshire Grants. And there were others besides Paul Spooner who 
were also conspicuous in the early political affairs of the State, the 
county and the town, and of whom mention will be made as this narra- 
tive progresses. 

This town, under the name of Hertford, was brought into existence 
by virtue of a charter granted by Governor Benning Wentworth, of New 
Hampshire, dated July 10, 1761, to Samuel Hunt and his associates, in 
seventy-one shares inclusive of reservations for all customary purposes. 
The similarity in the names of this town and that lying next northward, 
Hartford, was the occasion of much inconvenience and confusion to the 
people of the region, and especially to strangers coming to these parts. 
So, at least, one or the other had to change its name, and as this was 
the junior of the towns, and the more recently named, the change was 
made here, although the act of the Legislature that accomplished it was 
not passed until the year 1782. 

At that time the Legislature was in session at Windsor. The first 
act changing the name of the town was passed June 15, 1782, and by it 
the name of Waterford was given, and this act was concurred in and ap- 
proved by the Governor and Council ; but, on the 17th thereafter, this 
action was reconsidered, and the name Hartland substituted for Water- 
ford, as will be seen from the following extract from the journal of the 
executive body of the State : " The act mentioned in yesterday's jour- 
nal (meaning Saturday's, for 'yesterday' was Sunday), altering the name 
of Hertford to Waterford as concurred by this council, was this day re- 
considered, and proposed to the Assembly by Paul Spooner, esq., from 
the council, to be altered from Waterford to Hartland." By this name 
the town will hereafter be designated in this chapter, whether referring 
to events that occurred before or after the act was adopted. 

On the 23d of July, 1766, under the authority of the provincial gov- 
ernor of New York, the New Hampshire charter was confirmed to Oliver 
Willard and his associates, the result of an application made to New 
York, for the purpose of quieting in their possession those holding under 
the original charter ; and for the further purpose of preventing New 

360 History of Windsor County. 

York from granting the lands of the town to another and independent 
set of proprietors, which, had it been done, would undoubtedly have re- 
sulted in an internal controversy in the town. 

Hartland is one of the six towns of Windsor county that enjoys the 
benefits of having an eastern frontage on the Connecticut River, which 
fact implies that the town possesses some of the most fertile and pro- 
ductive agricultural lands to be found in the county; and further, that 
the lands, generally, are reasonably level and easy of cultivation, and 
especially so when placed in comparison with a majority of the towns 
further to the interior. Still, Hartland is by no means destitute of hill 
lands, and the fact is that she is abundantly well supplied with them, 
and some pretentious ones, too, but they are the exception, and not the 
rule, the reverse of the case with many other localities. The town con- 
tains 23,350 acres, approximately, or its equivalent in square miles of 
thirty-nine and sixty-hundredths. It is bounded north by Hartford; 
east by the Connecticut River; south by the towns of Windsor and West 
Windsor ; and west by Woodstock. 

The town has two principal water- courses, the Otta Ouechee River in 
the northern, and the Lull Brook in the southern part, the former much 
the larger stream. These drain the portions of the town through which 
they pass, and on their course receive the waters of several tributaries. 
Both discharge into the Connecticut on the east border of the town. 

The town of Hartland, as has already been stated, was chartered in 
1 76 1, but the earliest meetings of the proprietors were held at such 
places, not, however, in the town, as would best suit the convenience of 
the majority of them. I'he first record looking to the holding of a town 
proprietors' meeting within the limits of Hartland is found among the 
papers on file in the town clerk's office, and that appears to be an order 
made by Oliver Willard, then the proprietors' clerk, based upon the ap- 
plication of proprietors representing more than the necessary one-six- 
teenth of shareholders, requesting a meeting in Hertford (Hartland) at 
the dwelling house of Captain Oliver Willard, on the 15th day of March, 
1763, for the purpose of choosing a proprietors' clerk, town officers, and 
to ascertain whether the proprietors would raise a sum of money for the 
purpose of cutting and making roads in the town. The order bears the 
date of February 21, 1763, and is signed by Oliver Willard, proprietors' 

Town of Hartland. 361 

From this ancient document, being, as it was, an order based upon 
the petition of right owners representing more than one- sixteenth 
part of the proprietors, which was the number necessary to en- 
title the owners to hold a meeting in the town and choose town officers, 
it would appear that the settlement of the town must have commenced 
earlier than has been understood and reported by previous writers, or 
that Timothy Lull and the other first settlers came to the town very 
early during the year 1763. The meeting called for by Oliver Willard's 
order was to have been holden on the r5th of March, 1763, but it hardly 
seems possible that it could have been held in accordance with it. The 
order itself is written on a half-sheet of paper, and is found inclosed 
within the pages of the first record, but is not attached to the book. And 
there is nothing in the town records to indicate that a meeting was held 
in pursuance of the order, or that there was any town meeting earlier 
than 1767. 

It is generally conceded by all writers of Hartland town history that 
the first settlement- in the town was made during the month of May, 
1763, and that Timothy Lull and his family were the pioneers. Con- 
cerning this settlement the present writer quotes from Thompson as fol- 
lows: "The settlement of the town was commenced in May, 1763, by 
Timothy Lull, from Dummerston, in this State. At this time there were 
no inhabitants on Connecticut River between Charlestown, then (Fort) 
No. 4, and Hartland. A few families had, however, settled in Newbury, 
about forty miles to the north of this place. Mr. Lull moved into the 
town in the following manner: Having purchased a log canoe, he pro- 
ceeded in that up the Connecticut River, with his furniture and family, 
consisting of a wife and four children. He arrived at the mouth of a 
considerable brook in Hartland, where he landed his family, tied his 
canoe, and, breaking a junk bottle in the presence of his little family, 
named the stream Lull's Brook, by which name it has ever since been 
known. He proceeded up the brook about a mile, to a log hut which 
had been previously erected, near the place now called Sumner's village 
(Hartland). Here he spent his days and died at the advanced age of 
eighty-one years." 

And upon this same point, the first settlement by Timothy Lull, an- 
other and more recent writer, evidently a resident of the town, says : 


362 History of Windsor County. 

" The first settlement in Hartland was made in May, 1763, by Timothy 
Lull, who had previously been living at Dummerston. Having con- 
cluded to settle in Hertford, as it was then called, he purchased a log 
canoe, and taking with him his family, which consisted of a wife and four 
children, and such furniture as they needed, paddled up the Connecticut 
River. Arriving at the mouth of a stream just north of the south- 
ern line of the town, he anchored his boat and landed his family. 
Taking then a junk bottle, he broke it in the presence of his wife 
and children, and named the stream Lull Brook — the name by which 
it has since been known. Proceeding up the brook about a mile, he 
came to a deserted log hut, situated upon the farm now (1882) owned 
by E. M. Goodwin. Here he commenced a settlement. For many 
years he suffered privations and hardships, ' but possessmg a strong 
constitution and a vigorous mind he overcame all obstacles, accumulated 
a handsome property, lived respected, and died at the age of eighty-one 
years, generally lamented.' He reared a family of nine children, of whom 
Timothy was the first male child born in the town. This birth occurred 
in December, 1764, on which occasion the doctress was drawn on the ice 
twenty-three miles from Charlestown, N. H., on a hand- sled." 

Aside from the fact that the second account is somewhat more full 
and extended than that first quoted, there appears to be no material 
difference in the statements. Both agree in saying that Mr. Lull pro- 
ceeded up the brook, but the first states that he came " to a log hut 
which had been previously erected," while the second narrative says " he 
came to a deserted log hut." From both statements it is fair to assume 
that somebody had been to the region in advance of Mr. Lull; or how 
shall we account for the log hut previously erected ? No account 
asserts that Mr. Lull had ever visited the place before, while the latter 
infrequently, at least, states that he had not by these words : " Having 
concluded to settle in Hertford," etc. This is not an important subject 
for consideration here, but it is apparent that some attempt at effecting a 
settlement, either temporary or permanent, had been made before the 
coming of Timothy Lull in May, 1763. 

The settlement made by the family of Timothy Lull was soon followed 
by others, and with such expedition that in 1771 the population of the 
town, according to the enumeration made then by the New York author- 

Town of Hartland. 363 

ity, reached one hundred and forty-four, showing the presence of some- 
thing like twenty-five famih'es. At all events, in 1767, within the brief 
period of three years from the time of Timothy Lull's coming, the town 
was permanently organized ; and organized in accordance with the 
usages and laws of the province of New York, for the year preceding 
this, in 1766, that province, through its governing officers, had confirmed 
to the grantees under New Hampshire, or to their agents and repre- 
sentatives, their rights under the charter from the last named province. 
At that time Hartland was a part of the county of Cumberland, which 
county had been organized under the authority of New York, and there 
was manifested here but little if any disposition on the part of the towns- 
people to resist the authority of New York, however much they may 
have preferred remaining a part of New Hampshire. The disturbances 
that were rampant in the district west of the mountains had no effect 
upon the people in this valley. The Green Mountain Boys were then 
but an embryo organization, acting in what was considered by many a 
local matter, possibly unjustifiable, and the subject of forming a new 
State had not then been suggested to the people. Being thus a part of 
a New York county, and having their charter rights, privileges and 
possession confirmed by that province, it was perfectly natural that the 
town should be organized in conformity with the laws of the controlling 

This was done at a meeting of the inhabitants held on the i ith day 
of March, 1767, "being assembled," says the record, "according to 
patent, on the day appointed for holding annual town meetings," upon 
which occasion officers were chosen as follows: Moderator, Oliver Will- 
ard ; supervisor, Oliver Willard ; assessors. Captain Zadock Wright and 
Lieut. Joel Matthews; treasurer, Timothy Lull ; overseers of highways, 
Ensign Laiton and Lieut. Joel Matthews ; overseers of the poor, Oliver 
Willard and Joseph Harwood ; collector, Nathan Call ; constables, Cap- 
tain Zadock Wright, Timothy Lull, Ebenezer Call and Joel Matthews. 
The records of this meeting do not disclose the name of the person chosen 
town clerk, if indeed one was elected; but it is presumed that Oliver 
Willard acted in that capacity, the first record of his election, however, 
appearing in the proceedings of the annual meeting held in March, 1769. 

From this time forth for several years the records of the town disclose 

364 History of Windsor County. 

nothing of special importance except the annual meetings for the election 
of officers, but when the affairs of the district of the New Hampshire 
Grants began to assume some tangible form, the inhabitants began to 
take considerable interest in what was then going on. The town does 
not appear to have been represented in any of the Dorset conventions, 
nor at the Westminster convention in January, 1777; but at the ad- 
journed session held at Windsor on the 4th of June, 1777, the town was 
represented by two of its then leading citizens, — Major Joel Matthews 
and Mr. William Gallup, — both of whose names were subscribed to the 
revised declaration of rights, and to the articles by which the name of 
the new State was changed from New Connecticut to Vermont. 

Although there does not appear to have been a representative from 
Hartland in any convention previous to that of June 4, 1777, there is 
evidence tending to show that William Gallup was in attendance at all of 
them, as will be seen by the following extract taken from the "Governor 
and Council " : " William Gallup, of Hartland, was a delegate in the Con- 
vention at Windsor, June 4, 1777, as appears from the printed record. 
His son, Doct. Joseph A. Gallup, in a memoir dated August 14, 1846, 
states that his ' father, William Gallup, was one of the seventy-one dele- 
gates, members of the Convention that met at Dorset and Westminster 
and Windsor in 1776, 1777, and declared Vermont a free and independent 
State. Although only of the age of eight years. I well remember the 
time of these transactions and the great solicitude and excitement that 
prevailed and seemed to pervade the minds of all classes of society. He 
died August 13, 1 803, aged sixty-nine years. He had been a delegate 
of the convention which met at Windsor to frame a constitution for the 
State of Vermont ; was also for many years a member of the General 
Assembly.' " 

On the 3d of March, 1778, prior to the first election under the consti- 
tution, a number of men of Hartland took the freeman's oath. They 
were Dr. Paul Spooner, Major Joel Matthews. Ensign Matthias Rust, 
William Gallup, Thomas Rood, Jonah Loomis, Ensign Daniel Spooner, 
OUver Rust, Moses Squire, Jonas Matthews, John Dunbar, Oliver Tay- 
lor, Nathan Harvey, Zebulon Lee, John Goldsbury, Isaac Stevens, 
Thomas Richardson, Ensign Saul Taylor, and George Burk. 

Soon after this, on the loth of the same month, the annual town meet- 





Town of Hartland. 365 

jng was held at the dwelling house of William Gallup, and officers chosen 
in accordance with the constitutional provisions of the State of Vermont, 
as follows: Moderator, Dr. Paul Spooner; town clerk, Dr. Paul Spooner; 
selectmen. Lieutenant Jonathan Burk. Ensign Daniel Spooner, and Zebu- 
Ion Lee ; constable, Captain Aaron Willard ; assessors, Captain Aaron 
Willard, Dr. Paul Spooner and Robert Morrison. Also Captain Aaron 
Willard and John Barrell with the selectmen were chosen to be the sub- 
committee for the year. The sub-committee was undoubtedly the Com- 
mittee of Safety for the town. On the 7th of July, of this year, Captain 
Elias Weld was elected justice of the peace. 

The mention of the name Paul Spooner brings to mind one of the lead 
ing men of his time, and one who, perhaps, was the most prominent and 
influential of Hartland's early residents. He was in his day just what 
David H. Sumner was in his day, although the latter's connection with 
the town was of comparatively recent date. 

•' Dr. Paul Spooner," says the " Governor and Council," " appears first 
in Vermont history as a delegate from Hartland, in a convention at West- 
minster, Oct. 19, 1774, called to condemn the tea act, the Boston port bill, 
and other kindred measures of the king and parliament of Great Britain. 
Doctor Spooner was one of the committee which made a written report 
expressing surprise that the king and parliament should dare to assert 'a 
right to build the colonics in all cases whatsoever,' and to take, 'at their 
pleasure, the properties of the king's American subjects without their 
consent,' &c. He again appeared as a delegate at a convention of Whigs 
at Westminster, Feb. 7, 1775, and was secretary. Still again, June 6, 
1775, he was a delegate at a Cumberland County Congress, so called^ 
and was chosen one of three delegates to represent the county in the 
New York Provincial Congress. He served as such for the remainder of 
the session which commenced May 23, 1775, was re-elected Nov. 7, and 
served in the session which commenced Nov. 14. May 5, 1777. he was 
chosen sheriff of Cumberland county under New York, but declined ac- 
cepting the office in a letter dated July 15. Just one week before writ- 
ing that letter he had been appointed one of the Vermont Council of 
Safety, which office he accepted, and was appointed deputy secretary 
thereof in the absence of the secretary, Ira Allen. He was a member of 
the first Council under the constitution, and was re-elected five times. 

T,66 History of Windsor County. 

serving from 1778 till October, 1782. when he was elected heutenant- 
governor, and annually re elected until 1787. Twice he was agent from 
Vermont to Congress, in 1780 and again in 1782. For nine years he was 
a judge of the Supreme Court, in 1779 and 1780, and again from 1782 
to 1788. During the same period, in 1781 and 1782, he was judge of 
probate for Windsor county. He died at Hartland, September 5, 1789." 

In the first book of Hartland town records there appears in the plain 
and bold characteristic handwriting of Paul Spooner the record of his 
marriages, for he was twice married, and the dates of the births of his 
children. From the record there made it appears that on April 15, 1770, 
Paul Spooner was married to Asenath Wright of this town, by Oliver 
Williams, justice of the peace of Cumberland county. His children were, 
as shown b\' the records, Betty, born December 22, 1770; Paul, born 
September 19, 1772; Amasa, born December 11, 1774. Also, that on 
t'le 10th of March, 1777, Asenath, daughter to Amasa and Mary Wright, 
and wife to Paul Spooner, died, aged 22 years, 9 months and 23 days ; 
and further, that on January 5, 1780, at Oxford, Paul Spooner was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Ann Post. 

In addition to the persons already mentioned as having taken the free- 
man's oath just prior to the town election under the Vermont authority, 
there may also be named the following persons, each of whom took the 
oath on September 4, 1781: Seth Moseley, Joseph Evens, Eleazer 
Bishop, Francis Cabot, James Williams, Eleazer Paine, Daniel Bugbee, 
Timothy Waters, Joseph Grow, Joseph Grow, jr., Daniel Short, John 
Grow, Samuel Grow. Ambrose Grow, Joseph Olmstead, Marston Cabot, 
Elisha Gallup, John Laiton, Samuel Williams. 

Throughout the long and dreary years of the war with Great Britain 
that resulted in American independence, the residents of Hartland, with 
but very few excepti(ms, were earnestly interested in the contest, and 
the records show that meetings were frequently held at which measures 
were taken for sending men into the service from the town ; but it is 
impossible to name them, as they are nowhere recorded. At that time 
Hartland was practically a frontier town and required the maintenance 
of an armed force of minutemen, ready for any emergency that might 
arise, but fortunately they were not called into action on account of an 
invasion of their own town, although a number joined in the expedition 

Town of Hartland. 367 

against the party of Indians tliat attacked and burned the northern town 
of Royalton, and committed other depredations on the frontier. 

But loyal as was the great majority of the people of Hartland, the 
town was entirely free from that class usually called Tories, and in 
accordance with the custom of the period it became necessary for the 
State to make some disposition of the lands of inimical persons. P'or 
this purpose William Gallup was made commissioner of the confiscated 
lands, to effect their sale and devote the proceeds thereof to the benefit 
of the town. His appointment was made by the Assembly March 24, 
1778. But before the lands were sold the commissioner was required 
to place one thousand dollars in the State treasury, not as payment for 
the land, but in the nature of a loan for the term of one year, as a 
guaranty fund to be repaid to the persons buying the confiscated estates 
in case the sale should not prove to be regular and justifiable, and the 
persons whose lands were sold should eventually prove not to be inimical 
within the meaning of the term. 

In accordance with his duty Captain Gallup appointed Matthias Rust 
and Charles Spaulding appraisers, and to conduct the sales. The report 
of the appraisers was as follows : " We, the subscribers, being appointed 
by William Gallup, of Hartland, in the State of Vermont, to appraise 
certain lots, or parcels of land belonging to Whitehad Hicks, (and gone 
over to the enemy,) agreeable to a vote of the honorable House of 
Representatives of said State, in March last, have viewed and appraised 
sundry lots as follows : being sworn to the faithful discharge of the trust, 
etc., viz.: One lot, the property of ' Stiversant,' (either Stuyvesant, or 
Sturtevant,) No. 6, second range, 300 acres, price 6 shillings per acre, 
purchased by John Sumner and Nehemiah Liscomb." 

A large portion of the lots sold were formerly the property of White- 
head Hicks, mayor of the city of New York, and a person whose conduct 
was considered highly inimical. The extent of the Hicks lands so sold 
amounted to 1,422 acres, and that owned by the person called " Stiver- 
sant " amounted to the aggregate of 1,488 acres. From this sale Cap- 
tain Gallup paid into the treasury more than 1,118 pounds. 

The years of 1782 and 1786 witnessed the occurrence of certain events 
in the history of Hartland town that were decidedly out of the regular 
order of things; events riotous and tumultuous in their nature, being 

368 History of Windsor County. 

acts of unwarrantable and unjustifiable assumption of power, the one 
case the administration of supposed justice by individuals, and the other 
an attempt to resist the laws of the county. It appears that in 1782 one 
John Billings was charged with a crime, or misdemeanor, and was tried 
and convicted, and punished to a degree commensurate with his offense. 
But, not being satisfied with the visitation of justice upon the offending 
Billings, certain of the men of the town took upon themselves the au- 
thority of administering further punishment upon the culprit, according 
to their own notions of what would be appropriate for the offense in ad- 
dition to what the law had already done. These men took the offending 
person, secured him astride the back of an exceedingly lean horse, tied 
heavy weights to each of his feet, and then compelled him to ride a 
considerable distance in this extremely awkward and uncomfortable 
position; in fact, a somewhat ancient and novel application of that 
method of punishment called " riding on a rail." 

This visitation by the pioneer vigilantes of the town rendered them 
amenable to the law, and they, in turn, were arrested, upon the com- 
plaint of their victim, and made to answer in damages before the bar of 
justice of the county. The names of the participants in this event were 
Jedediah Leavens, Phineas Killam, James Williams, Timothy Lull, jr., 
Aden Williams, Timothy Banister, Simeon Williams, Joab Belden and 
William Miller of Hartland, and Amos Robinson and Moses Morse of 

The second unlawful proceeding in which persons of Hartland were 
charged with being participants occurred during the year 1786, and 
proved to be a series of attempts at outlawry rather than a single act ; 
and these were the outgrowth of just the condition of affairs mentioned 
in a preceding chapter^ of this volume, relating to the enforcement of 
the law in the collection of debts. 

Concerning these disturbances the " Governor and Council," upon the 
authority of the Vermont Gazette of November 13 and Vermont Journal 
of November 20, 1786, says: "The Windsor paper of November 6 
mentions that on the Tuesday before, being the day assigned by law 
for the sitting of the Court of Common Pleas, for that county, in that 
town, a Mob, about thirty, under arms, headed by Benjamin Stebbins 

' See Bench and Bar chapter. 

Town of Hartland. 369 

(farmer, of Barnard) and Robert Morrison (blacksmith, of Hartland), 
assembled, supposed with a design to stop the court. The Sheriff, Ben- 
jamm Wait, and State's Attorney, Stephen Jacobs, waited on them, or- 
dering them to disperse, read the riot act, etc. The insurgents, finding 
their views baffled, dispersed, and the court proceeded to business with- 
out molestation. 

"The same paper of the 20th instant mentions, that at their last ses- 
sion (November 14, 1786) of the Superior Court, Robert Morrison was 
taken for riot. He plead guilty and threw himself on the mercy of the 
court, who sentenced him to suffer one month's imprisonment, procure 
bonds of one hundred pounds for his good behavior for two years, pay 
a fine of ten pounds and costs of suit. The mob hearing of the matter, 
sent to their friends and assembled at the house of Captain Lull, in 
Hartland, to the number of 30 or 40 under arms, intending a rescue. 
The court being informed of this, ordered the sheriff to collect assistance, 
proceed to the place and conduct the insurgents to prison, which, after 
a short scuffle with bayonets, the breeches of guns, clubs, etc., was hap- 
pily effected without the loss of life." (State's Attorney Jacobs and 
Sheriff Wait, however, were both slightly wounded.) "Twenty- seven 
of the insurgents were taken and brought to gaol, most of whom plead 
guilty and were sentenced to pay fines, cost of court, and procure bonds 
for tlieir good behavior for one year. 

" On hearing of other hostile movements, the militia were called for 
and turned out in such numbers that the insurgents did not think proper 
to make their appearance." 

Subsequent to the period of these local disturbances the histor}' of 
Hartland was an uneventful one. The people of the town were, of 
course, interested in the controversy with New York, and were also in- 
terested in having Vermont recognized as a State of the Union ; and the 
people of the town were interested in what was known as the eastern 
union, with the New Hampshire towns, and in the further proceedings 
looking to the union with New Hampshire on the part of towns west of 
the River Connecticut. But in the main the part taken by the town 
was the discussion of these events at the fireside and the usual places of 
resort in the town. 

During the period of the War of 1812-15 the town furnished her 

370 History of Windsor County. 

quota of volunteers for the service, and, judging from the records at 
that time and just before, it is fair to assume that the whole number of 
the ambitious young men of Hartland, and some older, perhaps, were 
among the enrolled militia, although but comparatively few entered the 

But it was during the late war, that of 1861-65, that the town of 
Hartland made its best record. The names of its volunteers will be 
found in an earlier chapter of this work, and it is a fact that there was 
hardly a command raised in the State or county but had at least a few 
representatives from Hartland on its muster roll. The record of the 
volunteers from the town, and the county as well, will be found in the 
chapter referred to, so that it will be necessary in this connection to 
furnish a brief summary of the representatives from the town in the 
service. The reports of the adjutant-general of the State show that the 
aggregate of men sent from Hartland, and with which the town was 
credited, exclusive of three months' men, was 208, under the following 
divisions and branches of the service : Recruits for three years credited 
previous to the call of October 17, 1863, 39; recruits for three years 
under call of October 17, 1863, and subsequent calls, 45 ; volunteers for 
one year, 21 ; for nine months, 39; miscellaneous credits, not named, 
11; re-enlisted, 10; furnished under drafts and procured substitutes, 
15 ; enrolled men who furnished substitutes, 7; entered United States 
Navy, 21. 

A somewhat singular fact in connection with the history of Hartland is 
that the population of the town at the present time is less than that of 
one hundred years ago, being the only town in the county, save one, 
concerning which this can be said. Comparing Hartland with her sister 
town on the north, it is seen that in 1771 Hartland had a population of 
144, while Hartford had 190. In 1790 this town's population was 1,652, 
while that of Hartford was only 988. In 1880 the census gave Hart- 
ford 2,954, and Hartland only 1,598. This is not the result of rivalry 
between the towns, but rather the result of circumstances. The natural 
resources of the towns have been about equal, Hartford having the 
larger streams and better water-power, while Hartland has the lesser 
water privileges, but the better agricultural lands. But still, Hartford 
has been susceptible of greater development than this town, added to 

Town of Hartland. 371 

which are the several railroads centering at a single point in the pioneer 
town, the benefits of which have been almost incalculable. 

The town of Hartland has three small villages or trading centers, 
called respectively Hartland, but better known as Hartland Three Cor- 
ners, and formerly as Summerville ; Hartland Four Corners, and North 
Hartland, each of which is a post town. The two first named are 
separated by a distance of but little more than one mile. At Hartland 
the mercantile business is done by two well appointed general stores, 
W. R. Sturtevant and B. F. Labaree being the respective proprietors. 
At the Four Corners the main mercantile business is conducted by 
Leonard Brothers. The merchants at North Hartland are W. D. Spauld- 
ing and J. O'Neil & Co. In addition to the mercantile houses the vil- 
lages have the usual contingent of shops and smaller business enter- 
prises incident to such localities. 

Soon after the settlement and organization of the town it became one 
of the first duties of the townsmen to make some provision for a place 
for holding church or religious meetings, but in this town, the same as 
in many others, the erection of a meeting-house was the subject of more 
discussion than actual construction. In Hartland this subject began to 
be agitated as early as, if not before, 1779, but the first record upon the 
matter appears in the minutes of the year named, and at a meeting held 
May 10, at which time the town voted to hire Rev. Martin Tuller to 
preach two Sabbaths more, (indicating that he had preached even before 
that time,) one- half of the time in Dr. Paul Spooner's barn, and the 
other half in Colonel Lyme's barn. On the 31st of May, 1779, Mr. 
Laiton, Elias Weld and Mr. Gallup, a committee chosen for the purpose, 
decided to "set the meeting-house " in the center of the town, on lands 
that Mr. Bugbee had offered to donate for that purpose. At a meeting 
held February 7, 1780, the freemen voted to divide the town into two 
societies, the north and south, but this was afterward reconsidered, much 
to the dissatisfaction of a part of the towns-folk. The first church was 
built at Hartland in 1785, for the Congregational society, but this edifice 
was replaced by another in 1834. The Methodists have two societies in 
the town, one at Hartland and the other at North Hartland, each being 
provided with a church home. The Universalist church building is at 
Hartland Four Corners. 

372 History of Windsor County. 

In manufacturing industries the town has not been particularly prolific, 
but there have been a few that were at one time quite important. On 
the site of what was known as the Sturtevant mills, recently burned, 
originally stood the Jonathan Chase grist-mill, erected some time prior 
to the year 1795. This was unquestionably the first grist-mill in the 
town. The property finally, in 1840, passed to the Sturtevants, and was 
changed to a woolen- mill. It afterward was sold to J. E. Ashworth & 
Co., and was still later destroyed by fire. 

The town now has two sash, blind and planing- mills, owned respect- 
ively by Martin & Stickney and A. A. Martin; the saw- mills of Asa 
Merritt, J. F. Lyman and S. C. Jenne ; the foundry of Francis Gilbert; 
and the Otta Ouechee woolen- mills, an extensive industry at the north 
village, and the pail factory of D. S. Willard at the same place. 

Hartland was first divided into school districts about 1799, and there 
was then created nineteen districts. This number has frequently changed 
by consolidation and discontinuance. The greatest number at any one 
time was twenty- two, whole, joint and fractional. At present there are 
but sixteen. The school-buildings are fully up to the average in the 
county, some quite pretentious, while others are less so. 

The present principal town officers of Hartland are as follows : Clerk, 
W. R. Sturtevant; treasurer, E. W. Billings; selectmen, Asa Weed, 
J. H. Eastman, C. C. Gates ; listers, E. S. Ainsworth, George W. Spear, 
Wilson Britton ; constable, O. W. Waldo ; superintendent, C. E. Bill- 
ings ; overseer, C. P. Burk ; agent, E M. Goodwin. 

Succession of town Representatives : 1778, William Gallup; 1779, 
Elias Weld; 1780, Daniel Spooner ; 1781, Elias Weld; 1782, Roger 
Enos and Elias Weld ; 1783, William Gallup ; 1784, Roger Enos and 
William Gallup ; 1785. William Gallup ; 1786-87, Elias Weld ; 1788, 
William Gallup; 1789, George Denison ; 1790, Oliver Gallup; 1791, 
Roger Enos; 1792 to 1796, Oliver Gallup; 1797, Ebenezer Allen; 
1798, Oliver Gallup; 1799, Samuel Perkins; 1800, Oliver Gallup; 1801 
to 1809, Elihu Luce; 1810, Laban Webster; 1811-12. Elihu Luce; 
1813-14, David H. Sumner;' 1815-18, Elihu Luce; 1819-22, Simeon 
Willard; 1823-24, Isaac N. Cushman; 1825-26, Robert Bartlett; 1827, 
Albi Lull; 1828-29, Simeon Willard; 1830-31, Elihu Luce; 1832, 
Isaac N. Cushman ; 1833-34, Wells Hadley ; 1835-36, John S Marcy ; 

Town of West Windsor. 373 

1837-39, Daniel Ashley; 1840-41, Hamden Cutis; 1842-43, Daniel 
Dennison ; 1844-45, Lewis Merritt ; 1846, Henry Shedd ; 1847, Ham- 
den Cutts ; 1848, Eben M. Stocker ; 1849, Ward Cotton; 1850, Pas- 
chal P. Taft; 185 1-52, Daniel Dennison; 1853-54, Jonathan Hodgman; 
1855, George C. West; 1856, none; 1857, Jol"'" Colby; 1858, Ham- 
den Cutts ; 1859-60, John Colby ; 1861-62, Nathaniel Weed ; 1863-65, 
John Colby; 1866-67, Lewis Enimens; 1868-69, Oliver Smith; 1870- 
71, Edwin H. Bagley ; 1872-73, Charles C.Thornton; 1874-75, El- 
mer M Goodwin; 1876-77, Charles C.Thornton ; 1878-79, Cliarles C- 
Thornton; 1880-81, Elmer M. Goodwin; 1882-83, James G.Bates; 
1884-85, Asa Weed; 1886-87, W. R. Sturtevant; 1888-89, H. R- 


THE town of West Windsor is the youngest of the civil divisions of 
Windsor county ; likewise it is one of the smallest towns of the 
county. An act of the Legislature of Vermont, passed and adopted Oc- 
tober 26, 1848, divided the old and historic town of Windsor, by a north 
and south line, thus creating a new town which was called West Wind- 
sor. But prior to this act the town had been divided, first, during the 
preceding century, and again in the early part of the present century, 
concerning which division mention will be made later on. 

On the 6th of July, 1761, Governor Benning Wentworth, of New 
Hampshire province, issued charters for the three towns of Windsor, 
Reading, and Plymouth, each of which was estimated to contain thirty- 
six square miles of land, with allowances, being each six miles square or 
thereabouts. To all intents and purposes these charters were simulta- 
neous. Settlement of course commenced earlier and progressed more 
rapidly in Windsor than in the other towns named, it being on the Con- 
necticut River, more easily accessible, and an altogether more desirable 
body of land. But when the king's order was issued, by which all the 
lands west of the Connecticut River were declared to belong to the ju- 

374 History of Windsor County. 

risdiction of New York province, the proprietors of Windsor, fearing 
that their lands might be taken away from them, at once made apphca- 
tion to that province for a new charter, whicli was granted July 7, 1766, 
making the petitioners proprietors, not only of the same town formerly 
gninted by Governor Wentworth, but enlarging its territory a little, to 
the extent of some eight hundred acres. A discussion or controversy 
arose between these new proprietors, or rather between the new and 
former proprietors, and a second charter was taken from New York in 
1772. March 2d; and still a third on March 28th thereafter, granting, 
however, the same lands as by the first charter, including the eight hun- 
dred acres additional lands to the New Hampshire charter. Reading, 
too, was granted by New York on March 6th, 1772, but included only 
the same extent of lands as contained in Governor Wentworth's charter. 

Under these charters or grants subsequent surveys were made ; but in 
running the lines of Windsor to conform with the New York charter that 
gave the additional land, it was found that the town would lap over and 
include some of the Reading territory, which the proprietors of Windsor 
insisted upon claiming and taking, notwithstanding the protests of Read- 
ing's proprietors. Nathan Stone seems to have represented the Wind- 
sor side of this controversy ; and he said, singular as such action may 
appear to have applied to Governor Wentworth for such relief as would 
enable the claimants to hold the strip, but that the governor declined to 
interfere unless notice of the [)roceeding should be given to the Reading 
proprietors, that they might defend their claim. This controversy, it is 
understood, occurred somewhere about the year 1780; and if at that 
time it appears somewhat remarkable that application should have been 
made to New Hampshireauthority, when the jurisdiction of thatprovince 
had been extinguished at least sixteen years before, by the decree of the 
king in 1764. Had the application for relief been maJe to New York's 
provincial governor there could be nothing strange in the action, for it 
was that power that made the charter for the enlarged tov^n, and it was 
the duty of that government to make the matter right. 

But, without discussing this subject at any further length, it is suffi- 
cient to say that a compromise was eflected, by which the strip of land, 
half a mile wide an:l extending the whole north and south distance of the 
towns, was equally divided between Windsor and Reading by running a 

Town of West Windsor. 375 

line from the southeast to the northwest corner of Reading as it origi- 
nally was, but setting its northeast corner mark half a mile to the west- 
ward. This in a measure accounts for the singular formation of Read- 
ing town, which was supposed to be a block of land six miles square. 
The town of West Windsor, as at present formed, is bounded north by 
Hartland and Woodstock ; east by Windsor ; south by Weathersfield ; 
and west by Reading. 

The early history of the town of West Windsor, and in fact its whole 
history prior to the year 1848, with brief exceptional periods, is the his- 
tory of the town that originally comprised the whole territory ; it is the his- 
tory of the town of Windsor, from which the events of its early existence 
cannot well be separated. Therefore, being deemed inadvisable to sepa- 
rate them, the reader will refer to the chapter devoted to the history of 
the town of Windsor for the pioneer and early events of this town, ex- 
cepting, of course, that branch of West Windsor's history that belongs 
particularly to its own chapter. 

During the period of the early history of Windsor, the same as in 
other towns of the county, all of its affairs, civil and religious, were vested 
in the hands of the proprietors ; and here, as well as elsewhere, it was 
the custom and law that the support of the minister should be a town 
charge, payable from the public funds. And the meeting-house, too, in 
case there was one, should in the same manner be erected at the town's 
expense, and at a point as near the geographical center of the town as 
the character and situation of the land would admit. Such was the law 
and the custom, but the lots that were reserved for public purposes, res- 
ervations made in every charter at that time, instead of being located in 
advantageous or proper places, were selected from the lands compre- 
hended by the inaccessible heights of Ascutney Mountain. This was the 
result of design rather than accident. Former charters, it is well under- 
stood, had made provision for these public lands according to the usages 
of the period, but in carrying out the conditions of the last charter these 
undesirable and wholly valueless lands were pitched upon. In fact, one 
of the plans had become mysteriously lost, and another replaced it ; and 
on the last the public " rights " were found so undesirably situated. 

In making provision for building a meeting house or organizing a 
church society in the town of course the convenience of the people was 

3/6 History of Windsor County. 

to be consulted. All the conditions being favorable the natural site for 
a meeting-house would be near the center of the town ; but, at that time, 
the village of Windsor held a considerable population, and up and down 
the river the lands were fairly well cleared, improved and settled. Also, 
the western part of the town had a goodly number of residents, while the 
middle or central portion was comparatively unsettled, on account of its 
hilly and mountainous character. Ascutney Mountain, the highest point 
of land in the entire county, was situate in the central southern part of 
the town, while to the northward from it there extended a considerable 
range of hills practically separating the western from the eastern part of 
the town. Therefore, to build a meeting-house in either the east or west 
part of the town would work an injustice to the dwellers on the side 
which was so unfortunate as not to have it. 

This led to a division of the town, so far as its religious existence was con 
cerned, into two societies or parishes, by an act of the Legislature passed 
and approved October 17, 1783, and entitled, " An Act for the division 
of the town of Windsor into two distinct societies." On the same day, 
and probably at the same hour of the adoption of the above mentioned 
act, the General Assembly passed an act entitled, " An Act to enable 
Townsand Parishes to build Meeting Houses & support Ministers of the 
Gospel." The latter was the enabling act, whiie the former was an act 
passed in pursuance of it. 

It is understood that church societies of the Congregational denomina- 
tion were organized in both the east and west parts of the town even 
before the acts were passed. On this point Thompson's "Vermont" 
says : "At an early period two religious societies of the Congregational 
order were formed in Windsor, one in the east and the other in the west 
parish of the town. About the year 1778 the Rev. Martin Tuller and 
the Rev. Pelatial were ordained the first ministers over their respective 
churches in those parishes. . . . The Congregational Church in the 
west parish has been some time vacant." 

During this period there was a diversity of opinion among the people 
of the town, growing out of the location of the meeting-house, which 
the division into parishes had not the effect of entirely quieting. Other 
subjects entered into the matter, which need not be discussed here, but 
which finally assumed such proportions that the State Legislature was 

M ^ M. 


Town of West Windsor. 377 

appealed to, with the result of a division of the territory of the town by 
an act passed November 4, 1814, as follows: 

" An Act dividing the east and west parishes of Windsor into separate 
and distinct towns. 

'* It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ver- 
mont: That the east and west parishes of Windsor, from and after the 
first Monday of March next, be and they hereby are incorporated and 
made into two distinct and corporate towns ; the east parish by the name 
of Windsor, and the west parish by that of West Windsor, with all such 
privileges and immunities as other corporate towns in this State have 
and enjoy any law, usage or custom to the contrary notwithstanding." 

Under this act the newly made town elected its officers, and sent a 
representative to the General Assembly in 18 15, Jabez Delano being the 
representative chosen. But upon the passage of the act above men- 
tioned people of the locality discussed their differences and agreed upon 
terms of reconciliation and compromise ; and the General Assembly, at 
its next session in October, 18 16, repealed the dividing act it had passed 
during the preceding year. So the town of West Windsor, after an ex- 
istence of but a single year, again became united to the mother town. 

However in 1848 the people for a third time had recourse to the Leg- 
islature, and the town was again divided, this time permanently. The 
act that then separated West Windsor from the older town was passed 
October 26, 1848, and was as follows: 

" It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ver- 
mont : 

" Section i. The town of Windsor is hereby divided and incorporated 
into two distinct towns by a line drawn from the northerly to the 
southerly line of said town, between the seventh and eight ranges of lots, 
in said town, as allotted and marked upon the original plan of said town, 
now in the town clerk's office thereof 

" Section 2. That portion of said town lying easterly of said line, shall 
hereafter be called and known by the name of Windsor; and that por- 
tion lying westerly of said line, shall hereafter be called and known by 
the name of West Windsor. And each of said towns hereby created, 
shall have and possess, and enjoy the same powers, privileges and im- 
munities as all other incorporated towns in this State. 

3/8 History of Windsor County. 

" Section 3. The paupers now supported by the town of Windsor, and 
such persons as have removed, and may hereafter become chargeable to 
said towns as paupers, shall hereafter be supported at the equal expense 
of the towns of Windsor and West Windsor, in proportion to their re- 
spective grand lists. 

" Section 4. All property now owned and possessed by the town of 
Windsor, shall be owned and enjoyed by the said towns of Windsor and 
West Windsor, in proportion to the grand lists of the persons residing 
within the territorial limits of said towns of Windsor and West Windsor, 
respectively, for the year 1848; and the debts now due from the town 
of Windsor shall be paid by the said towns of Windsor and West Wind- 
sor, hereby incorporated, in the same proportion. 

" Section 5. The town records of the present town of Windsor, and all 
papers and files now by law kept in the town clerk's office of said town, 
shall hereafter be deposited and kept in the town clerk's office of the 
town of Windsor, hereby incorporated ; and all copies of said records, 
which shall hereafter be made and certified, in due form of law, by the 
town clerk of the town of Windsor, shall have the same credit and effect 
that are by law given to copies and certificates made by the other town 
clerks in this State. 

" Section 6. The said towns of Windsor and West Windsor shall be- 
come organized, and their first meetings, respectively, shall be called 
and holden in the manner prescribed by section eight, of chapter thir- 
teen of the Revised Statutes." 

By this act of the State Legislature West Windsor became an entirely 
distinct and separate town from Windsor, of which it had hitherto formed 
a part ; and as such became entitled to elect its own officers and admin- 
ister its own affairs, and have a separate representation in the General 
Assembly of the State. This division of Windsor gave to the new 
creation over half the lands of the old town, with a full proportion of 
the mountainous region in the south part, known as the Ascutney 
Mountain, while that called Little Ascutney lay entirely within the new 

After the division the first election for town officers was held in Janu- 
ary, 1849: Oilman H. Shedd was chosen town clerk ; Daniel Read, Joel 
Hale and Thomas Bagley, selectmen ; and Marcus Wooster, constable. 

Qlf^ay^-4 ^. 9%^c^ 

Town of West Windsor. 379 

In the fall of 1849 Daniel Read was elected representative in the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State. 

But West Windsor has never achieved any special prominence among 
the towns of the county, nor have her people ever had any desire that 
their town should become one of great importance ; they desired a sep- 
arate existence that they might govern the town in their own way and 
in accordance with their own ideas, and this much accomplished, the 
summit of their ambition was reached. 

West Windsor is an agricultural rather than a manufacturing town ; 
still, some effort has been made in the direction of the latter industry, 
the waters of Mill River affording excellent mill privileges for the pur- 
pose, and this has been utilized more in the vicinity of Brownsville than 
elsewhere. The most important, perhaps, of the industries of the town 
was the so-called Perkins woolen-mill, which was established by Josiah 
Perkins in 1831, for the manufacture of woolen and flannel goods. In 
1850 this and the grist-mill were about the only industries of the locality. 
In i860 the woolen- mill was in operation, and A. A. Pierce was en- 
gaged in manufacturing leather. Ten years later the Perkins mill was 
running, M. B. & S. W. Perkins, proprietors, and Ira C. Small run the 
saw and lumber-mill. The latter was afterward converted into a grist, 
cider and saw-mill, and became quite an industry. In 1880 the Sykes 
mill was still operating, and L. C. White was making hosiery at the 

In 1850 the town of West Windsor had a population of 1,002 ; i860, 
924; 1870, 708; 1880, 696; and at present the number of inhabitants 
cannot vary much from 650. 

Reference has already been made to the old Congregational society 
of the West Parish, as this part of the town was then called. Some time 
after the organization of that society, and probably about 1800, a Bap- 
tist society was formed in the West Parish, but that, too, is now extinct. 
Elder Samuel Lawson was its first pastor. The Methodist society, the 
church of which is at Brownsville, was formed about the year 1810, with 
Rev. Chester Leavens as first pastor. The first church edifice was of 
brick, and built in 1831, and the present frame building in i860. The 
only other church building in the town is the Union at the hamlet 
called Sheddsville. 

380 History of Windsor County. 

Representatives in General Assembly from West Windsor: 181 5, 
Jabez Delano; 1 849-50, Daniel Read ; 185 1-52, M. Worcester ; 1853 
Daniel Read; 1854-55, Jonas B. Bartlett ; 1856-57, Orange Leavens ; 
1858-59, D. F. Hemenway; 1860-61, G. H. Shedd ; 1862, M. N.Lin- 
coln; 1863, Micah N, Lincoln; 1864-65, M. F. Morrison; 1866-67, 
Gilman H. Shedd; 1868-69, Eugene H. Spaulding ; 1870-71, Daniel 
Benjamin ; 1872-73, Moses P. Perkins; 1874-75, Eugene H. Spaulding; 
1876-77, Allen Savage; 1878-79, Eugene H. Spaulding; 1880-81, 
M. F. Morrison; 1882-83, Eugene H. Spaulding; 1884-85, F. S. Hale; 
1886-87, J. C. Taylor; 1888-89, F. S. Hale. 

Town officers : Eugene H. Spaulding, town clerk and treasurer ; F. S 
Hale, G. C. Waite and W. H. H. Ralph, selectmen ; J. H. Hammond, 
C. S. Worcester and E. C. Cady, listers; E. M. Shurtleff, superintendent ; 
F. S. Hale, overseer; W. H. H. Ralph, agent. 


ON the 6th of July, 1761, Governor Wentworth of New Hampshire 
issued charters for three towns of land lying west of the Connecti- 
cut River ; and the towns thus brought into existence embraced a strip 
six miles wide and extending from the river westward across the entire 
width of the present county of Windsor. The towns thus incorporated 
w^ere Saltash (now Plymouth), Reading and Windsor, each presumed 
to be six miles square, and to contain an aggregate of thirty-six square 
miles with allowances ; but in making subsequent surveys the town of 
Windsor was made to extend westward six and one- half miles, thus over- 
lapping the territory supposed to belong to Reading, and occasioning a 
dispute between the towns concerning the half-mile strip. Although 
there was an undoubted mistake, susceptible of amicable adjustment, the 
friends of the Windsor side of the controversy pressed their claims so 
earnestly that the result was a division of the contested strip, by running 
a line from the southeast to the northwest corner thereof, each town tak 

Town of Reading. 381 

ing half. Hence the irregular form of Reading town. The town is 
bounded north by Woodstock; east by West Windsor; south by Cav- 
endish ; and west by Plymouth. 

Among the towns of the county Reading occupies a position nearly 
central, and is about equally distant from the county seat and the village of 
Windsor, with both of which trading centers it is connected bv reason- 
ably good wagon roads, over which there passes daily mail and passen- 
ger stages. The character of the land surface generally in Reading is 
quite hilly, and in some localities mountainous, although there are less 
of extreme heights found here than in many other towns on the west and 
north sides of the county. 

Associated with the early history of the region of which Reading forms 
a part, there was at least one thrilling event, — a sad but interesting occur- 
rence, — the story of which has been told and re- told until it is as famil- 
iar to every intelligent person of the town as the alphabet itself We 
refer to the Indian capture of whites at the old Fort Number Four, the 
site of Charlestown, New Hampshire. It appears that during the period 
of the French wars a party of Canadian Indians suddenly appeared at 
the fort and made captives of eight persons — Captain James Johnson, 
his wife and three small children, and Peter Labaree, Ebenezer Farns- 
worth and Mirian Willard, the latter a sister of Mrs. Johnson. This oc- 
curred August 30, 1754. 

Having efifected the capture, the Indians and captives at once crossed 
the Connecticut River on the journey to Canada. On the first day the 
party reached a point near the base of the Little Ascutney Mountain in 
the town of Cavendish, or what afterward became that town, where prep- 
arations were made for passing the night. The prisoners were secured 
according to the savage idea and not with any regard for the personal 
comfort of the unfortunates. Added to their mental and physical suf- 
ferings during that night came a still further afifliction to one of the 
captives, Mrs. Johnson ; for during the early hours of the night she gave 
birth to a child, a daughter. From these extraordinary events — the 
capture and birth — the child was named Elizabeth Captive Johnson. 

The next morning, after a light and not very refreshing meal, the jour- 
ney was resumed, the unfortunate mother being allowed the use of a 
horse upon which to ride, but this only after having been carried by the 

382 History of Windsor County. 

three white men of the party for a long distance upon a rude Htter until 
they were completely exhausted. And the use of the horse was allowed 
only in the savages' expectation of obtaining an additional ransom on 
account of the child. Once the unfortunate woman was threatened to 
be left in the woods with her babe, but the thought of death in such a 
wilderness nerved her to continue the journey notwithstanding her in- 
tense sufferings. The route taken by the Indians took the party across 
the south part of this town into Saltash and to the Black River ; thence, 
as is generally understood, up that stream and into the mountains, which 
being traversed, they made their way to Lake Champlain and Crown 
Point; thence to Canada and Montreal, where the prisoners were held 
for ransom. 

From here several weeks later Captain Johnson was paroled for two 
months that he might return to New Hampshire to collect the funds with 
which to purchase liberty for the captives. After considerable delay the 
provincial government of New Hampshire voted him one hundred and 
fifty pounds, with which he at once prepared to return north ; but the 
rigors of the winter w^ere such as to prevent his reaching Canada until 
the early part of 1755. Upon his arrival he was charged with having 
violated his parole, his money was taken from him, and the entire party 
put in prison. Some eighteen months later Mrs. Johnson with her chil- 
dren, except the eldest, who was detained in a convent of the Jesuit order 
in Canada, together with Miss Willard were sent to England, and thence 
returned to Boston ; but Captain Johnson was kept a prisoner in Canada 
for some three years. 

In after years the spot of their first night's camp was several times 
visited by some of the former prisoners, and by whom monuments com- 
memorative of the events were erected. The above narrative records 
the first known visit of white people to the district now called Reading, 
but that was an involuntary and forced errand. 

Under the authority of the provincial government of New Hampshire 
the town of Reading was chartered on Juh' 6, 1761, but its first settle- 
ment was not commenced until the year 1772, when Andrew Spear came 
to the locality and began an improvement in the northeastern part of the 
town, east of the hamlet called Reading Center. 

The charter by which this town was brought into existence was sub- 

Town of Reading. 383 

stantially the same as those by which other towns were created, and 
needs no full reproduction here ; still, some of the conditions or obliga- 
tions imposed upon the grantees will be found interesting, and for that 
reason are herein given, as contained in the charter on file : 

I. Every grantee, his heirs or assigns shall plant and cultivate five 
acres of land within the term of five years, for every fifty acres con- 
tained in his or her share or proportion of land in said town, and con- 
tinue to improve and settle the same by additional cultivation, on penalty 
of the forfeiture of his grant or share in said town, and of its reverting 
to us, our heirs and successors, to be by us or them regranted to such of 
our subjects as shall effectually settle and cultivate the same. 

II. This section provides for the preservation of all white "and other 
pine trees, fit for masting our Royal Navy," and prohibits their cutting 
or destruction under penalty. 

III. That before any division of the land be made to and among the 
grantees, a tract of land, as near the center of the town as the land will 
admit of, shall be reserved and marked out for town lots, one of which 
shall be allotted to each grantee, of the contents of one acre. 

IV. Yielding and paying therefore to us, our heirs and successors, for 
the space of ten years, to be computed from the date hereof, (July 6, 
1 76 1,) the rent of one ear of Indian corn, only on the 25th day of De- 
cember, annually, if lawfully demanded, the first payment to be made 
on the 25th day of December, 1762. 

V. Every proprietor, settler or inhabitant shall yield and pay unto us, 
our heirs and successors, yearly and every year forever from and after 
the expiration of ten years from the aforesaid 25th day of December, 
which will be in the year of our Lord 1772, one shilling proclamation 
money for every one hundred acres he owns, settles or possesses, and so 
in proportion for a greater or lesser tract of the said land, etc. 

The foregoing extracts will serve to acquaint the reader with the char- 
acter of the provisions and conditions of the charter issued and granted 
by Governor Wentworth, but in explanation it should be stated that the 
conditions were not, nor could they be, fulfilled or carried out accord- 
ing to their strict construction. Governor Wentworth evidently con- 
templated a lasting continuance of the authority of his province over 
this territory of land, but the order of the king's Council in 1764 had 

384 History of Windsor County. 

the efifect of substantially terminating the New Hampshire control of the 
district, and giving it over to the province of New York ; therefore the 
annual payment of the proverbial ear of Indian corn, and the shilling 
of proclamation money, was not thereafter demanded or received by 
New Hampshire. And after that "order in council" of 1764 New 
Hampshire withdrew from the controversy with New York, and left the 
settlers then on the grants to contend against the authority of the last 
named province as best they might, or else to acquiesce in it. 

The grantees under the charter from New Hampshire were sixty- two 
in number, but the shares into which the town was divided numbered 
sixty- eight, the excess in shares being made to provide for donations for 
purposes usually specified " first events," etc. From the time of the 
chartering until the organization of the town its affairs were in the hands 
of the " proprietors," the original grantees, of whose proceedings there 
appear no valuable records. 

But it does not appear that among those grantees there was an ele- 
ment which was disposed to acknowledge and acquiesce in the authority 
of New York ; but who they all were, or the extent of their affiliation, 
cannot now be reliably ascertained. One of the leaders of that element 
was Simon Stevens, and, if ancient accounts are to be relied upon, he 
succeeded in making himself exceedingly obnoxious to the friends of 
the new State — the followers of the famous Green Mountain Boys. In 
truth evidences are not wanting to show that Stevens was many times 
guilty of " inimical " conduct, of " Toryism," for all of which he was 
amenable to the laws laid down by Ethan Allen and his followers. But 
fortunately for Stevens, he lived in a locality too far from the seat of 
government of the Green Mountain patriots for that body to visit their 
vengeance upon his erring head. 

This same Stevens succeeded in procuring a grant of Reading's ter- 
ritory to himself and others, some of whom were of the original grant- 
ees under Governor Wentworth, but as to who all of them were there 
is no tangible record to show. Their grant was dated March 6, 1772, 
but it is understood that no charter was ever granted by New York to 
them. And Andrew Spear, the acknowledged pioneer of Reading, 
received his deed from Simon Stevens, which fact is disclosed by the 
town records ; also, the conveyance recited that the land was situate in 


Clark Wardner. 


Town of Reading. 385 

the county of Cumberland and province of New York. The land was, 
moreover, the same as belonged to David Nims, a grantee under the 
charter from New Hampshire. This was hardly an exceptional case, as 
instances were frequent in which the grantors and grantees named in 
the early conveyances recognized and acknowledged New York au- 

But it would be unfair and incorrect to assume that Andrew Spear 
was himself allied to the New York cause, simply from the fact of his 
purchase from the notorious Stevens, for such was hardly the case. 
From the meager knowledge obtained from records it appears that Mr. 
Spear represented Reading in the convention at Windsor, in June, 
1777, that gave to the new State the name Vermont, instead of New 
Connecticut, although he does not appear as one of the signers of the 
revised declaration adopted at that time. He also was the first repre- 
sentative of the town in the State General Assembly, elected in 1779. 
The only other resident of Reading during the year 1777 was Barakiah 
Cady, whose pioneership in the town commenced that same year. 

In 1779 the scanty settlement was re-enforced by the arrival of sev- 
eral families and persons who aspired to residence in the then wilder- 
ness region, among whom were James Sawyer, John Weld, David Hap- 
good, Joseph Sawyer, Jedediah Leavens, Seth and John Sawyer, Samuel 
Gary, Hezekiah Leavens, and possibly others whose names are lost. 
Nebediah Cady and Benjamin Buck came in 1780, and also, about the 
same time, Benjamin Sawyer. 

These were the pioneers, the very earliest settlers of the town, upon 
whom fell the burden of labor during the most trying period of its his- 
tory. Other settlers of course came in from year to year, took their 
proper lands and at once proceeded to clear and cultivate them. But 
the early settlement was slow, — exceedingly slow, — as was the case in 
other localities similarly situated. Land titles were in an unsettled con- 
dition, and there was but little inducement for the sturdy pioneer to in- 
vest his small means in lands where there was the possibility of subse- 
quent eviction. Li 1791 the town had acquired a population of 748, 
and in 1800 the number had increased to 1,120. The maximum was 
attained in 1830, there then being, as shown by the census enumeration 
of that year, a population of 1,603 souls. From that time there has 


386 History of Windsor County. 

been a gradual though continuous decrease, as shown by each succes- 
sive census until that of i88o was taken, the town then having but 953 
souls within its borders, a number exceeding by only 206 the popula- 
tion it had in 1791. This is certainly a lamentable situation, but is no 
marked exception to the losses of people in many other towns of the 
county and State. 

During the Revolutionary war this town was so weak in population 
and resources that it could hardly be expected to furnish many men or 
much means for maintaining the military of the State, but according to 
its ability so the town did perform. The records of the Governor and 
Council state that in 178 1 the town had one man in service, but his 
name is not given; and the records of the town for 1782 also disclose 
the fact that one man was "hired" to enter the service for a period of 
eight months, but no name is here mentioned. But after the close of 
the war, when the affairs of the State had become somewhat settled, and 
her admission to the Union was only a question of time, then the settle- 
ment increased rapidly, and there came to reside here many who were 
patriots of the Revolution, and who became prominently identified with 
the subsequent affairs of the town and county. 

For the service during the second war with Great Britain, and known 
as the War of 1812-15, the town of Reading furnished as many men 
as any town of its population in the county. And during that service 
there was the same division of sentiment that existed in other towns of 
the county, the Peace party and the War party alike having their cham- 
pions, but the latter was largely in the majority. During and prior to 
the outbreak of this war nearly every well settled town had its militia 
organizations, as well as its men "subject to military duty," and at this 
time the militia officers were called upon to furnish the town's quota of 
armed men for the service. Fourteen were " drafted " from the two 
Reading companies, as follows: Josiah Gilson, Willard Holden, Joshua 
Sawyer, Elijah Chandler, Robert Dunlap, Silas Wetherbee and Samuel 
Dudley from Captain Aaron Townsend's company; and Rufus Forbush, 
Asa Belden, Benjamin and John Grandy, Kendall Boutwell, Abel Gilson, 
and Amos Lane from Captain Noah Cady's command. These men were 
in the service at Plattsburgh and in the region of Canada, and were at- 
tached to Colonel D. W. Dana's Thirty- first Regiment. And of the men 

Town of Reading. 387 

who were subject to military duty, and possibly others, who enHsted as 
residents of the town, during the same war, were Samuel Johnson, David 
Burnham, John Hackett, Benjamin Nutting, John Hagett, Jos. Wood, 
John Y. Sawyer, Henry Giddings, Elisha Sawyer and Abial Persons. 

The record made by the town of Reading during the war of the Rebel- 
lion, the war of 1861-65, shows to as good advantage and brings as much 
credit to the town as that of any other locality of the county, or of the 
State. A roll of the volunteers who entered the service from Reading 
will be found by reference to chapter ten of this volume, and therefore 
need not be copied in this place. And it is a fact that almost every 
regiment or part of a regiment that was organized and sent from Ver- 
mont during the course of the war had some Reading volunteers in its 
ranks. The exceptions to this statement are indeed few. 

According to the reports of the adjutant- general of the State, Read- 
ing is credited with having one hundred and eighteen men in the serv- 
ice in three years', one year's, and nine months' regiments, and one man 
in the navy. Besides this there were six volunteers re-enlisted, and six 
men were credited miscellaneously and not named. In the town, also, 
ten men were enrolled who furnished substitutes ; nine were furnished 
under draft and paid commutation, and two procured substitutes. There 
were enlisted in the town, prior to the President's call of October 17, 
1863, for 300,000 volunteers, thirty-seven men ; subsequent to that call, 
but still for the three years' service, thirty-seven men ; for one year's 
service, three men; and for nine months' service, twenty- two men ; navy, 
one man. 

Returning again, and briefly, to the early events of Reading, it is found 
that the town was organized and officers elected in 1780, the first free- 
men's meeting being held March 30th of that year. Concerning the sev- 
eral officers then chosen the records give no account other than the elec- 
tion of Jedediah Leavens as town clerk. At that time and before, and for 
some years after as well, the affairs of the town were in the hands of the 
proprietors, and the organization was a formal act to arrange for local 
government independent of the proprietors' proceedings. 

The town, besides having control over its own civil government, was 
vested with authority to tax the people for the support and maintenance 
of a minister of the gospel, and, if need be, to be at the expense of erect- 

388 History of Windsor County. 

ing a meeting-house. The charter provided, among its reservations of 
lands, that one whole share be set apart for the " Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; one share for the first settled 
minister of the Gospel ; one share for the benefit of a school in said town ; 
and one share for a glebe for the Church of England," etc. The society 
of the Congregational church was the first religious organization to have 
a being within this town, and was formed on the 26th of June, 1787. 
Rev. Nahum Sargeant was the first settled minister, and to him was sur- 
veyed one right of one hundred and seventy-five acres of land, in May, 
1789, and another right of one hundred and twenty- five acres in the same 
month and year. The first right lay on the western side of the town, 
and the second near the center. The first meeting-house was a log 
structure. The services of the resident minister were paid by general 
town tax, a practice that was kept up until 1797. 

Of the early residents of the town a majority were Congregationalists, 
but as new families came to the locality, other societies were organized. 
The society of the Baptist church was formed December 25, 1788 ; the 
Reformed Catholic Society December 12, 1796; and another known as 
the Congregation of the Moral Society in October, 1798. But not all 
of these societies had a church home; the early meetings were held at 
such places as best suited the convenience of members, a dwelling house, 
and occasionally a barn, or perhaps a grove of forest trees, answering 
their purpose. In fact, the old log church did service as a place for pub- 
lic worship until the beginning of the present century, although frequent 
efforts were made by the town to cause the erection of a more substan- 
tial building for the purpose ; but on account of a wide diversity of 
opinion among the freemen, or some other interference, the matter was 
delayed, or if voted for, was reconsidered, and it was not until the year 
1 80 1 that a commodious frame church building was erected in Reading. 
Unfortunately, however, this edifice was destroyed by fire in 18 10. After 
this disaster the town was without a meeting-house until 18 16, during 
which year a brick edifice was erected at Reading Center. But this 
church was burned in i860. 

The Universalist Society of Reading was brought into existence in 
1802, and has remained to the present day, now being the strongest, 
numerically, of any denomination in the town. The Methodist Society 

Town of Reading. 589 

was a later creation, having been formed about 1820, and this too is in 
existence in the town. These two, with the Calvinistic Baptist Society, 
comprise the active working rehgious societies of the town at present. 
The Union church, at Felchville. was built through the joint efforts of 
these denominations. 

The Reading Centennial Celebration. — This was unquestionably the 
greatest event in Reading's modern history, and was celebrated with 
such interesting and impressive ceremonies as the occasion seemed to 
demand. The exercises in full were published in the Woodstock Post 
of August 30, 1872, the celebration having taken place two days earlier. 
From the narrative contained in that paper, written by Gilbert A. Davis, 
and afterward incorporated in his excellent "History of Reading," many 
facts of importance relating to the early institutions of the town are 
gleaned, as well as a synopsis of the events of the celebration itself And 
it is well to state here, parenthetically perhaps, that should the readers 
of this volume desire access to a full, minute and accurate account of the 
history of this town, their attention is respectfully directed to Mr. Davis's 
work, which was published in 1874. The order of the exercises at the 
celebration was as follows : 

Address of welcome, by Dr. W. S. Robinson, president of the day; 
prayer, by Rev. J. S. Small; historical address, by Gilbert A. Davis, esq.; 
(from this address, among other things, it is learned that "as early as 
April 5, 1778, the town" — proprietors would probably be more accu- 
rate — " voted that Nathaniel Pratt, Asa Wilkin, Samuel Sherwin, John 
Weld, Elisha Bigelow, Abijah Stone, Solomon Keyes. John Sherwin, 
Abel Amsden, John Morse, George Clark, and David Hapgood divided 
the town into (school) districts ";) commemorative address, by Rev. 
T. J. Sawyer, D. D., of Tuft's College ; dinner and incermission ; histor- 
ical poem, by Mrs. Frances Raker, of Chester ; recitation of poem, by 
Stella M. Bryant (less than seven years of age) ; address, by Thomas 
Curley, student of Tuft's College; poem, "One Hundred Years," written 
by Minnie S. Davis, of Hartford, Conn., and read by Rev. S. A. Davis; 
address, "On the Changes of a Hundred Years," by Hon. John M.Stearns, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y.; address, by William Watkins, esq., of Towanda, 
Pa.; address, by Sewall Fullam, of Ludlow; poem, by Honestus 
Stearns, esq.; address, by Rev. Samuel A. Davis, of Hartford, Conn.; 

390 History of Windsor County. 

address, by Simeon Ide, of Claremont, N. H,; short addresses, by F. G. 
Weld, of Greenfield, Wis., John L. Buck, of Lockport, N. Y., Hon. 
Julius Converse, of Woodstock, ex-Governor Ryland Fletcher, Hon. 
B. H. Steele, Rev. Horace Herrick. 

From the address of Sevvall Fullam mucli valuable information is de- 
rived relating to the early industries of the town, and some of the early 
residents as well, from all of which facts it will be unnecessary to pur- 
sue that subject further in these pages, as being of no particular interest 
to the people outside of the town, and those that live therein have the 
facts well before them. 

The town of Reading has four villages, or trading centers, — Reading 
Center, or Reading, Hammondsville, South Reading, and Felchville, of 
which that last named is the largest and most important. Felchville 
was named in honor of William Felch, a native of Royalton, Mass., born 
February 3, 1797, but who came to this county at the age of fourteen 
years, and to the locality named for him in 1826. He was a generous, 
public-spirited, and industrious citizen, through whose labors the town 
was greatly benefited, and to whose energy the village owed its very ex- 
istence. The work begun by him was carried on by others after he re- 
tired from active life, and to each one who followed in his footsteps is 
due a share of credit. But Felchville, like very many other villages in 
the land, has enjoyed its days of prosperity, and has experienced periods 
of adversity. Industries have come and gone, some flourished while 
others were less fortunate ; but human judgment is not infallible, and 
mistakes and disasters should never be counted as intentional wrong. 

Felchville was established as the seat of a school district in 1827, but 
the school-house was not erected until the next year. In 1847 ^ larger 
and more commodious school building was erected. The other villages 
of the town also have good school accommodations, while the town out- 
side is divided into districts, some full and fractional or joint, as best suits 
the necessities of the several localities and the people that dwell in them. 
Succession of town Representatives in the General Assembly: 1777 
(convention at Windsor), Andrew Spear; 1778, no record; 1779, An- 
drew Spear ; 1780-81, Thomas Hapgo'od ; 1782, Andrew Spear ; 1783, 
Joseph Sawyer ; 1784-89, John Weld ; 1790-91, Elkanah Day ; 1792, 
John Weld ; 1793, Aaron Kimball; 1794-95, Abijah Stone ; 1796-97, 

Town of Plymouth. 391 

David Hapgood ; 1798-99, Moses Chaplain; 1800, Solomon Keyes ; 
1801-08, Elias Jones; 1809, Lemuel Ide; 1 8 10, Solomon Keyes ; 181 1, 
Jonathan Shedd ; 1812, Jonathan Shedd ; 1813-14, William L. Haw- 
kins; 1815, Jonathan Shedd ; 1816-20, Sewall Fullam ; 1821-23, Jon- 
athan Shedd; 1824-25, Samuel C. Loveland ; 1826, Abel Gilson, jr.; 
1827-28, Samuel C. Loveland; 1829-31, Simeon Buck; ' 1832-33, Will- 
iam Felch ; 1834-35, Shubael C. Shedd ; 1836-37, Bridgman Hapgood; 
1838-39, Solomon Keyes; 1840-41, Benoni Buck; 1842-43, John 
Wheeler; 1844-45, Rufus Forbush ; 1846, John Wheeler; 1847-48, 
Charles Buck ; 1849, Solomon Keyes ; 1850-5 i, Luther Carlton ; 1852, 
Hiram Goddard ; 1853-54, Charles Buck; 1855-56, Samuel Herrick ; 
1857, Samuel Herrick; 1858, Josiah Q. Hawkins; 1859, Washington 
Keyes; i860, Washington Keyes; 1861-62, Willard H.Dow; 1863- 
64, Merritt E. Goddard ; 1865-66, Sumner Fletcher; 1867-68, Prosper 
Merrill; 1869, William P. Chamberlain; 1870-71, Hiram F. Thomas; 
1872-73, Gilbert A. Davis; 1874-75, Gilbert A. Davis; 1876-77, 
George H. Parker ; 1878-79, none; 1880-81, Eleazer Dexter ; 1882-83, 
John McCullough ; 1884-85, Azro White ; 1886-87, Orsemor S. Hol- 
den; i888-89,William W. Keyes. 



THE town of Plymouth, as it is now and for nearly a century has 
been known, was chartered by Governor Benning Wentworth of 
New Hampshire, on the 6th of July, 1761, and was, therefore, one of the 
earlier chartered towns. The grantees under this charter were sixty- four 
in number, and headed by Jeremiah Hall. The town, however, was given 
the name of Saltash, and by that name it was known and called until 
February 23, 1797, when an act of the Legislature changed the name to 

The town also seems to have been among those over which the prov- 
ince of New York sought to exercise control by specific acts, as well as 
the general authority she claimed to possess over this whole State ; for 

392 History of Windsor County. 

in the year 1772, soon after or about the time of the erection of Cumber- 
land and Gloucester counties, the governor of the province of New York 
made a grant of the lands of old Saltash to Ichabod Fisher and certain 
associates, the grant bearing date May 13, 1772, but it is not known 
whether or not the New York governor ever confirmed the Fisher grant 
by charter rights and privileges ; probably he did not. And it is not 
positively known whether Saltash was first settled by persons friendly to 
New York or Vermont, for when the first pioneer, of whom there is a 
record, came to the town, Vermont had become an independent State, 
and had succeeded New Hampshire in extending protection and juris- 
diction over the people of the districts or separate grants. But when the 
town was organized, in 1787 or about that year, New York had practi- 
cally lost control of the Vermont towns, although the rights of the latter 
were not then recognized by Congress, and the first officers were elected 
by the freemen in accordance with the laws of this State. 

Geographically, the town of Plymouth occupies a position among the 
towns of Windsor county on the extreme western border, abutting the 
Rutland county east line ; in the north and south measurement of Wind- 
sor county the position of the town is central, being one of the six towns 
that form the central block in the county. 

Plymouth is also reckoned among the more mountainous towns of the 
county, there being perhaps as large a number of peaks and high ridges 
as can be found in any of the county's towns. And the hills, too, do 
not appear to form a continuous range, but a series of broken mountain 
formations, with deep valleys between them, through which course 
large and small beautiful mountain streams. Many of these peaks have 
been dignified with distinguishing names, some given in allusion to the 
surname of an owner or prominent resident of their locality, and others 
applied from the peculiar characteristics of the mountain itself, as fancy 
or taste might dictate. In the northeast part are the so- called Blueberry 
Ledges, on the north side of which were the old Chamberlain cider and 
saw-mills of years ago. Then, still in the northern section, are the other 
hills — Allen's Hill, Morgan Peak, Smith's Hill, Mount Pleasant, Wood's 
Peak, Slack Hill, Plymouth Notch, East Mountain, and many others of 
equal prominence. 

In the central part of the town are a number of mountains, to which 

Town of Plymouth. 393 

have been applied respective names, — Mount Tom, Old Notch, Mount 
Ambrose, South Hudus Mountain and Blueberry Hill ; while the south- 
ern part has its Weaver Hill, Dry Hill, Saltash Hill, Tinney Hill, and 
others of less prominence. In the southwestern part of the town, and 
north of Saltash Hill, is a spot that achieved some considerable notoriety 
many years ago, from having been the supposed general rendezvous and 
point of manufacture of a band of counterfeiters ; and for their peculiar 
craft no more favorable location could have been selected, for this region 
of the town has witnessed no settlement, even to the present day. 

The general trend of the mountain system of Plymouth appears to be 
from south to north, with an inclination to the northwest. The town, 
too, possesses water privileges second to none in the county or perhaps 
in the State. The Black River is its principal stream, and has its chief 
source in Woodward's reservoir, although its extreme headwaters are in 
the towns farther north. From the reservoir the river flows southeast to 
a point a short distance from the old Ward lime works, where it broadens 
and forms a body of water known as Black Pond ; thence continues its 
course to the southeast across the town and discharges into Plymouth 
Pond. This is a still larger body of water and from its area would be 
entitled to the more dignified appellation of " lake," should the citizens 
of the locality feel disposed to so designate it. The outlet of the pond 
is a continuation of the Black River, which flows thence into the town 
of Ludlow, crosses the other towns of Cavendish, Weathersfield and 
Springfield, and discharges its waters into the Connecticut in the town 
last named. The principal tributaries of the Black River in Plymouth 
are Patch Brook, Little Roaring Brook, Money Brook, Great Roaring 
Brook, and Tinker Brook, on the west side; and Kingston Brook, Read- 
ing Brook, Grass Pond, and JDuck Pond, on the east side. Hollow 
Brook and Broad Brook, tributaries of the Otta Quechee Riv^er, also have 
their headwaters in Plymouth town. The several ponds of the town are 
stocked with fish of different varieties, and this with the other attractions 
of the locality have combined to make Plymouth a summer resort of 
some prominence. 

A large proportion of the rock formation in the town is primitive lime- 
stone, and fifty and even less years ago the manufacture of lime was one 
of the important industries of the locality. Some of this stone made 

394 History of Windsor County. 

excellent marble, and as early as 1834 a factory, capable of operating 
one hundred and fifty saws, was built and run for a number of years. 
Some of this marble was of a white color and some was beautifully varie- 
gated. Near the vicinity of Mount Tom also there existed, and still 
does, a considerable bed of soapstone, but its production was not carried 
on to any marked extent. 

The town of Plymouth abounds in natural attractions, greater than 
which there is none in southern Vermont, and the greatest and most 
celebrated of those in the town are what has been termed the Plymouth 
Caverns. These were first discovered early in July, 1818, and very soon 
afterward were explored. They are situate at the base of the mountain, 
on the southwest side of the river, and about fifty rods therefrom. 
They were caused by water running through the lime rock, thus making 
considerable excavations. The passage into the main cavern is nearly 
perpendicular, about the size of a common well, and ten feet in depth. 
This leads into the main room, oval in form, thirty feet long by twenty 
feet wide, and about fifteen feet in greatest height. The second room is 
reached through a broad, sloping passage, and is about half the size of 
the first. The third room is reached by a narrow passage, and the room 
is fourteen feet long, eight feet wide and seven feet high. The fourth 
room is thirty feet long, twelve wide, and eighteen high, while the fifth 
room of this cave is ten feet long, seven wide, and but four feet in height. 
The sixth and seventh rooms are about the same size, each being about 
fifteen feet long, seven wide, and four high. From the seventh room 
there extends a narrow passage into the rocks something like fifteen or 
sixteen feet, and then seems to terminate. When first discovered the 
roof and sides of this cavern were beautifully ornamented with stalac- 
tites, and the bottom with corresponding stalagmites, but curiosity 
hunters have broken and carried nearly everything away that was most 
desirable. A few rods to the westward of the cavern just described is 
another, about one- third less in size. 

The wealth of history made by the town of Plymouth rests in the 
record made by the town practically during the present century. To 
be sure the town was chartered as early, almost, as any other of the 
county's sub-divisions, but from its somewhat remote and isolated situa- 
tion there was not the inducement here that attracted pioneers to other 

Town of Plymouth. 395 

towns ; and more than that, a settlement in the district of Saltash or 
Plymouth meant untold privations and hardships to the family of the 
venturesome pioneer who should make his abode within its limits. But 
notwithstanding all this, and in the face of all dangers and trials, the 
town was settled and peopled, and gained steadily in population and 
productions from the very first. The record has it that the first settler 
was John Mudge, and that he came to the town during the year 1777 ; 
and that he was soon afterward followed by the family of Aaron Hewett, 
during the same year. William Mudge, the son of John, was the first 
white male child born in the town, and from that event became entitled 
to and received the customary hundred- acre lot that was awarded to the 
first-born male of the town. 

But pioneer settlement in Plymouth was very slow, more so, perhaps, 
than the majority of the neighboring towns, but no slower than 
others similarly situated. The first census, that of 1791, gives the town 
a population of but one hundred and six, which was contained and em- 
braced by about twenty families. Nine years later, or in 1800, the 
number of families had increased to nearly one hundred, and the popu- 
lation to almost five hundred. So near as can be determined, in the 
absence of any written record, the town was organized about the year 
1787, when the number of its families could hardly have exceeded twelve 
or fifteen. Adam Brown is believed to have been chosen town clerk 
in that year. The first freemen's meeting, of which there appears a 
record, was held in March, 1789; and Jacob Wilder was chosen town 
clerk ; Samuel Page, Moses Priest and John Coolidge, selectmen ; Eben- 
ezer Wilder, Jonathan Wilder and Nathan Jones, jr., listers. These men 
were of course pioneers in the town, but there were others as well, 
whose names, some of them, can be recalled. John Taylor, Lieutenant 
Brown and Captain John Coolidge (both patriots of the Revolution), 
Jonathan Pinney, Isaiah Boynton, Luther Johnson, Nathan Hall, Asa 
Wheeler, and undoubtedly others whose names have been lost, together 
with those mentioned before — Jacob Wilder, Moses Priest, Samuel Page, 
John Coolidge, Ebenezer and Jonathan Wilder, Nathan Jones, the first 
town officers, — comprised in the main the little colony of pioneers who 
had the termerity and determined spirit to attempt the settlement of so 
uninviting a town as Saltash was at that period. These families are 

396 History of Windsor County 

believed to have settled in the town as early at least as the year 1800, 
and a number of them before 1790. 

But whatever of hardships the pioneers of this town may have en- 
dured in effecting a permanent lodgment here, they seem never to have 
directly suffered under the smarting afflictions that attended pioneer- 
ship in many other localities, on account of the disturbances between 
New York and the independent State of Vermont; nor were the few 
settlers in the town at all embarrassed in their possessions by being 
called upon to furnish men and means with which to prosecute the war 
against Great Britain, for, at that time, the town had scarce a handful of 
men within her borders, and not enough to become noticed by the 
authorities of the State. The first representatives to the State legisla- 
tive body were chosen in 1778, but the town of Plymouth seems not to 
have chosen a representative prior to the election of Moses IViest, in 


As the town grew in population, as the various remote localities began 
to be populated, as the forests gave way to agricultural improvements 
and development, the fact became disclosed that Plymouth possessed 
other and richer resources than were contemplated, or even dreamed of, 
by the pioneers. These vast mountains which were supposed to be of 
no practical value, except for their forest growth, were found to contain 
mineral and other deposits that once bid fair to place Plymouth far ahead 
of any of her sister towns. Explorations brought to light the fact that 
these hills contained deposits of marble, lime, steatite, iron and gold, 
and other valuable commodities, but the revelations came by periods, 
and each was worked and exhausted in its turn, or else similar produc- 
tions in other States supplied the demand and rendered further opera- 
tions here unprofitable. The marble and lime producing industries of 
the town have already been referred to, so we may now refer to the 
enterprise that founded the village of Tyson Furnace, as formerly known, 
or Tyson of to-day. 

The period of the iron excitement and development of Plymouth be- 
gan in 1835, about which year, or possibly a little earlier, the discovery 
of its deposit was made. Isaac Tyson was experienced in mining op- 
erations, and in crossing the mountains discovered by accident an iron 
deposit in the vicinity of Mount Tom. He examined its quality, and 

Town of Plymouth. 397 

afterward sent to the locality an expert in iron ores, who prosecuted his 
explorations throughout the region with gratifying results. About the 
same time other mining operators became cognizant of the supposed in- 
exhaustible deposits of iron in the town, and they likewise sent prac- 
tical engineers to the town. In 1837 ^i'- Tyson commenced the erec- 
tion of his works, which were put in operation the same year. They 
consisted of a large blast furnace, beside a smaller one for conv^enience. 
Several excavations were made by which ore was taken, a part proving 
to be of superior quality, such as is called steel ore. 

As the works became established, and the mining, blasting and cast- 
ing operations in full progress, a town was built up which was named 
after its enterprising founder — Tyson Furnace. Stores, a post-office, 
hotel and innumerable other business enterprises were established at the 
Furnace, and a large and successful business carried on there for a num- 
ber of years ; but at length there came a decline, one embarrassment 
followed another, and in a few years more operations ceased and the 
locality lapsed into its lormer state. A number of the old structures 
are still standing, relics of a former age of progress and enterprise, but 
the hundreds of persons who found employment in connection with the 
mining and foundry enterprises have left the community, or sought 
other occupations. 

Scarcely had this great wave of excitement died away and become